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10.3 Role of the Industry, Commerce, and International Security Division
The Industry, Commerce, and International Security Division comprises 5 research Programs:
Energy and Materials; Industry, Technology, and Employment; International Security and Commerce;
Science, Education, and Transportation; and Telecommunications and Computing Technology.

The Energy and Materials Program (E&M) is responsible for assisting the Congress in understanding the role of technology in developing energy and materials resources and the consequences of these developments for society. The Program helps the Congress progress toward rational resource development such that economic growth is maintained, undesirable side effects are kept to a minimum, and the resource base is sustained for future generations. The Program covers those technologies that concern the extraction, delivery, and the use of energy and materials. The Program also analyzes world energy and materials markets and policies, especially the implications of U.S. imports and exports of energy and materials.

The Industry, Technology, and Employment Program (ITE) examines how technology affects the ability of U.S. industry to contribute to a healthy national economy. This includes consideration of the competitiveness of U.S. industries in international markets; trade and economic development issues; the number and nature of employment opportunities in the U.S. economy; needs for worker education, training and retraining; and ways to ease adjustment in structural economic transitions. The ITE Program is concerned with the role of technology in examining the competitive position of both basic and new industries, with the development and dissemination of pre-competitive technologies, and with the quantity, nature, and quality of jobs in the U.S. economy.

The International Security and Commerce Program (ISC) deals with the role of technology in national security, exploration and commercialization of space, and international technology transfer. The Program's work in national security focuses on assessment of the likely impacts of technological considerations on national security, including international stability, terrorism, diplomacy, alliance relations, arms control, deterrence, and defense. Assessment of issues related to the nation's defense industrial and technology base is an increasing part of ISC's work. The Program's work on space involves a broad range of issues, such as space transportation, international cooperation and competition in civilian space activities, and other areas in which technological progress, civilian exploration, commercial uses of space, and national security must all be reconciled.

The Science, Education, and Transportation Program (SET) includes efforts focusing on the Federal government's in national transportation systems and policy; it includes a variety of efforts related to the Federal Government's role in maintaining the health of the U.S. scientific enterprise, especially allocation and decision methods available to the Congress to support and manage research and development; and, finally, the Program activities include a strong focus on the role of technology in enhancing learning in schools as well as in non-school educational systems.

The Telecommunications and Computing Technology Program (TCT) is concerned primarily with the changing role of telecommunications and computing technologies in the nation's industry, commerce, and government. The core responsibilities of the Program require monitoring the research and development of new information technologies and assessing the state of the art in these areas as well as the pace and direction of basic research and development. The Program also studies telecommunications regulation, information policy, and applications of information technol

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10.4 Accomplishments of the Industry, Commerce, and

International Security Division

In FY 1993, the Industry, Commerce, and International Security Division published 17 assessment reports:

■ Industrial Energy Efficiency

■ Access to Over-the Road Buses for Persons with Disabilities

■ Defense Conversion: Redirecting R&D

The 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference: Technology and Policy Implications

■ Energy Efficiency Technologies for Central and Eastern Europe

■ Who Goes There: Friend or Foe?

■ Adult Literacy and New Technologies: Tools for a Lifetime

■The Future of Remote Sensing from Space: Civilian Satellite Systems and Applications

■ Aging Nuclear Power Plants: Managing Plant Life and Decommissioning

■ Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Assessing the Risks

■ Multinationals and the National Interest: Playing by Different Rules

■ U.S. Telecommunications Services in European Markets

■ Making Government Work: Electronic Delivery of Federal Services

■ Protecting Privacy in Computerized Medical Information

■ Energy Efficiency: Challenges and Opportunities for Electric Utilities

■ Contributions of DoE Weapons Labs and NIST to Semiconductor Technology

■ Pulling Together for Productivity: A Union-Management Initiative at US West, Inc.

The Division also published 10 background papers:

■U.S. Banks and International Telecommunications

■ Data Format Standards for Civilian Remote Sensing Satellites

■ Advanced Network Technology

■ Development Assistance, Export Promotion, and Environmental Technology

■ Accessibility and Integrity of Networked Information Collections

■ Chemical Weapons Convention: Effects on the U.S. Chemical Industry

■ Aircraft Evacuation Testing: Research and Technology Issues

■ Potential Environmental Impacts of Bioenergy Crop Production

■ Information Systems Related to Technology Transfer: A Report on Federal Technology Transfer in the United States

Biopolymers: Making Materials Nature's Way

In addition, the Division testified 15 times.

