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and a warm purge. Slimy stools, with an absorbent earths, merely becanse of suck appearance of hiccup, should be treated curdled regurgitations. The regurgitation with magnesia and other absorbents, warm- is usually - the simple effect of superabuned by the addition of a little grated nnt- dance, and the curdled appearance a proof meg. White and clayey stools are best cor. of healthy digestion. The stimulus of superrected by a drop or two of the water of abundance in infancy, as well as in the other kali, mixed with the preceding aperients. stages of life, frequently excites hiccup; an A soap clyster will likewise be useful if the affection peculiarly useful to infants, as the complaint be attended with much gríping; action hereby produced enables the stomach nor is some light cordial to be withheld; and to discharge its contents both through the fomenting the belly with a little warm mouth and into the duodenum. But if the brandy, or a decoction of camomile-flowers regurgitated food be not only curdled. but and white poppy-beads, will be a great as evince an acid smell, and especially if the sistance to the other parts of the treatment. breath itself betray such a smell indepen
Wherever purgative medicines are used dently of regurgitation, we have then a suffor children, the form of compounding them ficient proof of the existence of acidity in is a material circumstance. They should the stomach from one of the two causes always possess the addition of aromatics, now enumerated, and should apply ourselves especially those of the carminative kind, as to remedy it. a little ginger, pounded cardamum seeds, The first point is to get rid of the acid, or dill or aniseed water. The pain is hereby other irritating matter, that actually exists relieved, the healthy action of the mouths in the intestinal canal; and the second is of the lacteals renewed, and the morbid ir. to prevent the formation of fresh matter of ritation of the secernents of the intestines the same kind. The former intention is dininished.
best accomplished by aperients; and of all Improper food is the common cause of aperients by calomel; either alone, or in infantile diarrhæas: either an acetous fer. conjunction with small doses of rhubarb : mentation is excited in the stomach, or the the latter by changing the nature of the gastric juice is changed in its nature, and morbid action of the secernents of the stosecrets an acid of its own. Other derange. mach or intestines, and recovering them to ments of the bowels may proceed from the their accustomed secretions. This is best use of improper diet; but acidity from one produced by gentle stimulants, as dill, anior other of these causes is the common ef- seed, or cinnamon-water, and especially sal fect. The chief proof of acidity is in the volatile, of which two or three drops may green colour of the evacuations; these are be given at a dose, and which answers the at the same time usually accompanied with double purpose of a stimulant, and a cor. pain, and watery in their consistence. If rector of acidity. If the former be emthe pain be extreme, the legs rigidly drawn ployed, they should be combined with magup towards the belly, and the ejections small Desia, chalk, or other absorbent earths, or in quantity, but very frequent, and a mere the aromatic confection, which is an excelwatery discharge, or intermixed with slime, lent preparation for this purpose. or mucus alone, the disease is then called The use of opiates, after the removal of watery gripes. This, however, is a com the peccant matter, may often prove highly plaint of the lower and larger intestines ra serviceable; but it requires a skill se delither than of the stomach or digestion itself, cate, and a judgment so practised, to deterand of course evinces less proof of acidity, mine the time, and apportion the dose, that which is peculiarly dependent upon the we dare not recommend opium in any shape stomach.
