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deavoured to take; but, being suddenly attacked by the Duke of Norfolk, they were entirely routed, and, though Musgrave had the good Fortune to escape, Tilby and feventy-four others were taken and hanged on the Walls of Carlife.

Sir Francis Bigod and another with a Body of People attempted at the fame Time to furprize Hull; but their Leaders were made Prifoners, and soon after executed.

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"Thefe Proceedings fo angered the King, fays Rapin, that, notwithstanding he had granted a Par"don to thofe concerned in the first Yorkshire Rebellion, he caused to be executed the Lord D'Arcy, "Afke, and fix of the Family of Kildare, in order to strike a Terror into the Irish, they feeming at "this Time much inclinable to rebel: " But the youngest Son of the Earl of Kildare had the Luck to escape, and fled for Refuge to Cardinal Pole, who likewife under the King's high Displeasure.

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Afke, having left the Court without Leave, was taken, executed, and hanged in Chains; the Lord D'Arcy was beheaded on Tower-bill, the Lord Huffy at Lincoln, who was no lefs than eighty Years old; Sir Robert Conftable fuffered at Hull, Sir John Bulmer, Sir Thomas Percy, Sir Stephen Hamilton, Nicholas Weft, and William Kumley at Tyburn; and Margaret Cheney, alias Lady Bulmer, was burnt in Smithfield.

Prince Edward born,

and the Queen


On the 18th of Oct. Queen Jane died in Child-bed of Prince Edward, (afterwards King Edward the VIth) and for his Queen's Death the King expreffed great Concern, a new Love-fit being not yet come on him.

Pole educated
at the King's

His Majefty, having caufed his near Kinfman, Reginald Pole, to be educated in Corpus Chrifti College, Oxford, and made him Dean of Exeter, for his further Education fent him to study at Padua, and allowed


him a handsome Penfion: But no fooner did the King break with the Pope than Pole entered the Lift, and wrote a Book in Defence of his Holinefs, which fo chagrined his Majefty, that he fent to complain of it to his Mother in very fevere Terms, and at the same Time fent a Meffenger to command him to return to England. Upon this Pole's Mother wrote him a Letter, the Original of which is preferved in the Exchequer Record-office) and, as her Son did not comply with her Requeft, the King not only withdrew Condemned for the Penfion he allowed him, but also Treafon. got him condemned in Form for High Treafon.

Made a Cardinal.

After this he retired to a Venetian Monaftery, where he was treated with the greatest Refpect both by the Court of Rome and the Venetians, being made a Cardinal, after which he continued Abroad till the Death of Henry the VIIIth.

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Henry's bloo


It cannot be denied but in this King's Reign the Ground-work of the Reformation dy Reformawas laid, yet it must be owned, after Wolfey's Difgrace, it was ushered in by the Blood of many a fincere Heart. It was a common Thing to have Proteftants burned one Day for denying the real Prefence in the Sacrament, and the Papists hanged and quartered the next, for denying the King's Supremacy: Nay, at the fame Time and Place, that three Proteftant Divines fuffered the Torments of the merciless Fire, three Popish Doctors were hanged; which made a Frenchman cry out, Good God! how do the People make a Shift to live, where Papifts are hanged and Antipapists are burnt?

The King

turns Difpu


Baker relates, "That Mr. Lambert, being accused of denying the real Pre"fence in the Sacrament, appealed to "the King, who was content to hear him. Whereupon a Throne was fet up in the Hall of the Pa"lace at Westminster for his Majefty's Reception. "When the Bishops had urged their Arguments, and "could

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You writ of a Promife made ⚫ of you to God. Son, that was to ferve God and thy Prince, whom if thou do not ferve with all thy Wit, with all thy Power, I know thou cannot pleafe God, and your bounden Duty is fo to do above all other: For who has brought you up and maintained you to Learning but his Highness, whom if you will not with your Learning ferve, to the . Contentation of his Mind, as ⚫ your bounden Duty is, trust never in me; and that you may fo ferve his Highness, I fhall daily pray to give you Grace, and to make you his Servant, VOL. IV:


⚫elfe take you to his Mercy.'

