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deified, before his death, by the Roman people. Otia=peace, security. A. & S. 98. - 7. Mihi. Gr. 390. 2. A. & S. 222, R. 8, N. ; 227, R. 4. Illius. Gr. 612. 3. A. & S. 283. I. Ex. 4. 8. Imbuet; sc. sanguine suo. – 9. Errare=to roam at will, to graze at large. It implies security. Ipsum; sc. me, implied in meas. -10. Quae vellem. Gr. 445. 6; 501. I. A. & S. 206 (4) ; 264. I. Permisit. Gr. 551. II. 1. A. & S. 273. 4 (a). Calamo; the same as avena, v. 2. - 11. Invideo; sc. tibi. Magis rather. 12. Usque turbatur = to such a degree does confusion prevail ; i. e. caused by the veteran soldiers, who are everywhere dispossess. ing the people of their lands. This sentence is explanatory of the preceding, and the connection of thought may be thus expressed : I wonder rather that you enjoy such peace, since there is everywhere so much confusion. Ipse' is contrasted with undique totis agris. 13. Protinus = forward, before me. Aeger=sad, sick at heart. It may refer also to the state of the body, as consequent upon that of the mind. Duco. The rest he drove before him; this one he leads by a cord. — 14. Namque. A. & S. 279. 3 (a) and (e). — 15. Silice in nuda; i. e. with no herbage spread beneath. Con. nixa is put for enixa for the sake of the measure, though it has a rhetorical force of its own, expressing the difficulty of the labor. 16. Laeva=stupidly perverse. It is better to consider the non as qualifying laeva. Cf. A. II. 54. Before si mens some such clause is implied as quod nos monuisset. 17. De coelo tactas struck by lightning. The striking of a person or thing by lightning was an omen of evil. Pomponius says, on the authority of the lost works of ancient Grammarians, that the blasting of fruit-trees was ominous : that of the olive being supposed to forebode barrenness; that of the oak, banishment. This would make the malum hoc to be Meliboeus's exile, not the loss of the goat's twins. Memini. A. & S. 268, R. I (a). Z. 589. Praedicere portended, foreboded. — 18. Prae. dixit; sc. malum hoc. This line is generally regarded as spurious. It is made up from IX. 15. — 19. Sed tamen. These particles in. dicate a stronger opposition than the simple sed or tamen, and mark a return to a previous thought from which the speaker has digressed. Here they recall the mind to the words of Tityrus, vv. 6-10, from which Meliboeus had turned aside to speak of himself. Cf. G. I. 79. Iste=that of yours. Gr. 450. A. & S. 207, R. 25. Sit. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. Da... nobis = tell me. - 20. Urbem. Instead of answering directly, Tityrus begins ab ovo, in rustic fashion, and dilates upon the description of Rome itself. — 21. Huic nostrae; i. e. Mantua, which was about three miles from Andes, Virgil's native village. Quo= whither. - 22. Pastores. Gr. 363. 2. A. & S. 204, R. 4. Depellere=to drive away. The de denotes destination, not descent, as Andes was not on' a hill. Cf. deducere, demittere naves (in portum), etc. Fetus. A. & S. 323. 2 (4). — 24. Componere = to compare. - 26. Lenta viburna pliant shrubs. The viburnum is a low, flexible shrub. It was used for binding fagots. Tityrus means to say, in effect, that he found the difference between Rome and Mantua to be one, not of degree merely, but of kind.

27. Et sometimes introduces a question with emphasis, marking the curiosity and wonder of the speaker. Romam. Gr. 559. A. & S. 275. I. Tibi. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. — 28. Libertas. A. & S. 204, R. 11. Sera; st. quidem. The omission of quamquam or quidem before tamen is not uncommon. Respexit. Libertas is here personified ; hence the appropriateness of the word respexit. Inertem (sc. me) =indolent, neglectful; i. e. to save his little gains with which to purchase his freedom. It was for this that slaves saved their peculium (see on v. 33); and of course the less inertes they were, the sooner they got the necessary sum. Tityrus, a farm-slave, having saved enough, goes up to buy his freedom from his owner, and the owner of the estate, who is living at Rome. Nothing can be less happy than this allegory in itself except the way in which it is introduced in the midst of the reality — the general expulsion of the shepherds, and the exemption of Tityrus through the divine interposition of Octavianus which ought to appear through the allegory and not by the side of it. —29. Candidior = growing gray. Tityrus is called senex. Tondenti; sc. mihi. Gr. 571; 578. A. & S. 274. 2 and 3 (a). Manumitted persons were accustomed to shave their beards, which, while slaves, they had permitted to grow. -30. Longo tempore ; i. e. a long time compared with the much shorter time in which slaves were accustomed to obtain their freedom. 31. Post. quam — reliquit since Amaryllis is holding possession of me (i. e: of my affections), (and) Galatea left me; i. e. since I got rid of the extravagant Galatea and took to the thrifty Amaryllis. These were doubtless successive partners (contubernales) of the slave Tityrus. Note the difference of the tenses joined with postquam in vv. 29, 31 : cadebat, a continuing act now completed; habet, an act still continuing; reliquit, an act completed at once. 33. Peculi. Gr. 45. 5. I). A. & S. 52; 322. 5. The peculium was the property acquired by a slave, which his master permitted him to consider as his own. 34. Multa ... victima many a victim ; used poetically for multae victimae. Z. 109, N. Saeptis = enclosures, folds. - 35. The position of pinguis before et indicates that it is specially emphatic. Ingratae; because it did not pay him for his trouble so much as he thought it ought. — 36. Tityrus blames the unthrift of Galatea and his own recklessness, which made him too careless about making

