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known: the lineal representative of the former is the present Lord Hardwicke, through his mother.

Wood says these travels were so well esteemed abroad, that, as he was informed, they were translated into French and Dutch; but Locke observes, “they are very concise, and without any curious observations, or any notable descriptions; his account of the religions and customs of those people, only a brief collection of some other travellers, the language mean, and not all of it to be relied on, if we credit others, who have writ better."

Sir Henry Blount commences his work with the following explanation of his views : “ Intellectual complexions have no desire so strong, as that of knowledge; nor is any knowledge unto man so certaine, and pertinent, as that of human affaires : this experience advances best, in olsserving of people, whose institutions much differ from ours; for customes conformable to our own, or to such wherewith we are already acquainted, doe but repeate our old observations, with little acquist of new. So my former time spent in viewing Italy, France, and some little of Spain, being countries of Christian institution, did but represent, in a severall dresse, the effect of what I knew before.

“Then seeing that the customes of men are much swayed by their naturall dispositions, which are originally inspired and composed by the climate, whose ayre and infuence they receive, it seems naturall, that to our north-west parts of the world, no people should be niore averse, and strange of behaviour, than those of the south-east: moreover, those parts being now possessed by the Turkcs, who are the only moderne

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people,

people, great in action, and whose empire hath sa sud. denly invaded the world, and fixt itself such firm foun, dations as no other ever did; I was of opinion, that hee who would behold these times in their greatest glory, could not find a better scene than Turkey: these considerations sent mee thither; where my general purpose gave mee four particular cares: first, to observe the religion, manners, and policie of the Turks, pot perfectly, (which were a taske for an inhabitant rather than a passenger,) but so farre forth, as might satisfie this scruple, (to wit) whether to an impartiall conceit, the Turkish waye appeare absolutely barbarous as we are given to understand, or rather another kind of civilitie, different from ours, but no lesse pretending: secondly, in some measure, to acquaint myself with those other sects which live under the Turks, as Greeks, Armenians, Freinks, and Zinganaes, but especially the Jews; a race from all others so averse both in nature and institution, as glorying to single itself out of the rest of mankind, remaines obstinate, contemptible, and famous: thirdly, to see the Turkish army then going against Poland, and therein to note, whether their discipline military encline to ours, or else bee of a new mould, though not without some touch, from the countries they have subdued; and whether it be of a frame apt to confront the Christians or not; the last and choice piece of my intent, was ta view Gran Cairo, and that for two causes ; first, it being clearely the greatest concourse of mankind in these times, and perhaps that ever was; there niust needs be some proportionable spirit in the government: for such vast multitudes, and those of wits so deeply malicious, would soon breede confusion, famine, and utter desolation, if in the Turkish domination there were nothing but sottish sensualitie, as most Christians conceive: lastly, because Egypt is held to have been the fountaine of all science, and arts civill, therefore I did hope to find some sparke of those cinders not yet put out; or else in the extreme contrairietie, I should receive an impression as important, from the ocular view of so great a revolution ; for above all other senses, the eye having the most immediate, and quicke commerce with the soul, gives it a more smart touch than the rest, leaving in the fancy somewhat una utterable; so that an eye witness of things conceives with an imagination more compleat, strong, and intuitive, than hee can either apprehend or deliver by way of relation; for relations are not only in great part false, out of the relater's misinformation, vanitie, or interest; but which is unavoydable, their choice, and frame agrees more naturally with his judgement; whose issue they are, then with his readers; so as the reader is like one feasted with dishes fitter for another man's stomacke than his owne: but a traveller takes with his eye, and ease, only such occurrencies into observation, as his own apprehension affects, and ihrough that sympathy, can digest them into an experience more natural for himself, then he could have done the notes of another: wherefore I desiring somewhat to informe myself of the Turkish nation, would not sit downe with a booke knowledge thereof, but rather (through all the hazard and endurance of travel,) receive it from mine own eye, not dazzled with any affection, prejudicacy, or mist of education, which preoccupate the mind, and delude it with partiall ideas,

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as with a false głasse, representing the object in colours, and proportions untrue: før the just censure of things is to be drawn from their end whereto they are aimed, without requiring them to our customs and ordinances, or other impertinent respects, which they acknowledge not for their touch-stone: wherefore he who passes through the several educations of men, must not try them by bis own, but weyning his mind from all former habit of opinion, should as it were, putting off the old man, come fresh and sincere to consider them: this preparation was the cause, why the superstition, policie, entertainments, diet, lodging, and other manners of the Turks, never provoked mee so farre, as usually they doe those who catechize the world according to their own home; and this also barres these observations from appearing beyond my own closet, for to a mind possest with any set doctrine, their unconformitie must needs make them seem unsound, and extravagant, nor can they comply to a rule, by which they were not made. Neverthelesse, considering that experience forgotten is as if it never had beene, and knowing how much I ventured for it, as little as it is, I could not but esteeme it worth retaining in my owne memory, though not transferring to others: hereupon I have in these lines registered to myself, whatsoever most tooke me in my journey from Venice into Turky.”

ART.

ART. XVII: The Historie of two the moste noble

Capitaines of the worlde, Anniball and Scipio: of theyr dyvers battailes and victories: ercedyng profitable to reade: gathered and translated into Englishe out of Titus Livius and other authores, by Antonye Cope, esquier. Anno 1544. 4to. Colophon. Londini. In ædibus Thomæ Bertheleti regii impressoris typis excusum. Anno verbi incar, nati MDXLIIII.

In the list of early English translations, which now makes a part of the prolegomena to Shakspeare, Mr. Steevens has dated this version of Cope's Livy, 1545. I have therefore cited both title and colophon, to shew the real date. Herbert t speaks of the book as a rarity: as a specimen of typography it confers far more credit on the printer, than do his recommendatory lines in the character of a poct.

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" Tho. Berthelet on this Historie.

" Who so ever desireth for to rede

Marciall prowesse, feactes of chivalrie,
That maie hym profite at tyme of nede;

Lette hym in hande take this historie,
That sheweth the sleyghtes and policie,

The wily traynes of wyttie Anniball,
The crafty disceites full ofte wherby

He gave his puissant ennemies a falle.
Of woorthie stomache and courage valyaunt,

Of noble herte and mannely enterprise,
Of jentlenesse of mynde, sure and constaunt,

Of governaunce prudent, ware, and wyse,

Sec Reed's edition, 11. p. 11!.

† Typogr. Antiq. I. 447.

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