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nerouS monarch, the establish2nt of wise institutions, like those to which other nations are indebted for their prosperity and glory, and which were already, in great part, well known to, arid larded by, our ancestors, though iey have since fallen into disuse, and been forgotten in consequence the operation of time and rents.

"On the closing of the sarile :ssion, she again congratulates you, because, in your constant gratitude for the generosity of our august monarch, in your respect for the constitutional charter, in your noble desire of repairing the ills of the country, and renewing the days of its fortune and illustrious fame, you have confirmed, in the most unequivocal mariner,he hopes which the Portuguese conceived of the prudence of the legislator, of the wisdom of the law, and of your known patriotsm.

"In this short period you have, loubtless, recognised with regret the defects of our agriculture, the slow progress made by our commerce, the very exhausted state of our finances, and the decay of military discipline and gallantry; and you will, with vigilant efforts, endeavour to remedy those great evils by adequate and prompt measures: but as to know the evil, and to apply with speed the proper remedy, is all that is wanted to obtain a good result, well-founded hopes may be encouraged that, with more time, in other legislative sessions, you will raise our Portugal to that due degree of prosperity and political consideration which corresponds with her situation, with the number and solidity of her alliances, and with the vigour of mind, and comprehensive as well as circumspect getiius of her citizens."Such agreeable and wellfounded hopes cannot be disappointed by the defection of some cowards, and the dclttsiJm df some part of the population hf artful persons. Certain ill-disposed men from the frontier of a neighbouring nation, where they were received, have practised deception, and misled some incautious people. Religion menaced, fundaftierital laws violated, are the vain phantoms with which they have excited fear, and by which they have succeeded in disturbing that union which they, as Portuguese, ought to prefer above every thing."The government, hoWever, lias not neglected to appeal to the patriotism, led astray indeed, but not extinguished, in their hearts; nor has it forgotten to meet with precautions and impediments, the progress of the contagion. Faithful soldiers, march with valour and constancy to defeat the plans, and counteract the progress of the cowardly and disloyal £ Btld, strengthened by the assistance of our ancient and faithful ally, Great Britain—assistance given with the most gcrieroiis prohiptitude—we may confidently hope to overcome still greater obstacles."The contract of espousals is celebrated between her faithful majesty the senhdra dohha Maria II., and the most serene senhor Infant don Miguel, which, taking away all pretext from seditious intriguers, and all ground of distrust from the deluded, must prove an efficacious remedy against discord, rather originating in error than in perverse intention, among a people who have been milled by designing men. ''

"Worthy Peers of the king

dom, and Deputies of the Portuguese nation;—You may rely that her highness the senhora Infanta Regent will, in the mean time, prepare to continue in the following session to display her ardent zeal for the good of the country, and to promote it with efficacy and wisdom.

"In this manner, her highness trusts that the tree of the state which has from so many peculiar and extraordinary causes fallen into

decay, will recover vigour, and flourish amidst the sincere praises of our contemporaries, and the henedictions of our posterity."

Having concluded, the aforesaid minister and Secretary of State said, addressing himself to the members of both Chambers:—

"In conformity with the decree of her highness, the Session of the Chambers for the year 1826 is closed."

Extract from the Message of the Vice President of Colombia to live Congress.

Citizens of the Senate and Chamber of Representatives:—Our relations with the American governments, and particularly with the United Mexican States and Peru, have been consolidated in a manner capable of securing a perpetual and sincere friendship. In Panama are assembling the plenipotentiaries of the new States of America, to ratify in the most solemn manner our common resolutlbn rif supporting and defending our national independence and liberty against the attempt:; of our enemies. This assembly, the fruit of our desire to preserve what was won by the sacrifices of the American people, and of the most ardent wishes of the government of Colombia and its liberator for peace and friendship among all the confederate belligerents, is, in the opinion of the executive, the completion of the guarantees of our indepcnderlee. '''J^'haVe occasioned to be ktiowrJ1 In Europe what are the true objects of the Assembly at the Isthmus, to put a stop to any disagreeable impression which some cabinets might receive, less from

the insidious conduct of our enemies than from the magnitude of the enterprise which we have effected.

