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Some Persons of good Sense are of Opinion, that the bare Competition between Charles and Francis, was more than sufficient for the Protestants to fupport themselves ; and that the Reason why Luther had succeeded better than many Reformers, his Predeceffors, was, because he made his Appearance under the favourable Auspices of those two great Princes thwarting one another, who favoured this new Sect alternately; and, when it was settled in Germany, it sent such Succours to the Calvinists in France, as were fufficient to enable them to keep their Ground.
Francis made a Regulation throughout his Dominions which deserves remarking, for he abolished the carrying on the Proceedings of Law in a different Language from that of his Kingdom, which had been to that Time in Latin ; * and this became fo much corrupted that it was scarce known but by the Terminations of the Words. Varillas, the Historian, observes, “ That Chancellor Payet had procured " this Reformation in the Proceedings a little before “ his Fall:” But Germany had been reformed in this Particular near three Centuries before ; for the Emperor, Rodolphus the Ist, moved by various Complaints of the German Empire, finding himself as it were under the Yoke of foreign Secretaries, whom he was forced to employ, to the great Prejudice of his Affairs, because they often betrayed him, held a Diet at Nuremberg, Anno 1252, in which it was enacted, Eee 2
* In like Manner the Laws of again carried on in Latin, which England were in the Old Nor. by Time was become as faulty man French, upon the coming as what Varillas had complained in of William, called the Con- of. This induced the Parliament, queror ; but afterwards the Pro- the Beginning of his present Maceedings of the Law were carried jesty King George IId's Reign, to on in Latin till the Time of the take the fame into Consideration, Grand Rebellion, when they were and an Act soon after passed, rendered into Englislı ; but no • That the Proceedings of the sooner did the Restoration take • Courts of Juitice in England Place, than the Proceedings were • Thould be carried on in English.
with the general Consent of all the States of the Empire, « That thenceforwards the German Lan
guage should be used in the Chancelleries, as well
as in publick Contracts." His Death King Francis paid his Debt to Naand Charac- ture the last Day of March, and Mag
nificence and State attended him to his 1547.
very Tomb ; his Funeral was made with extraordinary Pomp, no less than eleven Cardinals attending; and was buried at St. Dennis. He never had, says Miseray, “ His Parallel in Liberality,
, “ in Magnificence and Clemency; he would have been
a great Prince in all Things, had he not suffered “ himself to be prepossessed by the evil Counsel of « his Ministers, and his too great Passion towards “ Women.” Voltaire gives this Character of him and two of his Successors; “ The many Failings of “ Francis the Ist will be excused for the Sake of " the Arts and Sciences, of which he was the Fa“ther : Blest will be the Memory of Henry the IVth, “ who conquered his Kingdom, first by his Valour, “ and then by his Clemency ; the Generosity of “ Lewis the XIVth, in protecting these Arts, that “ had their Rise from Francis, will be ever ap
9 MEMOIRS of the EMPEROR
CHARLES the Vtb.
CERDINAND, Brother to Charles the Vth,
was elected King of the Romans at CoF
logn, on the Eve of Epiphany, in the Year
1531, and on the 11th of January was with great Solemnity crowned with the Silver Crown of Charlemain, kept as a great Relick. After the Solemnity was over the Emperor used all his Endeavours to unite the Christian Princes in a League against Soliman, called the Great Turk, whofe powerful Arms threatned all Europe. In the Year 1532 Soliman entered
The Turks in Hungary with a mighty Army, which
vade Hungary. was so effectually opposed by the Ger
1532. mans, that the Enemy made no material Progress, but returned to Conftantinople, and the Emperor set out for Italy: From whence, having setiled his Affairs in that Country, he took his Way through Pavia, and came to Genoa, where he was entertained in the Palace of Andrew Doria. At the Ines of Hieres he was presented with
The Emperor fresh Provisions by the General of the
lands in Spain: French Gallies, and in April, he landed
1533. safe at Barcelona.
