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simply the genitive. Or we may say something of this sort. 'Numitor felt his heart touched.' 'The youth felt his anger excited.' Observe that in all such uses the original idea of the dative is still preserved. Compassion touched the heart in Numitor.' So "tears in the woman,' line 89.

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12 Galeis. Such datives as these are commonly said to depend on the nouns rather than on the verbs: 'coverings for the helmets;' 'remedies for diseases.' Compare 'garrison for the camp,' 'help to the legions,' lines 99, 100. Yet there is no difficulty in taking them after the verb. Galeis is in the dative just like Achilli in line 74: morbis is like Vestæ in line 77, and castris (99) like filiis in line 36.

13 Lucro. This use of the dative quite accords with the original idea of the case. 'Set it down in the way of-in the light of—gain;' that is, 'set it down as gain.' So in the next line, 'I regarded it in the light of a warning.' See v. 10. V.

1 Cedit. In the last chapter we had to do with transitive verbs followed by the dative. In this chapter we have to do with intransitive verbs followed by the dative. But the construction in each as regards the dative is exactly the same, the action operating indirectly; that is, at, not to, the object. Such verbs we class as Verbs like Cedo 'yield,' Class II. They are called in the Primer, Trajective verbs, p. 135.

We have therefore now Four Classes of Verbs, as arranged in Int. 28.

2 Adjacet. It appears that most of the verbs in this class, as of those like do in Class III., are compounded of prepositions. But the prepositions have nothing to do with governing the case; the dative here, as always, being due to the sort of operation denoted by the verb.

3 Risere. In the last chapter (Iv. 10) we found that certain verbs, as facio 'make,' which seemed properly to fall under the same head as porto, were followed like do by a dative as well as an accusative. Just so in this chapter we have certain verbs followed by the dative, which would rather seem to require no case at all, and which should therefore rather fall under the same head as ambulo. It is quite enough to say, 'The parents smiled;' and so far rideo is like ambulo. But if we name the object on which they smiled; the object not moved, but affected by or interested in the smiling; the noun naming such object will be in the dative, and rideo will become like cedo. So in the next sentence niteo becomes like cedo, because the girl shines' or 'looks bright' in my eyes. In fact cedo itself, which commonly means 'yield,' and therefore seems to require a noun after it, was originally just like ambulo; meaning simply 'go slowly,' 'walk.' Marcus cedit, 'Marcus goes.' So far cedo is like ambulo: but it came to be used in a special sense. Marcus goes, and he goes at, or by the side of, Balbus. He does not go straight into, or against, Balbus; this would require the accusative: but he steps on one side, so that Balbus has nothing in his way; and this is marked by the dative. Hence Marcus cedit Balbo means 'Marcus yields to, or makes way for, Balbus.' Thus, if the verb is transitive, the action operates to an object: if intransitive, at an object.

From this it might appear that it is only necessary to have two classes of verbs; namely, intransitive verbs like ambulo, and transitive verbs like porto: and simply to add that, if any object has to be mentioned as in any way interested in the action denoted by such verbs without being moved thereby, the noun naming such object will be in the dative; standing alone, if it comes after a verb like ambulo; standing with a noun in the accusative, if it comes after a verb like porto. Still there is such an obvious difference between the action of walking and yielding on the one hand, and of carrying and giving on the other: that, for practical purposes, it is better to have the fourfold divisionambulo, cedo, porto, do: and the pupil should accustom himself, so far as he can, to refer the verbs he meets with to one or other of these four classes.

4 Parebit. We come now to a slight difficulty. So far English and Latin verbs have run together, but now they take different turns. By applying the test (a) we see that ambulo and 'walk' are alike. Neither need be followed by any noun at all, and therefore they are both intransitive, belonging to Class I. So porto and 'carry' are alike. Porto is followed by one noun in the accusative; 'carry' by one noun without a preposition: therefore they are both transitive, belonging to Class III. Similarly do and 'give' are alike, both belonging to Class IV. And cedo is like 'yield.' Cedo is followed by one noun in the dative; 'yield' by one noun with a preposition: therefore by the test they are both intransitive, belonging to Class II. But now comes the difference. The English for pareo is 'obey.' Pareo is followed by one noun in the dative; therefore it is intransitive, belonging to Class II., like cedo. But 'obey' is followed by a noun without a preposition: therefore it is transitive, belonging to Class III., like 'carry.'