The Peruvian republic has recovered its political existence under the sword and direction of the liberating president. You know what has been the result of the efforts of general Bolivar, efficaciously protected by the fidelity of the people of Peru to the common cause, and by the constancy and intrepidity of the defenders of liberty. In Ayacucho has been conquered the Spanish army, which domineered over all this vast country; and from that glorious day, until the hour in which the hostile chief who occupied Potosi died, the united armies of Colombia and Peru, directed by an able and fortunate Columbian general, obtained an innumerable series of successes. In consequence of so many brilliant events, the provinces of Upper Peru, the cradle of American liberty, have gained the political existence which they wanted, and raised themselves to an independent state. In the transports of their enthusiasm and gratitude, the States of this new nation have adopted the name of the Bolivar Republic; consecrating by this means to the end of time the illustrious name of the Liberator of Colombia. I have no expressions to explain our feelings of delight and gratitude for the tribute of homage paid to the liberator, the Colombian army, and its general, by the congress of Peru, the assembly of Chuquisaca, the cities, the towns, and all the citizens. The Congress will receive a deputation of the representatives of Peru, the principal object of which is, to present to them a testimony of gratitude for the efforts which the republic of Colombia has made in favour of the liberty and independence of that country, in spite of vulgar presentiments. I hope that you will be equally pleased, as the executive, at seeing realized an attempt which might affect our own destinies. A part of the auxiliary army is on its return to its country, and another will remain in Peru, at the disposal of its government, to support the deliberations of the State, and to protect the internal tranquillity, while that state may require it, and the republic has no necessity for its troops. To comply with the engagements which we have formed with the United States of Mexico, I have disposed of one part of our forces in a manner of which you shall, in due time, be informed. The common cause of America is interested in this measure, and no part of the new world will be left, to which the republic of Colombia will not have contributed in hunting out the old oppressors, and giving peace and friendship to its brethren.


No cause of complaint exists on

the part of the Brazilian government. The executive has deferred opening the negotiations, which, on account of the question of boundaries, it must establish with that government, as long as it has not security that the minister of the republic will be admitted on terms recognised by the law of nations. Foreign journals represent the emperor as in hostility with the government of Buenos Ayres, for the possession of the Banda Oriental;—the executive has no official knowledge of the transaction. . ., i

The treaty of peace, amity, navigation and commerce, which we have made with the United States, having been ratified by the presi- •dent of those states, our relations with them stand on the happiest and most flattering footing. The convention with respect to the African Slave Trade has not been as yet ratified, on account of the doubts which have arisen in the American Senate, of which the Secretary for Foreign Affairs will inform you at full length.

In like manner the treaty of peace and amity, which you approved of in the last session, is by this time ratified by the government of his Britannic majesty. From that moment the political and commercial relations between the republic and Great Britain will be established in a permanent manner, advantageous to the connexions between nations, and useful to the cause of America. When I had signed this treaty, I admitted, in a suitable manner, the charge d'affaires of his Britannic majesty, who is at present residing in this city. The commercial agents remain in our ports under the circumstances which 1 announced to you in my fpnner roessage that I had permitted them to exercise their functions; for, while the cause that gave occasion to this procedure of the government still existed, I had no reason to alter the rules of my conduct. Our consuls and commercial agents to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland will be despatched, When Opportunity serves, for the ports which may best suit our mercantile relations.