In v. 47

money by his produce, though he took it from time to time to Mantua. To suppose that he squandered his earnings directly on Galatea would not be quite consistent with the blame thrown on the town, V. 35. — 37. Quid. Gr. 380. 2. A. & S. 235, R. 11. Amarylli. Gr. 94. A. & S. 81, R. — 38. Sua - in arbore= (each) on its own tree. Cf. VII. 54. G. II. 82 and A. VI. 206. Amaryllis in her sorrow had forgotten her careful habits. She left the fruit hanging for Tityrus as if no hand but his ought to gather it. — 39, 40. Aberat. The final syllable is made long by caesura. Gr. 669. V. A. & S. 309. 2 (1). Ipsae=the very. Pinus ... fontes ... arbusta. These called him back, because, depending on his care, they suffered from his absence. Virgil doubtless meant the passage as a piece of rustic banter. -41. Facerem. Gr. 486. II. A. & S. 260, R. 5. - 41. Praesentes powerful to aid. See on Ov. M. III. 658, and cf. M. IV. 612. Alibi belongs also to v. 41. Cognoscere=to find : lit. to become acquainted with. — 43. Juvenem; Octavianus. He was now in his twenty-third year. See on Hor. C. I. 2. 41. Cf. G. I. 500. 44. Bis senos ... dies; i. e. twelve days in the year, probably once a month. - Nostra. Gr. 446. 2. A. & S. 209, R. 7 (6). — 45. Responsum ... dedit; i. e. as a god to those who consult his oracle. Primus denotes the anxiety with which the response was sought; it does not imply that any one else could have given it. The sense may be expressed thus : it was here that he gave me my first assurance. — 46. Pueri servi. Submittite produce, rear. — 47. Tua is a predicate, like magna, and emphatic, suggesting a contrast between his lot and that of his neighbors. Quamvis -- junco although naked stones (lit. stone) cover it all, and pools overspread with slimỹ rushes the pasture grounds. Palus is probably the overflowing of the Mincius. Cf. VII. 13. Omnia must mean the whole farm, while the latter part of the description applies only to the pascua.

50. Non — fetas (sc. pecudes) =no unusual food shall injure (lit. attack, i. e. with disease) thy pregnant ewes. Graves=gravidas, in

-51. Mala malignant. — 52. Flumina may be the Mincio and the Po, or the smaller streams in the neighborhood. 53. Fontes are called sacros, because each had its divinity. Cf. Hor. C. I. 1. 22 and note. - 54. Hinc susurro. Conštrue thus : Hinc, ab vicino limite, saepes Hyblaeis apibus florem salicti depasta, saepe tibi levi susurro suadebit, quae semper, somnum inire. Vicino ab limite is explanatory of hinc, and with hinc = on this side, namely, on the side of the neighboring boundary. Cf. III. 12, hic fagos; A. II. 18, huc.

... caeco lateri. Quae semper is an elliptical relative clause in the sense of ut semper, like quae proxima, litora, A. I. 157, and = as it has ever done. Quae then will be used here for the corresponding adverb quemadmodum, like quo, A. I. 8, for quomodo,


A. I. 274.

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and siquiem, A. I. 181, for sicubi. Hyblaeis; merely an ornamental epithet derived from Hybla, a mountain in Sicily famous for its bees and honey. Florem depasta=fed upon as to the flower of the willow. Gr. 380 and 1. A. & S. 234. II. and R. I and 2. Salicti; abbreviated from saliceti, used poetically for salicis. Gr. 317 and 2. A. & S. 100. 7. The susurrus comes.partly from the bees, partly from the leaves. 57. Hinc is opposed to hinc in v. 54, and is more nearly defined by alta sub rupe. Canet ad auras=shall fill the air with his song : lit. shall sing to the breezes. Cf. A. VI. 561, plangor ad auras. The description points to the month of August, from the mention not only of the frondatio, but of the cooing.of the wood-pigeons during incubation. Pliny makes the latter a sign that autumn is coming on. — 58. Tua cura - thy delight. – 59. Gemere

