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abolished and we have a Czar of Russia to give us laws. These iutricate questions are inevitable from the continual changes of law. A disregard of them would be no economy, but the reverse. The vigi. lance exercised is needed to save the Government from improper and illegal payments. The Czar might start with the “round sum” to each, but to do bimself justice he would soon have to look to the interpretation and execution of his laws, or his treasury would be depleted.

M. MACDOUGALL. Do you not think it possible to so adjust the pay of the Army that each officer would receive a fixed amount that covers everytbing, doing away with the commutation of rations, forage for horses, servants, fuel, &c. ?

General ALVORD. The law of 1870 has already changed all that, and there is now a fixed basis of pay, as shown in the table in the Army Register. The matters of fuel, forage, and quarters, do not belong to the Pay Department, but the Quartermaster's Department, and we are happily rid of any of them.

Mr. MacDoUGALL. I would be glad to have your opinion, as Paymas ter-General, whether it would not be well to do away with these allow. ances and fix the pay of officers, from the general down, at a certain, specific sum, and let them hire their own quarters, furnish their own horses, &c., and adjust the pay so that they will be able to do it.

General ALVORD. I wish specially to call your attention to the fact that the matter of servants and all the subdivisions of pay are wiped out now. Our pay-account is simple. The other matters you speak of belong to the Quartermaster's Department. I think tbe operations of an army require that these allowances should be furnished in kind and not in money, according to the wants of the service. They should be furnished sometimes in money and sometimes in kind, as the necessity of the service requires. In 1870 it was a matter of mature consideration in both Houses of Congress to make the scale of pay lucid. We desired that all should be able to see the exact amount of compensation, but in my judgment such are the wants of an army in time of war (and the whole machinery of an army must be arranged for the operations of war) that the subject of quarters, fuel, and forage should remain on its present basis. The gradation of the number of rooms according to rank is the only practical mode of arriving at the amount an officer should receive for quarters.

Mr. MACDOUGALL. Don't you think great abuses arise out of that system?

General ALVORD. I don't know of any; wless you would force an officer to keep house, and authorize the Quartermaster's Department to bire him quarters and compel him tyrannically to live in them, and never to go into a hotel or boarding-house. I don't see how you are to arrive at the gradation of quarters to be furnished different ranks, except by the rule now adopted in General Orders of the War Department. (See extract from General Orders No. 96, of 1870, appended.)

VII. The commutations for fuel and quarters heretofore allowed to officers of the Army not furnished in kind, having been abolished by section 24, act of 15th July, 1270, in cases where buildings suitable for officers' quarters are not owned by the l'oited States, the Quartermaster's Department will, whenever practicable, rent for each officer a number of rooms, and at a rate per month per room not exceeding in the aggregate that now established by regulations and orders; but whenever, for good and sufficient canses, an officer is quartered in a lodging-house or hotel where the rental of a full allowance of rooms would be costly, a son not exceeding that above specified for an officer of his rank may be paid to the proprietor for the accominodations so fur. nished. By order of the Secretary of War.

E. D. TOWNSEND,

Adjutant-General.

Mr. MacDOUGALL. But would it not be better to give an officer so much money, and then he can live in a palace or in a tent, just as he pleases ?

General ALVORD. Sometimes they are furnished in kind, but in war there are long intervals between active operations, and officers are in cities or places where quarters must be hired, and there must be some system of supplying them. In the Mexican war and in the civil war there were such periods, and officers were detailed on a variety of services at places where quarters must be hired.

The CHAIRMAN. I would be obliged if you would furnish the com. mittee, at as early a day as practicable, with a table showing what is the average, individual, yearly increase of pay under the law of 1870, of officers of each grade.

General ALVORD. I will do so.

The CHAIRMAN. If you have any suggestions to make on the subject matter we bave been considering, you may make them.

General ALVORD. I feel bound to repeat that I am reduced to extremity in the department for the want of more paymasters, because the act of the 5th of July, 1838, taken in connection with the act of 4th of July, 1836, forbids the detail of officers of the Army as acting pay. masters. The law of 1836 allowed their detail when there were volun. teers or militia in the service-one for two regiments. As there are no volunteers now in the service, no authority exists in the War Depart. ment to detail officers of the Army as acting paymasters, (and in that event the law forbids their separation from their companies,) and thus no resource is left to us but application to Congress for an increase of the number of officers.

Mr. MACDOUGALL. Is it necessary to have all your officers of the grade of major; could not some be of the grade of captain ?

General ALVORD. I believe that the present system induces men of a higher stamp of integrity, efficiency, respectability, and responsibility to enter the service than would enter if the rank was lower.

LETTER OF PAYMASTER-GENERAL AS TO AGGREGATE PAY OF OFFICERS

AND SOLDIERS.

PAYMASTER-GENERAL'S OFFICE, WAR DEPARTMENT,

Washington, 1874. SIR: In reply to your inquiry of 15th instant I would state tbat the aggregate pay of the officers of the Army for the last fiscal year was $4,086,551.91 ; and the aggregate pay to enlisted men for the same period was $4,080,124.53. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD,

Paymaster-General, U.S. A. Hon. JOHN COBURN,

House of Representatives.