as a domestic medicine: it should be alone Acidity is also said to be evinced by the administered under the advice of a judicious regurgitation of curdled milk; but this is practitioner. not strictly correct. The milk of all ani Flatulence, or wind, is rather a symptom mals is curdled, in a state of the most per- of disease than a disease in itself. It is an fect health, before it becomes digested, or attendant upon all the complaints we have rather perhaps during the very process of just noticed, and as it commenced so it will digestion. We cannot now enter into the terminate with them. Yet though a mere question, why this change should be neces- synptom, it is often found so troublesome, sary: it is enough to state it to be a fact, whatever be the disorder or state of the and to caution the mother against loading bowels on which it is dependant, as to rethe stomach of her child with aperients or quire specific attention. And bere, in con
junction with the tribe of cordial stimulants for a week or two. It is commonly without just enumerated, we would strenuously ad- fever, which only supervenes in its provise the application of warm, stimulating gress, in the same manner as hectic fever is liniments to the belly, which should be produced in other cases, from the increasing rubbed over it with easy, but long repeated debility of the system. Care shonld be friction; for the friction of a warm hand taken that the child do not ca.ch cold. alone is serviceable, and usually affords pal The chief source of this disease seems to pable relief even in a short time. If it dò be indigestion, from whatever cause it may not yield to this plan, injections of a de. be produced; and therefore bad milk, uncoction of chamomile Aowers withr a little wholesome food, or even weakness of the ginger, or a few cardamum seeds should stomach itself, are sufficient to produce it. conjoin, and be repeated daily. Here also, These causes evidently give rise to acrias in the case of simple acidity, the food mony, which particularly affects the small should be changed if the child be weaned; glands of the membrane lining the stomach and even in extreme cases, if he be not and bowels. Hence, on the principle of weaned, provided there be sufficient sus relaxation of these organs, a tea-spoonful of picion that the milk of the nurse or mother, cold water, taken every morning, has been how well soever it may stand the test of reckoned a useful preventive ; and this examination, be the productive cause. joined with a due attention to the excre
When diarrhæas proceed from a moist tions will often fully succeed. unwholesome atmosphere; or from a sud The principle of care in this disease is den suppression of any cutaneous eruption; simple and plain. The state of the bowels it follows, without further instruction, that is the cause ; and this state is, at the same the only chance of removing the complaint time, attended with a certain degree of is, in the first instance, by removing the acrimony. The first step, therefore, is to child into a healthier atmosphere; and in open the bowels, where costiveness prethe second, by exciting the skin to a new vails, by means of any of the laxatives enuefflorescence.
merated in the preceding diseases. The Another disorder, and frequently a very antimonial wine has been particularly preserious one, originating from a deranged ferred by some physicians ; and then cor. state of the first passages, is thrush. That recting the acrimony by means of any of the it arises hence there can be no doubt, as it testacious or shell powders, or which is bet. has been known to seize every infant in a ter, common magnesia. Where the bowels family, in which mismanagement or a want are already in a loose state, instead of the of attention to them took place, from acci- above practice, as the child is generally dental causes ; and to disappear as soon as weakly, two or three grains of the com- : the proper attention was resumed. It is pound powder of contreyerva may be adevidently a disease of debility, connected ministered ; and, as the disease declines, a with a predominant acidity, by the conti- little rhubarb should be superadded, which nuance of which the complaint is aggravated. will strengthen the bowels by its astringenIt generally takes place in the first month, cy, and at the same time correct their acribut may be entirely avoided under proper mony. When the disorder is removed, the treatment.
child's health will be restored by some tonic This complaint first appears in the corners or strengthening remedies, as a tea spoonful of the lips, spreading over the tongue and of camomile tea, or a few drops of the comcheeks, in the form of little white specks. pound tincture of gentian, 'well diluted. Increasing in number and size, they run These medicines should be given two or more or less together, according to their three times a day, the bowels krpt regularmalignancy, and compose a thin white ly open, and the testacions powder not crust, which at last extends over the whole entirely' relinquished, but occasionally adinside of the mouth, from the lips to the gul- ministered. Where the disease appears let, and even the stomach itself, and reaches very malignant, instead of the bitters reat times through the whole length of the commended, a decoction of the bark, with intestines, producing a redness at the funda- the aromatic confection will be preferable. ment. When this crust falls off, it is suc In the use of absorbents, or testaceous ceeded by others, often of a darker colour; powders, the dose cannot be precisely reand the same appearance successively recurs gulated, but must be increased or dimitill the disease depart.
