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nnion, which was the object princi- open and ofte ble exercise of aupally required, could not be effect- thority over this meeting. This ed, while such a separation of inte- would have invalidated their prorests was suffered to exist. It would ceedings, and infringed the liberty open a door to perpetual variances, which France boafied, of having rewhich might eventually endanger stored to the Dutch, in too glaring a the very existence of the govern- manner, not to have excited their ment they were about to establish, murmurs and resentment. For hy breaking the principal bond of these reasons the directory affected unity on which it was to be found- every lentiment of respect for this ed. Alier a multiplicity of debates national convention of the United upon this fubje&, the importance of Provinces, and treated it with every a folid union of all the provinces, outward mark of their confidering into one common state, appeared it as the representative of an indefo indispensible, that it was unani- pendent nation. mously agreed to, on the first day of » But the regard fein, by France, December, 1796. To remove the to the republic of Holland, was objection that had principally stood meatured solely by the confideration in the way of this decision, a com- of its weight in the political scale, million of the most respectable mem- which, however deprested by circumbers of the convention was appoint- ftances, might still recover the level ed to examine and state the former of its former importance. The didebts of the refpective provinces, rectory did not extend the fame des and to consider of the inost equita- ference to the whom it deemed ble and satisfactory manner of liqui- more subjecie to its powei. This dating them, by providing for their was renarkably evinced in its' conextinction, and preserving,' at the duct towards Geneva. This file fame time, uninjured, the rights and republic had invariably tenainen interests of all the parties concerned aliached to the interesis of the rernin this liquidation

lation in France, ever since its first In all these transactions, the mem- brecking ont; ard had gone hand in bers of the Dutch convention were hand with it through all its viriaremarkably cautious in permitting tions. Relying on thele proofs of no visible interference in their deli- its fidelity, it now reqretied the dia berations on the part of the French reliery to confrm its inapendence, government. Its fecrct infuence by nahing it a clause in ite treaties was well knowlt; but the preserva- between France and her powers. tion of every form and external indi. But this request did not coincide cation of free lon, was judged indif- with the views of the direc'ory, pensible, in order to maintain the ap- which had, it secms, in contemplaparent dignity of the state, and, what tion the annexation of Gerei a to was of more consequence in the eye the dominion of France. of the difcerning, to prevent the france of this project, an intimation French themselves, at any fiture pe- was given to the Genevars, that riod, from pleading a right of inter- their interest would be better confitto fering, from any acknowledged pre- ed, and their freedom fecured, by be. cedent. The directory was also coming a part of the French republic. very careful in abstaining from all This intimation was highly alguit



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ing to the Generans; and the very circumscription of that ftate, means taken to bring them to com- made every member of it the more pliance, were still more offensive. fenfible of his personal weight in its Disturbances and bloodshed were affairs, and of the freedom which he indirectly either promoted or coun- enjoyed. To deprive him of the tenanced, by soine dark intrigues, fatisfaction, arising from such a situawith a view to make them fenfible tion, would be a wanton exertion of that the only remedy, for those do- the superior strength of the rupubmestic confusions, was to throw lic, which would redound much themselves into the arms of the more to its disgrace than benefit. French. But this attempt was not Stung with rage at a treatment which successful; nor even approved by they did not deserve, the citizens of numbers of the French themselves. Geneva would defert it, and carry They condemned it as manifesting to other countries that industry to an ambition incompatible with thole which alone it owed its flourishing principles of moderation, on which fituation during so many years. true republicans ought to value The mere posession of the place themselves, and which the French itself would prove a poor recomheld forth to Europe as the maxims pense for the expulsion of its inhaby which they had resolved to con- bitants, which, houverer indirećily duct themselves. Were Europe effected, would not be the less real. once convinced that the ancient In the mean while, they would exfystem of conquest and encroach- hibit, in the various places of their ment on the territories of its neigh- voluntary banishment, living proofs bours, which had rendered France of the ambition and tyranny of {o odious under the monarchy, were France. The nearest of its neighto be continued under the republic, bours would see their own destiny the neceility of self-defence would in that of those unhappy fugitives, gradually unite every country against and learn from thence the obligation it: in which case, notwithstanding they were under, of embracing one the brilliant career of its arms of these two alternatives; either of hitherto, patience and perseverance, submitting to the like treatment, or on the part of the numerous ene- of preparing manfully to relift it. mies that fo unjuflifiable a conduct of those who would be constrained would create, muft in the end pre- to adopt this resolution, the firft vail, and both the glory and cha- would be the Swiss, a people noted racter of integrity, at which the for ages on account of their love of French ought equally to aim in liberty, and of their astonishing their political proceedings, would atchievements in its defence. Such be forfeited.

a people, if united, France would In addition to these motives, for find a formidable enemy: nor was it abstaining from a forced incorpora- indeed to be fupposed, they would tion of Geneva with France, it was tamely behold the annexation of urged that the inhabitants of that Geneva to France, by compulsory city and its territory, though forming ineans, nor even by the voluntary but a Imall state, were so jealous of concellion of its inhabitants. They their independency, that they would were bound, in the former of these never consent to relign it. The cases, to allist them, and in the latter