The executive has exerted itself to the utmost with the government of his most christian majesty, to obtain from it an explicit declaration in favdUr df the republic. It was a preliminary step to the success of our desires and efforts to give it various explanations, and to lay before it the true rule of our conduct, in order to clear up some points on which it had ideas not very favourable to us. In effect, it authorizes, in the form mostadequate to the circumstances, our confidential agent, who has answered our expectations. His communications will be presented to you at full length, and I am confident that the congress will approve the circumspection with which the business has been conducted in circumstances of considerable difficulty, and will applaud the firmness with which we have maintained the system proclaimed by the people of Colombia. I have no reason to despair that the government of France, supported by public opinion, will at length acknowledge our independence, in imitationof other great powers, and propose to establish relations of friendship useful to the people of either country.

The relations with the Apostolic See still maintain an undefined character, owing to causes which it is not difficult to assign.

Very particular circumstances have admonished me to Conduct this affair with the greatest prudence, confident that the course of events will eventually produce a resu-lt favourable to the stability of public order. The laws which the congress has passed relative to public worship, and to ecclesiastical discipline, have been communicated to the Sec of Rome; and you may rest assured that, if any thing shoUlfl decur, the government ivill support with firmness and dignity the rights of the people of Colombia.

"• * * *

The Secretary of Finance will present you with the general state of the receipts and expenses of the national funds; With calculations of the expenses anticipated in the present year, and with all the other notices which the government can lay before you ill so complicated a branch as the revenue. The executive has continued to be surrounded with innumerable difficulties to cover the expenses of administration, not exactly because the engagements of the year were superior to the receipts, but because the greater part of the creditors of the republic have expected that at this time the government should satisfy all demands on it since the year 1816. The congress will acknowledge, from this information, that, in consequence of its being required that the executive should cover in one year the deficit caused in former years, I have been placed irt an embarrassing and disagreeable situation. The measure adopted of paying the different creditors by degrees, partly by the quarter of the produce of the customs, partly by the ordinary funds, at progressive periods, has satisfied in part the demands of those inter

ested; but it has diminished the amount of the annual applicable revenue, which has occasioned a deficiency in the engagements of administration!

* • * *

In the accounts of the proceeds of the loan of the year 1824, you will seo that, in compliance with the law on the subject, several foreign and domestic debts have been covered; warehouses and parks have been provided; the army has been paid; the government funds have been improved; the interests of all the foreign debts have been paid to the present month; and the agriculture of some departments has received the protection which circumstances permitted. The liquidation of the debt of Peru could not be concluded in favour of the republic. Although Colombia presents itself as creditor, she is debtor to many citizens of the southern provinces, from whom she solicits supplies to assist Peru. The executive hopes that congress will apply to the satisfaction of the said debt, a part of that which the republic of that state covers. By this means we shall execute an act of justice, and protect the people of the south, whose services in the contest of Peru have been prompt and efficacious.

* * * *

We may pride ourselves that the republic of Colombia not only has broken the chains of slavery, but has established a system of liberty, founded upon the dignity and the rights of men; that she holds among ancient and modern states the reputation which she has acquired by her political or

ganization, the admirable constancy of her defenders, the glory of her arms, and the good faith of her government; that to her heroic efforts she is indebted for seeing herself, at the present day, alternating with two powers whose physical and intellectual strength is universally recognized; that our people enjoy their civil and political liberty without having seen themselves exposed to those internal convulsions, of which new societies are so frequently the victims; that the laws and the constitution are founded on public opinion and on a free press; that knowledge is gradually spreading and diffusing itself through the vast extent of our territory; that the spirit of enterprise and of activity is beginning to possess our fellow citizens; that the foundation has been laid for peopling and cultivating extensive tracts hitherto almost unknown; that within seven years, the family and the riches of Colombia have increased; finally, that the republic, by the generous aid that she has afforded to her kindred states, deserves to be regarded as the protectress of the liberty and the independence of America. No part can arrogate to itself the right to the exclusive possession of this noble position, it is the work of the people, of the army, of the representative body, and of all the authorities, whose united and continued energies have been protected by the supreme author and legislator of the universe.

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Francisco Db P. Santander. Bogota, Jan. 2, 1826—16.

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