Turtur. The Romans kept turtle-doves on their farms. — 60. Ante I sooner. It, with the ante in v. 62, which is only a repetition of it, is the correlative of quam in v. 64. Ergo expresses the ground of his obligations to his master; namely, the favor conferred upon him. Destituent nudos=shall leave bare ; i. e. fishes shall live on dry ground. — 62. Pererratis = peratis. The meaning is, sooner shall the Parthians and the Germans change places, each passing to the country of the other; but this they can never do, since the territory of the Romans intervenes, whom they must first conquer.

Amborum=of both (nations). Exsul bibet=

=as an exile shall drink; i. e. shall make his home there. 63. Ararim. The Arar (now Saone) is a river of Gaul, not of Germany; its source, however, in the high land connected with the Vosges ( Vogesus) is not very far from Alsace, which was then, as now, inhabited by Germans. The ancients, moreover, sometimes confounded the Germans and the Celts. Gr. 85. III. 1. A. & S. 79. 1.

Parthus. The Parthians were a very warlike people of Scythian origin, and occupied a large district southeast of the Caspian Sea. But see on Hor. C. I. 2. 22. Germania; by metonymy for Germani. See on Musam, v. 2. - 64. Illius.

See on v. 43. Labatur shall pass away, be effaced. — 65. Nos. Gr. 446. A. & S. 209, R. 1 (6). Nos ... alii ... pars. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204, R. 10. Afros; by metonymy for Africa. Gr. 379. 4. A. & S. 237, R. 5 (a).

-66. correspond to the preceding alii... pars, and are equivalent to alii ... alii. Cretae; a large island (now Candia) in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Greece. Oaxen. Of the Oaxes of Crete nothing is known. - 68-70. En... aristas=indeed, shall I ever, a long time afterwards, beholding (again) my paternal fields and the roof of my poor cottage built of turf, my (former) domain, (shall I ever) hereafter see with wonder a few scattering ears of corn? The cause of wonder is the scantiness of the crop compared with the abundance

of former years. En in interrogations adds earnestness and emphasis. Tuguri. Gr. 45. 5.1). A. & S. 52 ; 322. 5. Post (=posthac) is a repetition of longo post tempore. Mea regna we prefer to consider in apposition to fines and culmen. 71. Novalia; properly either fallow grounds, or grounds ploughed for the first time, but here fields. — 72. Barbarus, alluding to the Gauls and other barbarians in the Roman armies. Quo ... produxit= to what a point has brought. — 73. Quis = quibus. Gr. 187. 1. A. & S. 136, R. 2

- 74. Insere nunc=graft now. Said ironically to himself. - 76. Viridi green (with moss). 77. Pendere ... de rupe; i. e. as they would appear on the hillside in the distance. — 78. Me pascente; i. e. me pastore. 79. Cytisus is the arborescent lucerne, which is common in Greece and Italy, and a favorite food of cattle and bees. — 80. Poteras : you might as well, you had best. Gr. 475. A. & S. 259, R. 3 and (); Z. 518. It seems more pressing than the present. As Meliboeus now begins to resume his journey (ite capellae, v. 75), Tityrus calls to him and urges him to stop and spend the night with him. 81. Nobis. Gr. 446. 2 ; 387. A. & S. 210, R. 3 (1); 226. - 82. Molles = mealy; i. e. when they are roasted. Pressi lactis = cheese. Cf. v. 35. — 83. Culmina fu. mant; i. e. announcing supper-time.


This Eclogue is principally occupied by a contest in poetical skill between two shepherds, Menalcas and Damon. Such contests, still not uncommon among the improvisatori of Italy, — were carried on in verses, called carmen amoebaeum (rendered by Virgil alternis, or alternis versibus, v. 59, VII. 18), answering alternately. And in them no sequence of ideas was necessary on the part of the challenger, but the party challenged was bound to exceed in language or ideas the thoughts first expressed.

1-31. M. Whom are you keeping sheep for? D. Aegon. M. Poor sheep! their owner is hopelessly in love, and his hireling steals the milk. D. As if you had any right to taunt me! M. Of course not; I cut Micon's vines. D. Broke Daphnis's bow and arrows, you

M. Well, I saw you steal Damon's goat. D. It was mine ; I won it at a singing match. M. You! when you can't sing. D. I'll sing against you now for a calf.

1. Damoeta. Gr. 43. A. & S. 44. Cujum. Gr. 188. 4. A. & S. 137. 5. The question implies that Damoetas is a mere hireling. An implies some such previous question as, num est alius. Gr. 346. 2. 4.


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