The reason of this difference is not hard to find. It depends on the origin of verbs, and the sort of action denoted by them. Of the origin we will not speak at present, but the action may be explained thus. If the action is performed by the body, it is tolerably clear how it operates; but it is not equally clear, if the action is not one performed by the body. If I carry or kill Marcus, it is clear that I operate on him directly: but it may be doubted whether I operate thus, when I love, or please, or obey him. The action of carrying or killing passes straight into him, causing him to move: but it may be doubted whether the action of loving, pleasing, and obeying passes straight into him, causing motion; or operates round him, not causing motion. In other words, it may be doubted whether 'love,' 'please,' and 'obey' are transitive, or intransitive verbs: but there can be no doubt that 'carry' and 'kill' are transitive; just as there can be no doubt on the other hand that 'run' and 'walk' are intransitive. We need not therefore be surprised to find that the same action has been viewed differently by the Romans and the English; so that the verb denoting it is transitive in one language, intransitive in the other. To discover then how the action is viewed, we must apply the test. The English verb 'love' is followed by a noun without a preposition; the corresponding Latin verb amo is followed by a noun in the accusative; therefore both 'love' and amo are transitive. On the other hand, the English 'please' and obey' are found by the same test to be transitive; while the

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corresponding Latin verbs placeo and pareo are found to be intransitive. That is, the actions of pleasing and obeying are regarded in English as passing straight into the object, while by the Romans they were regarded as operating round it. And clearly the Romans had reason in thus regarding them. For if I please or obey a person, I do not act upon him in the same way as if I love him. The action is much less violent. Instead of acting so as to move him, I may rather be regarded as standing by his side and performing an action in which he is interested or concerned. And this feebler idea of action the Romans expressed by putting the nouns after such verbs in the dative case: that is, they made them intransitive.

While however it may be well for the pupil to accustom himself to think of the different actions denoted by verbs, all that is necessary for the present is that he should learn the following Rule. If a verb is followed in English by a noun without a preposition, the noun after the corresponding Latin verb will be in the accusative case, with certain exceptions which must be carefully committed to memory.

The First List of such exceptions is dealt with in this Chapter: see Pr. 104-109, and also App. p. 135. An imperfect list is given in Arnold's Henry, lesson 40, which however it may be convenient to learn for the sake of the help afforded by the rhymes. We may call them Verbs like Pareo in Class II. As far as the Latin goes, they are exactly like cedo; but they differ from cedo in this, that the corresponding English verb is transitive.

5 Nupsit. This is a good instance of the way in which a verb comes to have a dative case after it. Nubo means simply 'I veil myself:' but it came to be applied specially to a woman's putting on the bridal veil. Now in doing this she operates indirectly on the bridegroom, who is affected by or interested in the action. Hence the noun naming the bridegroom is in the dative, and Nubo means simply 'marry:' as Tullia nubit Marco, Tullia marries Marcus.'


Observe that Nubo only means 'marry' when applied to a woman, as the man did not put on a bridal veil. He led the woman to his house as his wife; and therefore duco uxorem or simply duco is the Latin for marry' when the action is performed by a man: as, Marcus ducit Tulliam, Marcus marries Tullia.'

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6 Ignoscent. This sentence shows the literal meaning of ignosco. The gods will not know this offence in your case,' that is, 'will forgive you this offence.' So far therefore ignosco is like do. But it is more commonly used without an accusative, the noun in the dative usually naming the person forgiven, as in line 52; though it is sometimes followed by a noun naming the thing forgiven in the dative, as in line 59.


7 Succurrit. Runs up to the aid of.' The object helped is not moved by the helper. Hence verbs meaning 'help' are followed by the dative, except juvo, which is followed by the accusative. Similarly verbs meaning 'order' are followed by the dative, except jubeo.

8 Vacat. Vaco means 'I am free.' If then I am free from all other pursuits, I have time for one particular pursuit: and on that pur

* 1 But originally" obey' in English, as of éir in French, was intransitive, being followed by the preposition 'to.' (Acts vii. 39.)

suit I operate indirectly, as it is affected by my being free; for it receives my whole attention. Hence vaco with the dative means 'pay attention to,'' study.'

9 Est mihi. See Rem. b. The dative denoting operation 'at,' est mihi liber means there is at, or by, me a book;' that is, 'I have a book.'

10 Cura.

This is commonly called the Double Dative, but the name has little meaning, as we have seen the same construction with only one dative (Iv. 13). Mihi ea res curæ est, and eam rem curæ habeo, mean the same, est mihi answering exactly to habeo; see note 9. Sometimes too it is called the Dative of End or Design; but it merely seems, in accordance with the primary idea of the Dative, to denote the state or sphere in which an object is placed. That matter is in the state, or in the light, of a care to me.' 'I hold it in the light of a care.' It may commonly be translated into English without any sign of a case at all: as, that matter is a great care to me.' So, es honori rei-publicæ, 'you are a credit to your country.'


