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live here; locis is abl. of specification ($ 253; G. 397; H. 424). -- a fronte, in front, as one goes up the street ($ 260, 6;G. 390, 2, N.6 ; H. 434, 1).

174. penates = households.

176. Palatia: this word had not yet acquired its modern meaning of palace, but meant the dwelling of

Fig. 1. Augustus, on the Palatine hill. Augustus is thus, by a daring flattery (audacia), compared with the king of the gods. dixisse: the perfect does not differ in sense from the present, and seems to be used in great part on account of its metrical convenience.

177. recessu, an interior apartment (abl. without in, $ 258, f; G. 385, N.?; H. 425, ii. 2, N.3).

178. ipse, by a common and natural usage the king or chief, as in ipse dixit, he said it himself (Pythagoras). - loco: cf. locis, 173. — sceptro, abl. ($ 254, b; G. 401, N.ß ; H. 425, I, I, note). (See Fig. 1.)

180. cum qua, together with which, i.e. and at the same time.

Jupiter. 181. ora . . . solvit, opened his angry lips. Fig. 2.

182. illa tempestate, at that crisis.

184. inicere, the proper spelling of injicere. The compounds of jacio, which change a into i, lose the j before the i. —anguipedum, limiting quisque. The Giants

were repre. sented with bodies terminating in serpents (see Fig. 2): they are here confounded with the

“ hun

dred - handed” (centum Jupiter and the Giants.

bracchia) Cottus, Briareus, and Gyas, who were brothers of the Titans, but aided Jupiter against the

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Fig. 3.

rebellious deities (see Iliad, i. 399–406). — caelo, dative, following ini. cere; to cast their hundred hands upon the captive sky.

185. ab uno corpore, from a single class (of divinities), contrasted with the present rebellion of the whole human race.

187. quā, wherever. - Nereus, an ancient sea divinity, especially associated with the calm depths: here put for the sea.

188. per, in oaths and prayers, by. — flumina: pl. for sing.

189. Stygio luco (loc. abl.) in the grove of Styx (“Gloom ”), the river which bounds the entrance to the world below. The oath by the Styx was the most awful and binding that could be taken by the gods.

190. cuncta

all other means. temptata, SC. sunt. 191. ne

trahatur, lest the sound (lit. clean) part be drawn [into the same disease].

193. fauniquē: the enclitic -que is here used as long in imitation of Homer, who makes the Greek te long. It is probably made so by the pause at the end of the word, or, as it is sometimes called, by cæsura. This occurs generally in the second foot of the verse, and only when a second -que follows. The Fauni and Silvani — Italian nature divinities

- are here joined with the Greek Satyrs. They were fabulous creatures, types of the wild life of the forest. They are represented, like the Greek Pan, with horns, goats' legs and feet, and pointed

hairy ears. (See Fig. 3.) 194. quos quoniam: the Latin relative is often used where our idiom requires the demonstrative and some connective particle ($ 201, e; G. 610; H. 453). — dignamur, deem worthy. — honore, governed by dignamur, which like its primitive dignus takes the ablative ($ 245, a; G. 397, N.2; H. 421, iii. n.2).

195. certe, at least. — sinamus, hortatory subjunctive.

196. an, very commonly used in argumentative questions, as here, where the thing asked is obviously absurd. - illos, opposed to mihi.

197. mihi, against me, following struxerit ($ 229, C; G. 358 ; H. 385, 4, 3). — qui habeo, $ 204, a; G. 614; H. 445. —struxerit ($ 326; G. 586; H. 517).

199. ausum ... deposcunt, they demand (for vengeance) him who has dared such things. A regular meaning of deposco. The use of the participle for a relative clause is forced and poetic.

200. saevīt, for saeviit. Notice the indicative with cum, used to



define the time of the main clause, not to describe its circumstances ($ 323; G. 580; H. 521, i.).

201. Caesareo: equivalent to Caesaris ($ 190; G. 362, R.!; H. 395, N.2). —exstinguere, put out like a fire; hence destroy; sanguine Caesareo is therefore the instrumental abl.

202. attonitum est, was thunderstruck.

204. tuorum, thine own. By a pleasant fiction, the subjects of Augustus's empire are spoken of as his kindred or friends. — pietas, filial affection.

205. illa, the pietas, expressed by the eagerness of the gods, v. 199. 206. silentia: pl. for sing. ($ 79, d; G. 204, N.S; H. 130, 3).

207. regentis : the use of the participle in the singular as a noun is poetic, though the language is very capricious in its use of participles as nouns. — quidem (concessive), it is true, i.e. there is no need of your being alarmed to be sure, but I will tell the story to gratify your curiosity.

210. admissum, thing done, i.e. crime; sc. sit.
211. infamia, evil report.
212. falsam, predicative, i.e. equivalent to falsam esse.

213. deus (appos.), I, a god. Notice how it is purposely set next to humana for contrast. — lustro, survey. The word is primarily used of a priest who "lustrates” or purifies by going about with a ceremonial the company of worshippers; then of an officer who surveys or reviews the ranks of his troops.

214. est, would be ($ 311, c; G. 254, R.?; H. 511). — noxae, partitive genitive (§ 216, a, 3; G. 369; H. 397, 3).

215. vero, than the truth.

216. Maenala, a mountain in Southern Arcadia, fabled as the dwelling-place of nymphs and satyrs. — latebris, abl. of specification (§ 253; G. 397; H. 424).