Upon the Death of Pope Paul the IIId, Pole was at Midnight chofen to fucceed him, but he refused it, faying, It was a Work of Darkness; and the next Morning he found Julius the IIId in his Place. Queen Mary, upon her fucceeding to the Crown, got him preferred to be Archbishop of Canterbury, and then he returned to England: But he died the very fame Day Queen Mary did, November the 17th, 1558 and was generally filed, The modeft and learned Cardinal, and wrote feveral valuable Pieces now ex



"could not prevail, then the King took him in "Hand, hoping perhaps to have the Honour of con"verting an Heretick, when the Bishops could not "do it; and withal promifed him Pardon, if he would 66 recant: But all would not do, for he remained ob"ftinate; the King miffed his Honour, and the Delinquent his Pardon, being fhortly after drawn to 66 Smithfield, and burnt." Two others alfo were burnt for the fame Caufe much about the fame Time.


Preferments heaped on Cromwell. 1537.

It was now a Thing grown common for the King to raise Perfons up to great Honour, that their Fall might be the Cromwell was created a Ba


ron, next Lord Privy Seal, and Earl of Effex, Knt. of the Garter, Vice-regent-general of the King's Authority in Ecclefiaftical Affairs, fitting in Convocation among the Bishops, and ever prefiding over them; though he was a mighty Promoter of the ReThe Monafte formation, and, perceiving the King had ries fuppreffed. a mind to fupprefs all the Monasteries in general, (not fo much out of Zeal for Religion as for the Lucre of their Revenues) he countenanced him in it. As the King and his Minister found, from the Rebellions that had arifen on the Suppreffion of the leffer Monafteries, that the Nation was generally disturbed, though the King had got an Act of Parliament for what he had in View, Cromwell advifed his Majefty not to take that Way at first, but to proceed upon a general Vifitation of them. This being approved of, Commiffions iffued accordingly, and few were found fo guiltlefs as to dare to withstand their Proceedings, and the Licentioufnefs of the rest was fo artfully divulged, that at last they were every where rendered fo odious to the People, that never any Undertaking of fo great Confequence, and fo full of Hazard, was fo eafily accomplished, as his general Subverfion of our English Monafteries.


Cromwell further prevailed with the King to fupprefs the Worshipping of Images, whereby, he said, God was robbed of his due Honour, which the pious King would by no means fuffer; yet, on the other hand, nothing but Perfecutions were for fome time carried on against fuch as did not affent to the new Establishment; for this Year was principally employed in burning Proteftants and hanging Papifts, who refused complying therewith.

Marquis of

Exeter and others behead


The following Year our unhappy Country was likewife fprinkled with the Blood of feveral worthy Men, and the Marquis of Exeter, the Earl of Devonshire, and Lord Montacute, a Knight, with two Priests and a Mariner were condemned, and all executed for Treason; but Sir Geoffrey Pool found Means to obtain a Pardon, which was a Favour the King rarely granted to thofe that tranfgreffed his new Law.


Sir Nicholas

Carew be


The last Executions had not been over long before Sir Nicholas Carew, Knt. of the Garter, and one that had been a great Favourite with our Monarch, fuffered the unhappy Fate of the above Lords, being beheaded for Treason: And the next Man that fell a Victim to his Master's Paffion was Cromwell himself, though he continued to do every thing he thought would please the King.

Notwithstanding immenfe Sums had been brought into the King's Coffers from the Destruction of the Religious Houses, our open-fifted Prince did not keep it long there, for he was as lavish in fquandering it away, as he had been eager in having it collected; and, as the King conceived he had but little Occafion for Cromwell, he suffered him to be arrested at the Council-table, and carried to the Tower, to the great Rejoicing, fays a Perfon of Honour, of the Popish Party, and most of the Nobility, who hated him, becaufe, from a

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committed to the Tower.


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