nished according to the effects. Three or It is sometimes preceded by sleepiness four grains may be given, three or four
times in the day; and when these medicines like small pin leads, of a pearl colour, and are employed, the diet of the nurse should not transparent. Yet whatever be its apalso claim an attention, and her usual quan. pearance, it is evidently the effect of intestity of malt liquor be diminished.
tinal acriniony, connected with the delicate Besides this general treatment of thrush, state of the skin, and determination of die it has been also common to make applica- blood towards it. Hence all that is wanted tions to the part, in order to lasten the ex- is an attention to the state of the bowels, foliation or scaling, of the surface. Such and the use of testaceous powders in con applications, however, are highly improper, junction with cordials or antimonials; on the first attack of the disease, or till na while the child should be kept moderateig ture shows an actual disposition or tendency warm, that the eruption may not be supto this separation. By beginning with such pressed. applications too early, they only increase It may be observed here, that the state of the soreness of the surface, and by rudely the bowels and skin have a sympathetie clearing it of the aphthous matter, give a coupection, and the bowels, when disorderdeceitful appearance of amendment. It is ed, are sensibly relieved by an appearance proper, however, that the child's mouth of eruption on the skin. Hence such erupshould at all times be kept clean, particu- tions, instead of being suddenly repelled, larly if much foulness prevail, and there be should rather be encouraged, and even, if an appearance of thick sloughs. Of the se- disappearing, should be invited to return. veral preparations that have been used for The next variety of rashes or papulous this purpose, borax has gained a decided eruptions worthy our attention are those preference ; and it may be mixed up with denominated milk-blotches, crusta lactea, sugar, in the proportion of one part of the or strophulus volaticus, by authors; some of former to seven of the latter. A small por. whom, however, conteud that the eruptions tion of this composition may be put on the under these names have a triping difference child's tongue, which will dissolve and be from each other. It may be so: but the conveyed to the other parts of thie mouth; difference is not worth pointing oat at preor it may be made up into a paste with sent, It generally occurs in infants of an honey, which is a better form. No violent irritable skin, and appears most commonly rubbing of the parts affected should ever be on the forehead, and the scalp, extending allowed to take place; as it will both give half-way over the face, in the form of large unnecessary pain to the child, and extend loose scabs. In the progress of the disorder, the duration of the disease, by producing a these scabs mueh resemble the small-bus new growth of the same morbid spots on when blackened, and at tines continue to the surface.
disfigure the child for several months. Though The skin and cuticle of infants is pecu at last they assume this dark appearance, liarly delicate and irritable, and the action they begin as white vesicles, with a wa of the air alone upon them, whenever there tery discharge, and great itching of the af is a change in the temperature of the atmo.
fected parts. sphere, is almost always, and sometimes al. In this complaint, very little needs to be together sufficient to produce efflorescences done. Where the case, however, is severe, of some kind or other. Hence it is not 10 an occasional drain by a blister between the be wondered at that they are subject to a shoulders, or behind the ears, will answer variety of cutaneous eruptions or rashes. the good purpose of transferring, and conse
The first eruption that is generally no- quently abating the irritation and itching. ticeable is the red-gum, or red-gown, as it The same effect will attend washing the was formerly called, and perhaps ought to parts with warm beer and butter, where the be called still ; the strophulus intertinctus discharge is very hot and acrid; and the of authors. It consists in a papulous ef. tar-ciotment has been employed with equal florescence of small spots, contined to the benefit in the same view, face and neck ; or in some cases extending The duration of the complaint is geneto the liands and legs, and even the whole rally judged of from the state of the urine; body, in the form of large patches. It and where this discharge is turbid or felid, sometimes appears in small pustules, filled the disorder is seldom of long continuance. with a limpid, purulent, or yellow liquor ; It generally ceases when the child has cut a and frequently turns dry and horny, and few teeth ; should it, however, be obstinate, scales off, without giving any further trou- of which there are a few examples, the Harble. Another appearauce it assunies, is ļowgate, or any other sulphureous water,
natural or artificial, will have a good ef- is the only direction to be given. Should fect.