The French King having married his Son, the Duke of Orleans, to Catherine de Medicis, the Pope's Niece, they had an Interview on the 6th of October 1533, at Marseilles. Every body judged this Interview would produce a bloody War, because the French King aimed at Milan, and the Pope ac Modena and other Places ; but the Emperor had no Mind to part with either of them; though, through
his my in Africa.
his continual Cares and Toils, grown old, yet was now but 33 Years of Age.
On the 25th of September, 1534, died Pope Clement dies. 1534•
Pope Clement the VIIIth at Rome, and Paul the IIId was succeeded the 4th of Qet. by the cleted Pope. Cardinal Fernefius, who took the Name
1535. of Paul the IIId.
Soliman, the Great Turk, having ravaged the Coasts of Italy, and actually got Poflession of Tunis, it induced the Emperor again to raise an Army, in order to oppose his Progress: Accordingly Charles went on board his Fleet with an Army of 20,000 Men, and The Emperor
landed in Africa, where he gave the beats the Ene- Great Turk Battle, on the 26th of July,
1536, and obtained fo signal a Victory,
that he was enabled to restore the Moorish Prince to his Throne. Then he marched to Tunis in compleat Order of Battle, but greatly fatigued with Heat and Thirst. Some Arabs being discovered upon certain Hills from Tunis, * (the Army having halted to gather
up all Stragglers) from which they could discover white Flags set up in the Castle; the Canon fired without Balls, no Enemy appeared, and no Man could guess at what they meant: But the Emperor proceeded with his Army to the Walls of the City, where he was met by some Citizens, who begged that the City might not be plundered, offering a great Sum of Money for a Ransom.
It * The City of Tunis contain- never a River, and only one ed 10,000 Houses, and in them Well, so that all the Houses above 50,000 Inhabitants ; it are supplied by Cifterns. Corn had three Suburbs, in one of is scarce by Reason of the Drywhich were 10,000 Inhabitants. ness of the Soil, and what they The Gates were 40 in Num- fow is watered by Trenches of Waber, though its Strength is but ter drawn from Wells. There are small, being fix Miles in Com- two Palaces in the City, one old pass, and for that Reaton but and the other new, and both well indifferently walled or fortifi- built; there are also 100 Mosques ed. Its Situation is upon the with five Towers each, the larger Bay opposite to Galeta, and but of which are very beautiful boch three Leagues from it. It has within and without.
geturns to Eu
It was very difficult to restrain the Soldiers, who had suffered much, and the Emperor Tunis plundergave no Answer to the Request, buted left the Soldiers to act at Discretion ; who, finding the Gates shut, though no body of fered any Opposition, broke them open, and fell immediately to work with such Cruelty, that they butchered above 10,000 Inhabitants without respect to Sex or Age. At last the Emperor went to the Castle, set the Captives at Liberty, and caused it to be proclaimed through the City,
" That no Man, upon Pain of Death, should presume to kill or take
any more Moors.” Above 18,000 Captives were taken in Tunis, and were so cheap, that a Slave was fold for ten Ducats, and near 20,000 Christians were delivered out of Captivity.
After the Emperor's Return from his The Emperor Expedition to Africa, in the Year 1537,
rope. a War broke out between him and the
1537. King of France, and in the mean time the Emperor of the Turks turned his Arms against Venice, which was carried on with various Success on both sides.
This Year proved more peaceable Pope Paul enthan the former Years, through the En- deavours to re
ftore Peace. deavours of Pope Paul the IIId, who
1538. used all his Interest to unite the Christian Princes against the Infidels, and had already entered into a League for that Purpose with the Emperor and the Venetians ; but, to make it yet stronger, wanted the King of France to come into it; which in Time he accomplished, by prevailing upon Charles and Francis to sign a Truce for ten Years, and it was proclaimed at Nice the 18th of Fune. This Year began with the Death
. of the Empress, (before which, besides dies,
1539. a great Eclipse of the Sun on the 8th of April, there appeared in the West a Comet for