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Some Perfons of good Senfe are of Opinion, that the bare Competition between Charles and Francis, was more than fufficient for the Proteftants to fupport themselves ; and that the Reason why Luther had fucceeded better than many Reformers, his Predeceffors, was, because he made his Appearance under the favourable Aufpices of those two great Princes thwarting one another, who favoured this new Sect alternately; and, when it was fettled in Germany, it fent fuch Succours to the Calvinifts in France, as were fufficient to enable them to keep their Ground.
Francis made a Regulation throughout his Dominions which deferves remarking, for he abolished the carrying on the Proceedings of Law in a different Language from that of his Kingdom, which had been to that Time in Latin ; and this became fo much corrupted that it was fcarce known but by the Terminations of the Words. Varillas, the Hiftorian, obferves, "That Chancellor Poyet had procured "this Reformation in the Proceedings a little before "his Fall:" But Germany had been reformed in this Particular near three Centuries before; for the Emperor, Rodolphus the Ift, moved by various Complaints of the German Empire, finding himself as it were under the Yoke of foreign Secretaries, whom he was forced to employ, to the great Prejudice of his Affairs, because they often betrayed him, held a Diet at Nuremberg, Anno 1252, in which it was enacted, Eee 2 with
with the general Confent of all the States of the Empire, "That thenceforwards the German Language fhould be used in the Chancelleries, as well as in publick Contracts."
King Francis paid his Debt to Naand Charac- ture the last Day of March, and Magnificence and State attended him to his 1547. very Tomb; his Funeral was made with extraordinary Pomp, no lefs than eleven Cardinals attending; and was buried at St. Dennis. He never had, fays Miferay, "His Parallel in Liberality, "in Magnificence and Clemency; he would have been
a great Prince in all Things, had he not fuffered "himself to be prepoffeffed by the evil Counsel of "his Ministers, and his too great Paffion towards "Women." Voltaire gives this Character of him and two of his Succeffors; "The many Failings of "Francis the Ift will be excufed for the Sake of "the Arts and Sciences, of which he was the Fa"ther: Bleft will be the Memory of Henry the IVth, "who conquered his Kingdom, first by his Valour, "and then by his Clemency; the Generofity of "Lewis the XIVth, in protecting thefe Arts, that "had their Rife from Francis, will be ever applauded."
MEMOIRS of the EMPEROR CHARLES the Vth.
ERDINAND, Brother to Charles the Vth, was elected King of the Romans at Cologn, on the Eve of Epiphany, in the Year 1531, and on the 11th of January was with great Solemnity crowned with the Silver Crown of Charlemain, kept as a great Relick. After the Solemnity was over the Emperor used all his Endeavours to unite the Chriftian Princes in a League against Soliman, called the Great Turk, whofe powerful Arms threatned all Europe.
The Turks invade Hungary.
In the Year 1532 Soliman entered Hungary with a mighty Army, which was fo effectually oppofed by the Germans, that the Enemy made no material Progrefs, but returned to Conftantinople, and the Emperor fet out for Italy: From whence, having fettled his Affairs in that Country, he took his Way through Pavia, and came to Genoa, where he was entertained in the Palace of Andrew Doria. At the Ifles of Hieres he was prefented with fresh Provisions by the General of the French Gallies, and in April, he landed fafe at Barcelona.
The Emperor lands in Spain:
The French King having married his Son, the Duke of Orleans, to Catherine de Medicis, the Pope's Niece, they had an Interview on the 6th of October 1533, at Marseilles. Every body judged this Interview would produce a bloody War, because the French King aimed at Milan, and the Pope at Modena and other Places; but the Emperor had no Mind to part with either of them; though, through
his continual Cares and Toils, grown old, yet was now but 33 Years of Age.
Paul the IIId elected Pope. 1535.
On the 25th of September, 1534, died Pope Clement the VIIIth at Rome, and was fucceeded the 4th of O. by the Cardinal Ferneftus, who took the Name of Paul the IIId.
Soliman, the Great Turk, having ravaged the Coafts of Italy, and actually got Poffeffion of Tunis, it induced the Emperor again to raise an Army, in order to oppose his Progrefs: Accordingly Charles went on board his Fleet with an Army of 20,000 Men, and
beats the Enemy in Africa. 1536.
landed in Africa, where he gave the Great Turk Battle, on the 26th of July, 1536, and obtained fo fignal a Victory,
that he was enabled to restore the Moorish Prince to his Throne. Then he marched to Tunis in compleat Order of Battle, but greatly fatigued with Heat and Thirft. Some Arabs being difcovered upon certain Hills from Tunis,* (the Army having halted to gather up all Stragglers) from which they could discover white Flags fet up in the Castle; the Canon fired without Balls, no Enemy appeared, and no Man could guefs at what they meant: But the Emperor proceeded with his Army to the Walls of the City, where he was met by fome Citizens, who begged that the City might not be plundered, offering a great Sum of Money for a Ranfom.
*The City of Tunis contained 10,000 Houses, and in them above 50,000 Inhabitants; it had three Suburbs, in one of which were 10,000 Inhabitants. The Gates were 40 in Number, though its Strength is but fmall, being fix Miles in Compafs, and for that Reafon but indifferently walled or fortified. Its Situation is upon the Bay oppofite to Galeta, and but three Leagues from it. It has
never a River, and only one Well, fo that all the Houses are fupplied by Cisterns. Corn is fcarce by Reason of the Drynefs of the Soil, and what they fow is watered by Trenches of Water drawn from Wells. There are two Palaces in the City, one old and the other new, and both well built; there are alfo 100 Mofques with five Towers each, the larger of which are very beautiful both within and without.
It was very difficult to restrain the Soldiers, who had fuffered much, and the Emperor Tunis plundergave no Answer to the Request, but ed. left the Soldiers to act at Discretion;
who, finding the Gates fhut, though no body of fered any Oppofition, broke them open, and fell immediately to work with fuch Cruelty, that they butchered above 10,000 Inhabitants without respect to Sex or Age. At laft the Emperor went to the Castle, fet the Captives at Liberty, and caufed it to be proclaimed through the City, "That no Man, upon Pain of Death, fhould prefume to kill or take any more Moors." Above 18,000 Captives were taken in Tunis, and were so cheap, that a Slave was fold for ten Ducats, and near 20,000 Chriftians were delivered out of Captivity.
After the Emperor's Return from his The Emperor Expedition to Africa, in the Year 1537,
a War broke out between him and the King of France, and in the mean time
returns to Eu
the Emperor of the Turks turned his Arms against Venice, which was carried on with various Succefs on both Sides.
Pope Paul en
deavours to reftore Peace.
This Year proved more peaceable than the former Years, through the Endeavours of Pope Paul the IIId, who ufed all his Intereft to unite the Chriftian Princes against the Infidels, and had already entered into a League for that Purpose with the Emperor and the Venetians; but, to make it yet stronger, wanted the King of France to come into it; which in Time he accomplished, by prevailing upon Charles and Francis to fign a Truce for ten Years, and it was proclaimed at Nice the 18th of June.
This Year began with the Death of the Empress, (before which, befides a great Eclipfe of the Sun on the 8th of April, there appeared in the Weft a
Comet for thirty