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cheapest terms she can find; in conse- farinaceous food will generally prove the quence of which, innutrition, or poverty of 'most convenient nutriment. Cow's milk, food, too generally terminates his life, or however, is far less sweet, or has far less leaves him habitually diseased, a permanent saccharine matter than human, and hence burden on his parents, and on the public. the mixture now recommended should be

Hireling nurses, however, under all the enriched with some addition of sugar. The cases we have mentioned must be resorted chief point of attention is that the farinato, when the person is in a situation to ceous matter, whether in the form of pap endure the expence. The young and the or gruel, be sufficiently dilute, and free healthy should be selected with a full from lumps. It is a difficult thing to make breast of milk, and that milk as nearly as nurses believe that fluid food alone can may be of the age of the foster child. produce solid nutriment notwithstanding the Where the circumstances of the parents, example daily before them of the beneficial or the infant's own antipathy, which some. result of maternal milk; and hence it is times occurs, or any other equally insur- almost impossible to prevent them from mountable objection intervenes, the next making the'infant food too thick and pulpy. consideration is to provide a subsitute for Where rusks, or tops and bottoms, are used the child's patural diet.

they should be first boiled in water till perFrom the experiments of physicians on fectly softened, and then pressed with a milks we have the following results. spoon through a fine strainer; nor should

Of cream, the milk of sheep affords most; pap or gruel be ever made use of with. then the human, the goat's, the cow's, the out a similar process. Cordials, aperients, ass's and the mare's progressively.

and opiates should be equally avoided in Of butter, the sheep's affords most, then a state of health. They are all medicines, the goat's, the cow's, and human progrese and should never be employed but when sively.

called for by disease ; nature, in her ordiof cheese, the sheep's gives most; then nary functions, demands nothing of the the goat's, the cow's, the ass, and human kind: the food prepared by herself is equal. milk, the mare's gives the least.

ly bland and simple. Of sugar, most is extracted from the In the clothing of children, warmth and mare's milk; then from the human, the simplicity are the two points to be studied. ass's, the goat's, the sheep's, and last of all, The great and natural use of clothes is for the cow's.

the purpose of warmth, and the looser and It should hence seem that human milk softer the substance is by which this warmth has more saccharine matter than any other is communicated, the better. But, amongst milk excepting mare's; more cream than other refinements, that of giving neatness to any other excepting sheep's, and at the the attire of children has been one producsame time that it yields. less butter or tive of very great evils. To brace and cheese than any excepting mare's. It ap. dress an infant forms a particnlar business, pears, moreover, from the experiments of and thus the real intention of clothing has other animal chemists, that the butter of been lost sight of. Besides their tightness, human milk, instead of being solid like that children are also often hart by their quantity. of the goat and cow, is a fuid of the sub. After birth, a child is in a sort of feverish sistence of cream, and cream which is nearly state during the first five or six days; it the consistency of that obtained from ass's should, therefore, be kept cool, instead of and mare's milk.

being laid close to the mother, who is comIt follows, that, upon the whole,'mare's monly in the same state, and fed, as both and ass's milks have a nearer resemblance too frequently are, with heating cordials, to human, than the milk of any other ani- which add to their uneasiness. mal that has undergone a proper course of Most of the deformities of children are experiments: and that in case of extreme occasioned by improprieties in their dress. debility of the organs of digestion mare's An attempt to give neatness to the form or ass's milk is the best substitute for that renders pressure necessary; and where a of human milk.

part is weak, and the pressure greater than Let these therefore in cases of debility on the neighbouring parts, such part will be resorted to: but in cases of health, and naturally yield to the impulse, and deforespecially of good substantive organs we mity will ensue. Without entering theremay be less particular. Diluted cow's fore into any criticism on the particular milk, intermixed with a small quantity of kinds of dress, all that is required is, that

the child be kept warm, and the dress sit weather permits, and that generally about easy on every part.

mid day, and, if possible, into fields, or

squares, or other exposed situations. Sleep is at all times necessary to health ;

The same caution that is necessary in in infancy it is particularly so; for the sti

carrying them out, should be applied to the muli of air and light alone are sufficient to exhaust the system in an hour or two. Yet conduct within doors. The nursery should

be the largest and best aired room in the order is one of the first laws of nature; and

house. When children sleep in a cradle, habit is its best foundation. After the first few days, therefore, of mere introduction they should not be wrapped up too closely, to a new world, and a new mode of exis- particularly so, as they are usually laid in

with their clothes op. Neither when they tence, the periods of sleep should submit to

are further grown, shonld more than one some degree of regulation. An infant that

child sleep in the same bed. In short, the is allowed to sleep through nearly the whole of the day, will usually be a very trouble. proper regnlation is, to keep the child as

much as possible in one pure, equal tempesome companion to its mother through the whole of the night. It has had more than rature, avoiding every thing that is damp

and unwholesome; and, if this equality of a sufficiency of rest, and cannot be made atmosphere cannot be preserved in our own to sleep, till it again becomes tired and exhausted. Then comes the nurse, with her sitions from heat to cold be not made too

country, to take care, at least, that the trannostrums and lier lullabies ; her cradle, her suddenly; by which attention, all the evils cordials, and her anodynes. The whole are useless in a state of health, and many of arising from this source will be avoided.