LETTER OF PAYMASTER-GENERAL AS TO PAY AND INCREASE ANNUALLY

OF PAY OF OFFICERS.

PAYMASTER-GENERAL'S OFFICE, WAR DEPARTMENT,

Washington, 1874. SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of inquiry of the 24th instant, and to inclose the following reply :

I inclose herewith a table of the yearly and monthly pay of officers of all grades, as paid by the Pay Department, and will add that there is no difference between the pay of officers serving in the field with troops and that of officers on other active duty.

By act of 15th July, 1870, longevity rations ceased, and a salary increase or percentage for every five years' service (under certain limitations) was substituted. The average amount paid yearly for increase of pay is $578,730.

The inclosed table of the pay of the Army exhibits the yearly compensation of retired officers.

The average amount paid yearly for increase of pay to retired officers is $73,710.

The total annual compensation paid to officers on duty in Washington-say for the year 1873—by the Pay Department, is $255,930.12. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BENJ. ALVORD,

Paymaster. General, U. S. A.
Hon. JOHN COBURN,
Chairman Committee on Military Affairs,

House of Representatives.

Statement of Paymaster-General showing the average individual increase or percentage of the

pay of officers, United States Army, of each grade.

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Colonel.....
Lieutenant-colonel.
Major ......
Captain, mounted.
Captain, not mounted.
Regimental adjutant
Regimental quartermaster.
First lieutenant, mounted.
First lieutenant, not mounted.
Second lientenant, mounted.
Second lieuteuant, not mounted.
Chaplain....

27 82

15 57

15 35

10 00

14 31

5 20

5 52 14 17

18 71

BENJ. ALVORD, Paymaster. General, U. S. A.

PAYMASTER-GENERAL'S OFFICE, February 17, 1874.

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* The maximum pay of a colonel is by the law $4,500 per annum; bence, less than full 40 per cent. can accrue.

| The maximum pay of a lieutenant-colonel is by the law $4,000 per annum; hence, less than full 40 per cent, can accrue.
1. Ajd to major general, $200 per year in addition to pay of bis rank, not to be in. | 1. Retired officers receive 75 per cent. of pay (salary and increase) of their rank, but
cluded in computing the service increase.

no increase accrues for time subsequent to date of retirement.
2. Aid to brigadier-general, $150 per year in addition to pay of his rank, not to be 2. A retired chaplain receives three-fourths of the pay (salary and increase) of his
included in computing the service increase.

rank, (captain, not mounted.) 3. Acting commissary of subsistence, $100 per year in addition to pay of his rank, not

to be included in computing the service increase.

WASHINGTON, February 14, 1874. General JOSEPH HIOLT, Judge-Advocate-General United States Army, examined.

The CHAIRMAN. State whether or not there can be any reduction made with advantage to the Government in the Bureau of which you are the head ?

General Holt. The Bureau consists, as you are aware, of one JudgeAdvocate-General and one assistant judge-advocate general, and has the supervision of the corps of judge advocates, eight in number, who perform their duties under its direction. These judge-advocates are distributed over the country at military headquarters where their services are most needed. The number has been much reduced from what it was during the war. At present these officers are stationed, one of them at New York, one at Louisville, Ky., one at Saint Paul, one at Ounaha, ove at Leavenworth, one at San Francisco, and two are on duty in the Bureau of Military Justice. Those points have been selected where the largest amount of business existed, and where it was thought the performance of their appropriate duties would most advance the interests of the military administration. Of course the number could be reduced, but I believe the reduction would be followed by a corresponding loss to the service in one of its important fields of duty.

Question. State the character of business submitted to them—to the judge-advocates in your Bureau.

Answer. These judge-advocates are all lawyers by profession, and have also been connected with the military service; with one exception, they were in the field during the late war, soine of them with troops, through almost the whole period of hostilities, and some resigned com missions in the line of the Regular Army to accept their present offices. They are stationed in the different departments with a view of legally advising the commanders thereof; with a view of directing the preparation of charges and specifications against soldiers and officers who are to be arraigned before military courts, and in difficult cases to act as judge-advocates of courts themselves. They also review the records of those tribunals when they come into the commander's office, and if errors are discovered they are pointed out before the court is dissolved, and the case is sent back to be reconsidered by the court. That is a general statement of their duties.

Question. State whether or not the questions submitted to those officers are of such a nature as that legal knowledge and high professional skill are required.

Answer. I believe so. If a determination exists to subject the military administration to the wholesome restraints of law, which is at all times desirable, and is certainly practicable in time of profound peace, I think that this corps of officers should be continued. A West Point education does not impart a thorough knowledge of a class of legal questions which arise continually in trials by courts-martial and which it is necessary to have correctly settled, both for the interests of the Government and the interests of those on trial. Experience proves that for lack of this knowledge on the part of officers, errors are at times committed by military courts which would be fatal to the reputation and future of those tried were they not subsequently corrected, on review, either through the judge advocates or the final advisory action of the Bureau of Military Justice.

Question. What is the amount of duty performed by these officers ? Answer. I could scarcely now tell you. I believe they are all well

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