the tumours not easily subside, a decoction This eruption has sometimes been impro or injections of the bark may be found perly mistaken for the venereal disease ; but nseful. its spontaneous disappearance is a proof The next species of teeth-rash somewhat that it has no sort of connection with siphilis resembles the rash of scarlet fever, and is of any kind.
very rare. It is always preceded by sick. The tooth-rash affords several varieties, ness, fever, and a disordered state of the all of which belong to the strophulus tribe, bowels ; but these symptoms disappear as and rank under the strophulus confertus. soon as the eruption is complete, which
The first we shall enumerate is not alto- shows evidently its critical nature of pre. gether peculiar to this period. It much re venting a train of worse maladies. sembles the itch, and is most frequent in its Such indeed is the variety in the toothappearance about the face and neck, though rashes of children, that it would be almost not exclusively confined to these parts
. It endless to enumerate them; a variety has often, from its appearance, been mis- arising from differences of constitution and taken for the real itch ; but it differs so other circumstances with which we are unfar, that it is of a most salutary tendency, acquainted. But whenever an eruption and even sometimes critical in its nature, as appears at this period, the safest plan is to preventing, at this juncture, serious effects consider it as connected with the effort of to the child.
toothing. If our judgment be correct, the No particular treatment is necessary, exa complaint will decay as soon as the tooth is cept merely avoiding cold, and keeping the protruded; and if it be not, its nature will bowels soluble.
be easily ascertained. By attending to the The next tooth-rash, at this period, is one state of the bowels, as already pointed out, that greatly resembles flea-bites, having a all danger of such eruptions will be avoida depressed point in the middle of the elevated ed; and the more they are treated on the spot. This disorder, in some instances, re. ground of being an effort of the constitution eurs, unifornily, just before the appearance
to relieve itself by an increased action toof a tooth, and when cut disappears. Here,
wards the surface, the more will the safety in respect to treatment, the same observa. of the child be consulted. It is of consetion applies as in the former case.
quence, therefore, in order to silence the A third species appears in the form of clamours of nurses on this head, to point measles, and is often mistaken for them. out that no danger follows their appearance; Some degree of sickness generally precedes that, on the coutrary, the child is benefited its appearance, but there is, at the same by them; and that nature should be al. time, little or no fever. It usually continues lowed to finish her own work. very tlorid for a few days, and when dis Urticaria, or nettle-rash, is a papulous appearing, does not dry off like the measles. disease which generally occurs to children
The treatment here is very simple. The under two years of age. In its appearance testaceous powders may be employed, with it is always sudden, and is often very troublethe addition of a little nitre and compound some. The child generally begins to scream powder of contreyerva; and as the disease before the cause of its illness is known, declines, a little rhubarb, or other laxative, and on examining its body and limbs, a re. may be given for a day or two.
semblance so like the stinging of nettles is A fourth species of tooth-rash is one every where conspicuous, from which the which, though appearing like the former,
disease has its name. soon spreads into large spots, at first of a This complaint is generally preceded by bright red, and afterwards of a darker bue, a slight tever ; some degree of sickness and similar to the purple spots that appear in ty- pain in the head are also felt, particularly if phous fevers, though this be entirely of a the child have been exposed to cold. different nature. Some fever generally at The nettle-rash of children may be contends the eruption, followed frequently by sidered as a very simple disease, compared small round tamours on the legs, which with that of adults. Its disappearance being softening in a few days, seem as if inclin. often as sudden as its attack, it does not reing to suppurate, though this never takes quire that serious treatment necessary to place.