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they would hardly permit such an extent, had obtained a highly-deser-, acquisition to France in so near a ved reputation throughout Europe, neighbourhood, and of fo dangerous by the industry and ingenuity of its a tendency, without seriously inter- inhabitants; and, more than all, by posing to prevent it. This, of the distinguished figure it had maincourle, must be attended with con- tained, and the high spirit it had disfequences of which the ultimate played, in those active and tema

issue could not be ascertained, but pestuous scenes that were produced - which would undoubtedly be pro- by the reformation. It had long ductive of many calamities. been considered as the original feat

Arguments of this nature were of calvinism, and the rival of Rome indiscriminately used by the Ge-' itself in matters of religion. Here nevans, the many French individu- the famous founder of that fect lived als that espoused their cause, and by and died, after having, by his unthose persons in Switzerland, who conquerable courage, laid the founforesaw the difficulties, wherein the dation of the most refolute associaHelvetic body must necessarily be tion of men that ever figured in involved, were the directory to per- modern ages. From the principles fist in so unequitable a project." It which he inculcated, arose that reforwas therefore abandoned: but the mation in religion which was grafted iniquitous ambition that had prompt- on republican maxims. Hence it ed it still remaining ungratified, was immediately adopted by all that fought a revenge for its dilappoint- aspired at freedom. It filled France ment, in the harni usage of the se- with the most intrepid aflerters of veral agents deputed from Geneva civil as well as religious rights. It to Paris, whom it ignominiously ex- spread into the low countries, where pelled from that city, on no other it erected the republic of Holland. pretence, than that they did not It made its way into England and come with those friendly views that Scotland, where it gradually animabecame the state which fent them. ted the inquisitive and daring spirits But the Genevans, undiscouraged of the last century in this country by this treatment, persevered unre to those researches into the nature mittingly in the determination to re- of government, and to those exermain a leparate state, and continued tions in the cause of national freeto labour with the more vigour in dom, which, had not fanaticism inimproving the government they had tervened, would probably have terestablished, when they found them- minated so happily for all parties. selves countenanced by the moderate Geneva, during the sixteenth and party in France, which, happily for seventeenth centuries, had been the them, was the most numerous. central point of communication be

The motives that were thought to tween the principal actors of this have actuated the directory in a high spirited party: Beza, a far tranfaction, from which they reaped greater character than Calvin, no finally fo little honour, were the de- lets inflexible, but much less austere, fire to signalize themselves by the added lustre and importance to this acquisition of a state, which, how- place, by his learning and many pyes incopfiderable in strength and other respectable qualities. He con



tinued like him, the oracle of his ments of knowledge and polite party, and was visited and consulted learning, that conduce to the utility by all the great champions it pro- and glory of a nation." ducd, both in arms and literature. Desirous of giving this revival of All these circumstances conferred a the encouragements, due to literaiu lenclour upon Geneva, that en- ture, all the folemnity of which it titled it to great diftinction. The was fusceptible, the directory apfirst kings and states in Europe, of pointed the fourth of April, 1796, the protestant persuasion, treated it for a public meeting of all the mem-unanimously with every mark of re- bers of the national institute, estafpect, and it continued on this ho- blised the preceding year, at the nourable footing even during the æra of the new conftitution. The reign of Lewis the fourteenth, who meeting was held in the largest hall strove several times in vain to subdue of the ancient palace of the Louvre. the spirit with which it refifted his All the literati, and all the men of attempts to influence its govern- genius and reputation in the polite ment. The annexation of fo cele- and liberal arts attended. The dibrated a state to the French empire rectory, the councils, and all persons appeared, to the directory, an object in the principal departments of

goworthy of their attention, and they vernment were present, together were 'feriously chagrined at their with the foreign ministers, and as failure.

many spectators as the ball could A compensation for their disap- contain. The purpose of the meetpointment offered itself, about the ing was formally announced, in a same time, in a province, wherein speech made by the president of the they might claim a better 'right to directory. France, he said, deexercise their ay, and from which livered from past miseries, had now both they, and their countrymen resolved to revive those arts, through would derive more honour and


the cultivation of which the nation fit. This was the province of sci. had risen to fo high a degree of reence and literature, that had re- putation, and commanded the remained neglected during the confu- spect of all Europe. It was the defions attending the antecedent peri- termination of government, to pay ods of the revolution. The them all the attention, and give 'ceflity of reviving the spirit of ge- them all the encouragement and renius, that had lain a while dormant, compense which they could possibly or had only been busied in the arts of claim from a free and enlightened destruction, roused at once the at. people. The president of the natention of government, and of the tional institute, citizen Dufauls, rewhole nation. The great numbers plied, in the name of his brethren, of literary men in France, exerted that they were all equally animated themielves, on this occasion, with the with the love of freedom, of knowmost ccomendable zeal. Setting ledge, and of arts; that they were atide all partialities, on religious and firmly attached to the republic from political accounts, they cordially principle, and the coniciousness that uniteri in prosecuting the plan pro- in the bofom of freedom all those poled by the ruling powers, for a re- great sentiments are generated and gular cultivation of all thosc depart- nurtured, that dignify human nature,



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