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1 Est. There are two distinct uses of the verb sum. a. Sum denotes positive existence or being: as, Deus est,' God exists;' tempus aut est aut non est,' time either is or is not;' flumen est Arar, there is a river called Arar;' dum ero, 'as long as I live;' and so In this sense it is called the substantive verb.


b. Sum is also used, without any verbal force, simply as a copula; that is, to couple two words together: as, homo est bonus, 'the man is good;' aqua est calida, 'the water is hot.' In this sense therefore it is called the copula.

In the last chapter we had sum as a substantive verb: as, est mihi liber, a book exists by me,' 'I have a book,' 82: ea res est mihi cura, that thing exists in my eyes in the light of a care,' 105; and so on. In this chapter we have sum as a copula.

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2 Carus. These adjectives are among adjectives what verbs like cedo are among intransitive verbs. Just as verbs like cedo differ from verbs like ambulo in requiring a noun after them to complete the sense, so do adjectives like carus 'dear' differ from adjectives like longus long.' And further; just as a verb like niteo'shine,' which comes naturally under verbs like ambulo, may be followed by a dative, and therefore come under verbs like cedo: so adjectives like pulcher beautiful,' which are naturally like longus long,' may be followed by a dative and therefore come under carus 'dear.' We can say, puella est pulchra, the girl is beautiful:' or, puella est pulchra mihi,' the girl is beautiful in my eyes.' In other words, just as we found we might include cedo under ambulo (v. 3), so we may group all adjectives together in one class, simply adding that, if the quality denoted by the adjective can be conceived as operating on or in, or as affecting, some object, then we may expect the adjective to be followed by the dative.

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Adjectives like carus are in the Primer called Trajective (104 and p. 135).

3 Complement. See Int. 30. In the sentence, 'The good man died,' 'good' is an epithet, as in Ch. III. In the sentence,The man is good,' 'good' is a complement, as in this chapter.


1 Genitive. For the Genitive see Int. 9, 10 and 22, 23. It there appears that the idea of Possession follows naturally from the primary idea of 'motion from;' because the object, from which another object comes out, has possessed that object. It also appears that in common use the Ablative has taken from the Genitive all the work connected with the primary idea of motion from,' leaving it only the secondary work connected with 'possession:' so that if an object can in any way be conceived as possessing another object, we may expect its noun to be in the genitive case. Still in most cases of the genitive the original idea of motion from' may be readily traced.

2 Actively. The same words Galba amor may mean either 'love felt by Galba,' or 'love felt for Galba.' When they mean 'love felt by Galba,' Galbe is in the genitive of the active possessor, just like pueri. Galba possesses the love actively; for, as he feels it, he acts; just as the boy possesses the letter actively, for he writes it. This is commonly called the Subjective genitive (Pr. 127).

3 Passively. When the words Galba amor mean 'love felt for Galba,' Galba is in the genitive of the passive possessor, just like lucri. Galba possesses the love passively, for he does not feel it, but it is felt for him: just as the desire is felt for gain. This is commonly called the Objective genitive (Pr. 432).

4 Partitively. The whole clearly possesses the part. Whenever therefore an object can be conceived as in any way containing another object, its noun may be in the genitive case: as in the expressions major Neronum, the elder of the Neros;' uterque nostrum, each of us two;' and the like. This is commonly called the Partitive genitive.

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5 Labieni. In this and the following sentences we have instances of the genitive of the active possessor. Labienus writes the letter; Polycletus makes the statues; the women make the complaints, and so on. This is the simplest and genuine use of the genitive, the idea of motion from' being plainly seen. The letter comes from Labienus, the statues from Polycletus, the complaints from the women, and so on. It is most like our English genitive, being commonly rendered by help of 's' with the apostrophe; as 'the boy's letter,' the artist's picture,' and so on.

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6 Cæsaris. In this genitive there is simply the secondary idea of possession, the primary idea of 'motion from' being almost entirely lost. But we include under the genitive of the active possessor all simple kinds of possession, even though it does not appear that the possessor acts, provided only it be clear that he is not acted upon: as, Cæsaris horti, 'Cæsar's gardens;' pueri soror, the boy's sister,' and the like. Cæsar holds the gardens, the boy holds his sister, among his possessions or belongings, and therefore their nouns are in the genitive case.

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7 Gloria. In this and the following sentences we have instances of the genitive of the passive possessor. The glory does not possess the desire as a feeling or belonging of its own, but has the desire felt for it by some other object. So in 34 the love is felt for the girl, not by the girl. And in 35 the grandsons do not entertain themselves the recollection, but have the recollection entertained of them by Numitor. And in 36 it is not the Sabine women who do the wrong, but the wrong is done to them.

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