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Effects expečed in France from a growing Spirit of Moderation.—The Chief Objeć in the Councils of France, how to Break or to Heaken the Power of England.—Plan of the French for that End.—Means for Restoring the Pecuniary Credit of the French Republic.—1 Rupture threatened between the French Councils and Executive Directory.—Prevented by the necessity of their aching in Concert.—The Legislature Invade the Province of the Directory, by the Appointment of a Committee for judging in Cases of Appeals from Emigrants.--Loftiness of the 19;rectory.—Humbled by the Wise Economy and Firmness of the United States of America.-Jeadousies and Disputer between the French and Americans.—And an open

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TH: spirit of lenity that seemed
to have arisen, and been not-
rished by the new constitution, be-
gan to operate powerfully in its
favour, and to gain it daily fresh
adherents. The people in France
appeared in general extremely
willing to support it, hoping that
the period of internal confusions
would thereby be accelerated, and
that the European powers leagued
against them, when they found that
unanimity was re-established among
the French, would cease to prose-
cute the war for the restoration of
the house of Bourbon to the throne
of France, against the manifest will
of the nation.
The heads of the republic were
now deeply occupied in the con-
certing of means to counteract the
measures of that power, on the in-
defatigable efforts of which all the
others depended for the support of
their own. It was with unfeigned
mortification that France Deheld

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French, is incontestible, from the various publications of the time, and no less from that remarkable anxiety with which their rulers ...d every subject relating to England. How to compass its depression was the chief object of their councils; and every fortunate event that befel them, in their numerous enterprizes, employed their confideration in what manner to convert it to the detriment of England. Among the various means of obtaining that important end, the annoyance of the English maritime commerce, had long been tried, certainly not without some degree of success: but in no degree sufficient to weaken the naval power of England, which continued to rule the seas in every quarter of the globe, with irresistible sway. It was indeed from this very circumstance, that France derived a multiplicity of arguments in its manifestos and exhortations, both to its own people, and to the other nations of Europe. Their tendency was to prove, that England was the tyrant of the sea, and that all the European powers were interested in repressing that tyranny. To effect this, they ought to unite cordially with France, and second its endeavours to restore the freedom of the seas, by abridging, through every means in their power, the commercial resources of England. The actual strength of its navy was so great, that it could not at present be opposed with much hope of success: §. other methods might be used not less effectual in their ultimate issue, and these were in the option of every state. That the power which commanded the seas, commanded also the shores, and that naval power was of more importance than dominion at land,

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But the Dutch conve; on was di

rected to publish a counter proclamation, prohibiting the importation of goods from England, under fevere penalties; and enjoining the people of the united provinces to renounce all commerce with a nation that had treated them so inimically, and whose intentions were to deprive the Dutch republic of its trade, after depriving it of its ancient freedom, by the forcible establishment of a stadtholder. Having expelled a sovereign imposed upon them against their consent, they were bound in duty and honour to refuse all connections with those, who were endeavouring to subjećt them again to his yoke. A similar prohibition of English manufactures had taken place in France, during the administration of Roberspierre, and had for some time been strickly enforced. But

commerce with England, had

[167

the advantages resulting from a gradually superseded the fear of offending against this prohibition; and it was little attended to at this time. A weighty motive for not enforcing it was, the necessity of giving vent to the cargoes of i. Fuglish ves. sels captured by the French privateers. But after the government in Holland had come to the determination of sorbidding the entry of English goods, it thought itself the better entitled to require the adoption of the like o in France, as Holland, in adopting it, had complied with the requisition of the French government. This appeared fo .. a mode of reasoning, that the directory, however, disinclined to compliance, found it§ under the necessity of giving satisfaction to the Dutch confederates, who were so determined as to admit of no denial, that they threatened to rescind their resolutions, unless the same were taken by the French government. The regulations proposed on this occasion were very severe; they not only prohibited the importation of English merchandize in future, but ordained the re-exportation of what had been imported. Harsh methods were, at the same time, adopted to secure the observance of these regulations ; and though they were unacceptable to multitudes, so intent was the legislature on diminishing the resources of England, that the prohibitory decree, together with the heavy penalties annexed to its infringement, was carried by a large majority. Great were the expectations of the enemies to England, that this exclusion of its merchandize and [M 4 J manufactures

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