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Non tuba | direc|ti, || non | aeris / cornua | flexi,
I. THE FOUR AGES AND THE FLOOD.
I. 89. aurea: compare the description of the Golden Age in Virgil, Ecl. iv. The Ages are named from the metals gold, silver, brass (or more exactly copper), and iron, the best being the Golden, the worst the Iron Age. — sata est, was created, i.e. was. — vindice nullo (abl. abs.), when there was no avenger (of guilt), i.e. by no constraint.
91. verba minacia, refers to laws. The Roman laws were inscribed upon bronze tablets, which were fastened up in the forum and other public places. Hence fixo aere, posted up in brass (abl. of place, $ 258, f, 3; G. 385, n.!; H. 425, 2, N.3).
92. supplex turba, the defendant and his friends, who generally tried to move the judges by their prayers.
93. erant tuti, not supplex turba, but the people in general.
94. caesa agrees with pinus; suis with montibus; the pine felled on its native hills, and wrought into ships (abl. like fixo aere in 91).
96. norant ($ 128, a; G. 131, 1, 3; H. 235, 2), knew, lit. had learned ($ 279, e; G. 236, 2, R.1 H.
297, 1, 2). 98. directi, flexi, both agree with aeris (gen. of material, $ 214, e; G. 368, R.; H. 395, v.). The tuba was a long straight brazen horn; the cornu was curved.
99. sine militis usu, without occasion for the employment of soldiery; militis is used collectively. 100. securae, free from care.
Notice the interlocked order, a very common one in Latin. — otia: the plural is often used in Latin, when in English we use the singular; this is especially common in poetry, frequently, as here, for metrical reasons ($ 79, d; G. 204, R.$; H. 130, 3).
101. ipsa immunis tellus, the earth itself unburdened. Strictly, without any duties to perform, not called on by man for tribute.
102. per se, equiv. to sua sponte.
103. cibis ($ 245; G. 408; H. 421, iii.). - nullo cogente (abl. abs.) = with no compulsion, qualifying creatis.
104. arbuteos fetus = arbuti fetus, the fruit of the arbute tree. The arbute or strawberry tree is common in Italy. The fruit resembles the strawberry in appearance, but is somewhat insipid in taste. — legebant, [men] gathered ($ 206, b).
105. mora, blackberries.
106. quae glandes: the antecedent is incorporated in the relative clause ($ 200, b; G. 616; H. 445, 9). — Jovis arbore, the oak, sacred to Jupiter.
108. mulcebant, fanned, caressed (properly, stroked).
109. mox, soon (after flowering). — fruges, grain, the “kindly fruits of the earth,” not fruit in the ordinary modern sense.
110. nec renovatus, not renewed, i.e. without lying fallow. The negative belongs only with renovatus. — cānebat, grew white.
112. mella: i.e. in the Golden Age honey dropped spontaneously from the leaves without the toil of bees. For the plural, see on v. 100.
113. postquam ... misso, when, after Saturn was banished, etc. (the relative clause ends with erat). Saturnus was an old Italian god of the crops (satus, sero), but was identified by the later Romans with the Greek Kronos, father of Zeus, who was dethroned and sent to Tartarus by
114. sub Jove: the reign of stern law, under Jupiter, follows that of peace and innocence.
subiit: contrary to rule the last i is long. This seems to be a relic of an earlier usage ($ 354, a, 3, n.), and is especially common in iit, petiit, and their compounds (G. 708, 4); cf. Virg. Æn. viii. 362, X. 67.
115. auro, aere: one would expect aurea and aenea (sc. prole).
116. contraxit, shortened (cf. v. 107); the changing seasons are the first sign of nature's loss.
117. inaequales, changeable.
118. spatiis : abl. of manner. — exegit, led out (i.e. to its end), completed.
119. fervoribus : plural; cf. otia, v. 100, mella, v. 112.
123. semina Cerealia, seeds of grain; cf. arbuteos fetus, v. 104. Ceres gave grain to mankind, and taught them agriculture. 128. venae ...
aevum, upon an age of worse vein (i.e. metal). A vein of ore or metal in a mine was called vena.
129. verum, truthfulness ($ 189, a; G. 204, N.2; H. 441, 2).
130. fraudesque: in poetry que is frequently added to the first of a series of words, when the other members of the series are connected by que. It should be omitted in translation.
131. amor ... habendi, the guilty love of gain.
132. vela, etc., in consequence of the love of gain, which drove men to brave the dangers of the sea. Foreign commerce, now regarded as the source of civilization, was anciently held in disesteem by the poets.
133. quaeque carinae, =et carinae quae ; cf. quae glandes, v. 106. – diu steterant, see v. 94.