Listed below are several examples of direct legislative use of the Division's work:

Energy and Materials

1. The project staff of the assessment Green Products by Design: Choices for a Cleaner Environment consulted extensively with staff of the House Science, Space, and Technology Committee in the preparation of legislation introduced in the 103d Congress to promote environmental technol


on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Transportation and Hazardous Materials concerning toxic use reduction and reauthorization of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

2. The OTA report, Energy Efficiency Technologies for Central and Eastern Europe, was released in July 1993, just before the Senate consideration of the bill on financial and technical assistance to the former Soviet Union. Senate staffers reported that it was useful background material for the portions of the bill dealing with energy matters.

3. The report, Industrial Energy Efficiency, was released in April 1993 at a hearing before the Subcommittee on Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency, and Competitiveness of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. The hearing focused on the potential for enhancing U.S. industrial competitiveness through energy efficiency and waste minimization technologies. 4. Based on the findings of the report Energy Efficiency in the Federal Government: Government by Good Example?, OTA interacted extensively with the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs and staff of the House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy and Power in development of the Federal energy efficiency provisions of Public Law 102-486, the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (specifically, Title 1-Energy Efficiency, Subtitle F-Federal Agency Energy Management).

5. Many of the findings and options of OTA's report, U.S. Oil Import Vulnerability: The Technical Replacement Capability, were adopted in the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act contains extensive provisions for alternative vehicle fuels, alternative feedstocks, and improved energy efficiency. One option formed the basis of S. 1018 introduced by Sen. Bingaman and referred to Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee to establish national energy policy goals. S. 1018 was incorporated into the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). During legislative consideration of EPACT in the 102d Congress, the report was cited by House and Senate committees and in floor statements. 6. OTA's report, Building Energy Efficiency and the earlier report, Energy Efficiency in the Federal Government: Government by Good Example?, were used by the staff of the Subcommittee on the Environment, House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, to assist them in preparation of comprehensive energy R&D legislation that became the R&D titles in the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Committee staff have reported that the building energy efficiency report was used during negotiations by House and Senate conferees.

7. OTA's report, Electric Power Wheeling and Dealing: Technological Considerations for Increasing Competition, was also cited extensively in the early legislative discussions and hearings in the House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy and Power affecting the regulation of electric utilities.

8. OTA staff were consulted by several House and Senate staff regarding legislative proposals aimed at removal of older cars from the U.S. fleet as a result of the report Retiring Old Cars: Programs to Save Gasoline and Reduce Emissions.

9. During the course of the OTA assessment Renewable Energy Technology Research Development, and Commercial Prospects, OTA project staff were consulted by congressional committee staff in connection with hearings, and draft legislation on renewable energy issues. For example, OTA provided background information on hydrogen energy systems to minority staff of the House Committee on Science, Space and Technology, Subcommittee on Energy, for use in drafting H.R.


10. During preparation of the OTA background paper, The Environmental Impacts of Bioenergy Crop Production, OTA project staff assisted the staff of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Energy and Power with suggestions for potential witnesses, issues, questions and background materials for hearings on the potential role of biomass energy systems to sequester carbon or offset fossil energy carbon emissions to reduce the greenhouse effect. 11. Building on the findings of OTA work on the biological effects of electromagnetic fields completed in the course of the assessment, Electric Power Wheeling and Dealing: Technological Considerations for Increasing Competition, and the background paper, Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, throughout the 102d Congress OTA staff were consulted by staff of the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology as they drafted legislation on federal research efforts on biological effects of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) and on the appropriate level, scope, and structure of federal research efforts.

Industry, Technology, and Employment

1. Legislation from both the House and the Senate-HR. 1432 and S. 473—reflect policy options from Defense Conversion: Redirecting R&D dealing with modifying the initiation and management of CRADAS (cooperative research and development agreements). Further options from this assessment, addressing CRADA management and reorganization of the DoE weapons labs, were incorporated into the defense authorization bills. Specific language in the bills can be traced to the report and to staff briefings of the House Armed Services Committee, the House Science, Space and Technology Committee, and the Senate Energy Committee.