more advanced age. When it seems obsti. Like the former, the treatment is simple; nate, a few grains of the compound powder and an attention to the state of the bowels, of contreyerva or ipecacuanba may be ado
ministered two or three times a day, with sess, naturally, a loose belly, suffer least the addition of two or three drops of com from the contplaints of this period. pound spirit of ammonia. In the mean The time of toothing generally comtime, the state of the bowels, as in other meuces between the fifth and tenth months, papulæ, will require proper attention. and the process of the first toothing con
But if the eruption be very general, and tinues till about eighteen or twenty months the weather somewhat cold, it may not be after birth. The usual number of the teeth an improper precaution to confine the child at this time cut is sixteen. The process a day or two to bed, so that there may be no begins in the lower jaw, two of the front, danger of the rash being repelled.
or middle teeth, are usually first cut, which The last variety of infantile rash we shall are followed by the two corresponding ones mention, is a phlyctenous or watery erup- in the upper jaw; next, after some intertion, consisting of blisters of different sizes, mission, come the four adjoining teeth; somewhat like scalds or burns, which con then follow the two double-teeth, or griotinue out several days, and attend both ders, at an interval of some weeks; then bowel-complaints and toothing. It seems the teeth in the lower jaw called canine, or of a beneficial nature. It is chiefy conspi- dog-teeth ; and, lastly, the two correspondcuous on the belly, ribs, and thighs. The ing ones in the upper jaw, called the eyevesicle or bag contains a sharp acrid liquor, teeth. About the seventh year appears a which, where the bag is large, shonld be dis new set of teeth ; and about the twentieth, charged by the puncture of a needle. the two inner grinders, or wisdom-teeth,
Little is here necessary in the way of unless these, as sometimes happens, are protreatment. The state of the bowels will truded at the first toothing. entirely regulate what is to be done. If the That the teeth of the lower jaw are most child be costive the laxatives already pre- forward may be naturally expected, from scribed will answer every purpose, with the their being less deep in the sockets, and addition of the testaceous powders : and,' their points thinner and sharper than the if the belly be loose, and the infant low and others. debilitated, then the light cordials previ Though this be the usual progress of proously recommended, will be necessary. trusion in strong bealthy children, yet in
One of the most critical periods of infan- those more debilitated, the progress is both cy, and to which the greatest attention slower and more irregular. Thus the teeth ought to be paid, is that of toothing, or den. are in many first cut in the upper ja*, nor tition. A continued irritation is kept upon do the contiguous ones appear always at the the constitution, for a great length of time, same time. Wherever there is much pain whereby the latent seeds of disease of an and irritation at first, the same may he exhereditary nature are often unfolded, pected to recur, or continue, during the which might otherwise have lain dormant, whole period of toothing. and done, perhaps, no injury to the general The morbid symptoms that attend denhealth. Hence cough, fever, rickets, and tition are very numerous; they may be various forms of scrophula, may be traced arranged as simply affecting the part, or as in their first appearance, from this period. connected with the system in general.
It has been observed, in judging of the of the former, the usual appearances are ease or difficulty of dentition, that weakly an increase of saliva discharged in the form and rickety children cut their teeth most of slaver. The gams are swelled, tense, readily. Many circumstances have an influ- and hot, while the cheeks display a circumence in this respect, as the number of teeth scribed redness. Of the latter, or general that protude themselves at once, and the symptoms, the most common are, cataneous particular sort. Thus, where two or three eruptions, particularly on the face and teeth germinate at a time, the irritation on scalp; the state of the belly is irregular, the gums must be much more considerable though most commonly a looseness attends than where there is only one; and there it, with stools of various colour and conwill be more difficulty in the protrusion of sistence. Considerable watchfulness prethe large back-teeth than in the fore or eye- vails, and when the child procures sleep, it teeth, the surface or points of which are is interrupted by startings and spasms. The better armed for cutting.
secretion of the urine is attended with the It has also been observed, that infants same irregularity; sometimes it is unduly cut their teeth more readily in winter than increased, at other times diminished, and in summer; and that all children who pos. the appearance is equally varied, being