134. ignotis: the seas, like the winds (v. 132), were as yet unknown to the sailors. - insultavere: the meaning is double. They danced upon the waves, and despised the danger.
135. communem humum, the soil, before common (free to all), like sunlight and air; lumina and auras are put in the acc. like humum though the sense is : ceu lumina solis et aurae sint.
136. limite: the limes was a boundary-path between two farms described by the agrimensor in laying out the public lands.
137. segetes poscebatur humus, crops were demanded of the earth, or more literally, the earth was asked for crops ($ 239, C, R.; G. 339, N.4; H. 374, 1). — debita, due, because the earth owes the planter a return for his seed.
138. itum est, men penetrated ($ 146, d; G. 208, 2; H. 301, 1).
139. quasque opes = opesque quas ($ 201, 6, e; G. 622). recondiderat, she [the earth] had hidden. — admoverat, had brought near to. — Stygiis umbris (dat. § 228; G. 347; H. 386), the shades of Styx: the realms of the dead, conceived to be under the earth.
141. ferrum, aurum : these were a part of the opes.
142. prodit bellum, war comes forth, as a consequence of the appearance of iron and gold. — utroque, with both (abl. of instrument) : gold, as well as iron, is one of the “ sinews of war."
144. vivitur, men live; cf. itum est, v. 138. — hospěs (for the quantity, see § 348, 9, exc. 2; G. 709, 2, exc. I; H. 581, vi. 1), guest-friend (i.e. guest or host). This word refers to a peculiar relation between persons of different countries who were bound to furnish hospitality to each other.
145. non socer a genero: these words would make every Roman think of Caesar and Pompey.
146. imminet, broods over.- - exitio, dat. ($ 228; G. 347; H. 386). - conjugis, mariti, both limit exitio.
147. novercae, step-mothers. The evil practice of divorce among the Romans, and the domestic misery that came from it, made the cruelty of step-mothers proverbial. — lurida, dark. The association of poison with dark mixtures is old and general. Blue and poison are associated in Sanskrit and Greek. -aconita : plural; cf. otia, v. 100 (see also $ 75, c; G. 204, N. 5, 6).
148. inquirit, questions (of fortune-tellers: he is impatient for his inheritance). — ante diem, before the time, i.e. before his father's natural death would leave him his inheritance. - patrios annos = patris annos ; cf. arbuteos fetus, v. 104.
149. virgo Astraea, the maid Astræa, goddess of justice. She took her place in the heavens as the constellation Virgo. — madentes terras, the earth reeking.
150. ultima caelestum : Astræa was the last of the gods to leave the earth. Formerly all the gods had dwelt on earth, but the depravity of man forced them to withdraw.
151-162. The Giants, sons of Earth and Heaven, attack the gods, but are defeated. From their blood springs a wicked race of men.
153. struxisse montes, piled the mountains.
155. Ossae: dat. instead of abl. with ex or de ($ 229; G. 347, R.; H. 386, 2).
156. corpora, i.e. of the giants.
162. scires, you might have known ($ 311, a; G. 258; H. 485); cf. putes, v. 242.
163. quae: refers to the depravity of man as described in the preceding lines. For the use of the relative, see § 180, f, 201, e; G. 610, R.; H. 453. — pater Saturnius, Jupiter.
164. facto recenti (abl. abs.), since the deed was recent. — vulgata (belonging to convivia), made known (spread abroad).
165. Lycaoniae, of Lycaon (cf. arbuteos fetus, v. 104). He had offered Jupiter human flesh to eat; see v. 210 and the following. — referens, revolving, thinking over.
166. animo (with concipit), in his soul. — dignas Jove, worthy of Jove, i.e. in accordance with his greatness. — iras (pl.); see note on otia, v. 100, and aconita, v. 147.
167. concilium, sc. deorum, senate.
169. Lactea, nominative in form, as being the simple name, a mere word, in no grammatical relation. This word, however, is in apposition with nomen.
170. hac, by this ($ 258, 8; G. 389; H. 420, 1, 3). - superis (dat.), for the gods. — magni Tonantis, of the great Thunderer, i.e. of Jupiter.
171. dextra laevaque (sc. parte), on the right and left ($ 258, f; G. 385, N.'; H. 425, 2).
172. celebrantur, are thronged. The figure is taken from the custom of Roman nobles, whose halls (atria) were visited in the morning by their clients and dependants.
173. plebs, i.e. the lower gods (di minorum gentium); opposed to potentes caelicolae clarique (cf. deorum nobilium, v. 171), the twelve great gods of Olympus (di majorum gentium). The gods are divided into classes like the people of Rome. — diversa locis, i.e. only the great