2. After the Cold War: Living with Lower Defense Spending was relied upon heavily in the Defense Authorization and Defense Appropriations Acts for Fiscal Years 1993 and 1994. The FY 1993 Acts included extensive provision and funding for defense conversion programs, implicitly adopting definitions and structures proposed in the report.

Congress passed the Defense Authorization and Defense Appropriations Acts for Fiscal Year 1993, which included extensive provision and funding for defense conversion programs. The bills implicitly adopted the broad definition of defense conversion presented in After the Cold War, which emphasized investing in technological advance and economic growth at the community, regional and national levels, rather than focusing efforts on plant-level conversion. The bills also adopted the framework for conversion programs proposed in After the Cold War, which included programs for transition assistance for workers and communities for the short term, and longer term programs for technology diffusion and government-industry partnerships for development of commercial technologies.

3. In preparing the FY 1994 legislative package for defense conversion, the Senate Democratic Defense Conversion Task Force asked OTA to coordinate a series of three briefings, bringing in outside speakers and conducting workshops to identify major issues. The workshops addressed base property disposal, environmental assessment and cleanup at bases, and federal community development assistance. The workshops, and a detailed memo based on them and on After the Cold War prepared by OTA, led Senators Pryor and Bingaman to praise OTA and its staff (by name) when they introduced the Report of the Task Force on Defense Reinvestment as “instrumental in helping the task force develop these recommendations" and providing "invaluable assistance in preparing


4. Based on OTA's work with the Senate Democratic Defense Conversion Task Force (see #3), Senator Pryor submitted an amendment (cosponsored by a number of other Senators) to the FY 1994 DoD Authorization bill dealing with federal policies for easing adjustment to base closures and defense industry closures. Virtually all the components of the amendment stemmed from After the Cold War and OTA's work with the Task Force. The provisions included: expedited interim leasing of bases, expedited environmental cleanup, moratoria on removal of certain types of base property, greater participation of affected communities in DoD policy making, and policy allowing DoD to sell bases at less than full market value.

5. Based on After the Cold War, OTA provided Congressman Wise, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Economic Development of the Public Works Committee, with information and guidance for a directory of economic development programs for defense conversion that the Committee intends to publish as a Committee document. OTA also wrote a short memo discussing problems communities are likely to face when dealing with defense cutbacks, particularly base closures, as background for, or as inclusion into, the Committee's report.

6. Trade and Environment: Conflicts and Opportunities was deemed the major centrist piece on the topic by a representative of the International Trade Commission. Groups as diverse as the Center for International Environmental Law, the Council on Foreign Relations, the National Science Foundation, the National Security Council, and the State Department Transition Team have used this background paper as core material for their meetings and work. EPA managers have also relied on the information in the report, as have officials in the states. The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative routinely recommends this report to callers who want to understand trade and environment issues.

7. Trade and Environment and the second background paper on international industrial competitiveness and the environment, Development Assistance, Export Promotion, and Environmental Technology, combined with briefings on ongoing work, provided information and ideas for congressional committees working on S. 1074, a bill to promote U.S. environmental exports, and S. 978, the National Environmental Technology Act of 1993. For example, OTA work helped the committees working on S. 1074 in defining the role of proposed regional environmental export centers.

8. Vice President Al Gore, in From Red Tape to Results: Creating a Government that Works Better & Costs Less (Report of the National Performance Review, September 7, 1993) quoted from After the Cold War in his comments on Job Training Partnership Act:

"When Congress enacted JTPA, it sought to avoid such problems. It let local areas tailor their training programs to local needs. But Federal rules and regulations have gradually undermined the good intentions. Title III, known as the Economic Dislocation and Worker Adjustment Assistance Act (EDWAA), helps states respond immediately to plant closings and large layoffs. Yet even EDWAA's most flexible money, the 'national reserve fund,' has become so tangled in red tape that many states won't use it. As Congress's Office of Technology Assessment put it, 'the process is simply too obstacle ridden. many state EDWAA managers cannot handle the complexities of the grant application, and those that do know how are too


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