217. Cyllene and Lycaeus, mountains of Arcadia.

218. Arcadós, gen. agreeing with tyranni (Greek form as shown by the short ő, requiring the nom. Arcas). As Latin poetry is imitated and translated from Greek, such forms, especially of proper names, are common.

222. deus ... an mortalis, (whether] god or mortal ($ 211, a; G. 458; H. 353, 2). — discrimine aperto, by a plain test.

225. haec illi, spoken with scorn, as if he said, “ That's his idea of a test of truth.”

226. eo, abl. with contentus ($ 254, b, 2; G. 401, N.6; H. 421, iii.). – missi agrees with obsidis unius.

227. unius, here simply a. The force of unus is sometimes weakened (as is that of quidam) until it becomes little more than an indefinite article.

In the same way the demonstrative pronouns are often used for the definite article.

228. ita, i.e. just as he was, with his throat cut. — partim, not partly, but a part of, etc. semineces, half dead, i.e. not yet thoroughly cold in death.

230. simal (= simul ac), as soon as. vindice flamma, avenging flame, i.e. the thunderbolt.

231. dignos, i.e. because they did not prevent the crime.

232. territus fugit, etc.: this transformation to a wolf is suggested perhaps by the name Lycaon (Greek Núxos). It corresponds with the wild superstition of the were-wolf, which makes the subject of many old popular tales. The name lycanthropy is given to a particular form of madness connected with this superstition. “In 1600, multitudes were attacked with the disease in the Jura, emulated the destructive habits of the wolf, murdered and devoured children, howled, walked on all-fours, so that the palms of the hands became hard and horny; and admitted that they congregated in the mountains for a sort of cannibal or devil's Sabbath. Six hundred persons were executed on their own confession.” — Chambers's Encyclopædia. Many notices of this superstition are found in ancient writers of many nations, especially in connection with Arcadia, a pastoral and forest country, where the inhabitants suffered greatly from wolves.

233. ab ipso, i.e. from his natural character, needing no transformation. The allusion is to foam at the mouth.

235. sanguine, abl. of cause ($ 245; G. 408; H. 416).
236. abeunt, pass.
239. idem=iidem.

240. perire: what construction would be usual in prose? ($ 320, f; G. 552, R.2; H. 503, ii. 2).

241. Erinys, properly the Greek name of the divinity that inflicts vengeance for violated law, but here signifying the instigator of crime (Virg. Æn. vii. 324).

242. putes, you might suppose; cf. scires, v. 162 ($ 311, a; n.1; G. 257; H. 485). — jurasse, sc. homines. — dent=let them pay ($ 226; G. 263, 3; H. 483). — ocius, § 93, a.

243. stat, is fixed. 244. frementi, sc. ei.

245. partes, their part, as members of the council. — adiciunt, i.e. they spur him already excited. — assensibus, opposed to voce, the first part made speeches, the second only assented (assentior), as was the custom in the Roman Senate.

246. jactura, destruction : the image is from the casting of goods overboard in a storm at sea. - dolori ($ 233; G. 356; H. 390), a cause of grief.

247. mortalibus (abl. of separation) orbae, bereft of men. 249. populandas, $ 294, d; G. 430; H. 544, 2, N.2

250. quaerentes, sc, eos, object of vetat. — enim : he forbids them to tremble, for the rest she says) shall be his care. - - sibi, emphatic.

251. superum for superorum, $ 40, e; G. 33, R.4; H. 52, 3. 254. sacer, i.e. as the abode of the gods.

256. adfore tempus, etc., subj. of esse, following reminiscitur. in fatis : the Destinies were above the gods themselves.

257. correpta, sc. flammis.

258. mundi moles operosa, the fabric of the world wrought with toil. — laboret, be endangered. The doctrine, perhaps borrowed from the East, belongs to the stories of periodic conflagrations of the world.

259. manibus with fabricata. The thunderbolts, Jupiter's weapons, were forged by the Cyclops.

262. Æoliis antris, the caves of Æolus. (Compare Virg. Æn. ii. 52–63.) - aquilonem: the north-west wind, bringing (in Italy) cold and dry weather.

265. tectus vultum, wrapping his face ($ 240, C, N.; G. 338, 1; H. 378).

266. canis capillis : the poets often use the abl. without a preposition to denote the place whence.

267. fronte: the simple abl. instead of the abl. with in. — sinus, folds, or rounded outline of the clouds, which represent his garments.

268. nubila, mists; nimbi, storm-clouds. - ut ... pressit: the ancients thought that thunder was caused by the clashing of the clouds.

270. colores: $ 240, C, N.; G. 338, N.2 ; H. 378.

271. Iris, the goddess of the rainbow, was the messenger of Juno. alimenta nubibus adfert: as if the rainbow were a pathway for the waters. (Compare “ the sun drawing water.”)

273. vota, i.e. the crops, object of their vows.

274. caelo suo: the heavens were the especial realm of Jupiter. Abl. after contenta ($ 254, b, 2; G. 401, N.6; H. 424).

275. caeruleus frater, Neptune, called caeruleus because he is god of the dark blue sea. (See Fig. 4.)

277. hortamine: abl. after utendum.

279. domos, i.e. the hollows and clefts which are the home of the waters. — mole, dike.

280. totas ... habenas, let loose all the reins, as if the streams were horses, and the water-gods their drivers.

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