Exercise is natural to man, and the dethem most pernicious. The fault is all her

sire of it is coeval with existence; nay, own; it proceeds alone from a want of regular periods of sleep and wakefulness.

may be said to precede it; for the motions

of the child in the womb show, that it is The situation of children requires at first with difficulty retained in a passive state. air of a moderately warm temperature; Infants, therefore, ought never to be at after which they may be gradually inured rest but when asleep, and this motion is of to a colder atmosphere, without any danger the first importance; it will atone for seveto their health. Too much warmth, how- ral defects in nursing, and is absolutely ne. ever, is as prejudicial as the opposite ex

cessary for the health, strength, and growth treme, and the more to be dreaded, as of children. every time they are brought to the open The first exercise that children usually air, they are exposed to the danger of receive, and which they ought to receive, catching cold. But it is not merely a cold is that of being dandled in the arm, or movair that is to be avoided, it is air that is ed gently up and down, which tends much confined, and at the same time loaded with

to assist digestion. Rubbing them with the moisture. A confined damp air is the hand is also highly useful at this period of cause of many of the diseases by which life, particularly along the back-bone, which children are afflicted ; and to this state of occasions the child to stretch itself, and to the atmosphere the children of the poorer exhibit different signs of muscular exertion, classes are particularly exposed. Too much expressive of the satisfaction it receives. caution cannot be used by parents in su. As children increase in growth, their experintending this part of the treatment of ercise should be proportionably augmented, their offspring. When sent abroad, under and the nurse should endeavour to give the care of servants, they are often kept too them as much motion with her arm as pos. long exposed to the inclemencies of the sible. A proper nurse knows the method weather, and frequently allowed to sit or

of doing this, and requires no specific dilie on the damp ground; or they are kept rections. carelessly in the arms of a servant, exposed As soon as a child is able to be put on to a current of air, the consequence of its feet, it should be allowed to make use which, when bronght from the confinement of them. Every member acquires strength of a warm room, must be mischievous. To in proportion as it is exercised; and child avoid the danger of cold, then, much atten- dren, by being accustomed to support tion should be paid to the dress, and not to themselves, will soon acquire strength for allow the period of their exposure to be too the purpose. Children also begin to use long at a time. They should, however, be their feet by degrees, and by this gradual carried out at least once a day, when the attempt, all the dangers hinted at by


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writers, of their legs becoming crooked, or sitkly constitution entailed on its possessor unable to support the body, are avoided. by this early industry.

Among the poorer classes, it is very com- Even exercise within doors is not suffi. mon to allow children to sit or lie in one cient to effect the good purposes derived posture for a length of time: this is a prac. from it in the open air, particularly in a tice much to be condemned. By the want country situation, where the varions exhalaof exercise, the health of children suffers ; a tions and fragrances of the surrounding relaxation of the system ensues, and rickets scenery, add usually to the salubrity of the and other diseases are induced. The con- employment. Children, instead of being stitution of man evidently shows him at all checked in regard of wholesome play, times designed for exercise, and the regu- should be at all times encouraged in it. lar circulation of the fluids cannot proceed This advice is particularly necessary in res. without its assistance. Arguments, indeed, pect to girls, who are, in general, too much may be drawn from the structure of every confined by their injudicious mothers, and part of the animal economy of man; and, thus are not only weak and debilitated in where exercise is neglected, none of the their general habit, but acquire most of animal functions can be duly executed, and those diseases peculiar to their sex. No inthe constitution, in general, therefore must jury can take place from suffering them to soon be seriously affected.

run about, without unnecessary restraint. The early and rigorons confinement of Dancing, if not carried to excess, is of exchildren at day-schools, merits to be parti- cellent service to yonng persons ; it cheers cularly reprobated. To prevent trouble to the spirits, promotes perspiration, strengththe parent, the infant is often sent to ens the limbs, and at the same time gives a school, perhaps for seven or eight hours on much better grace to the person, than a a stretch, at a period of life when it can constant employment at needle-work, or learn little or nothing, and when its time even an acquisition of the general and various would be more properly spent in exercises accomplishments that constitute modern or diversions. Nor does the mind suffer female educations; which, however, would less from this evil than the body. The fix. by no means be impeded by giving scope ing it to one object so prematurely, pro- to exercise. vided it can really be made to learn any A popular writer well observes, that “an thing at all, not only weakens the faculties, effeminate education will infallibly spoil the but is apt to produce an aversion, on the best constitution, and if boys are brought part of the child, to study at that time of up in a more delicate manner than even life when study would be useful. Even the girls ought to be, they will never be men.” immuring such a number of children in a The same author, with great justice, apconfined room, as we often meet with in lit. plauds the practice, of late introduced, of tle day-schools, by vitiating the atmosphere, teaching boys the military exercise, as not and corrupting the air, must lay the seeds only an admirable mean of strengthening of disease, and not unfrequently occasion their body and limbs, but of inspiring them infection. If sent early to school, the time with early ideas of courage, and educating of learning should never be long, and should them so that they may, at a future period, be alternated with proper diversions and be ready and able to defend their country exercises suited to their period of life. in case of emergency.

The only argument in favour of an early To uniform exercise, add the use of the education is the advantage of an early en- cold bath : it will prove an admirable auxtrance of children into the world; and of iliary, and may be even a substitute for extheir being able to provide for themselves. ercise where it cannot be duly obtained; That this may be proper in one respect, and if the salt-water bath can be had, it is and in certain classes of society, we shall certainly preferable. By general immer. readily admit; but if the constitution be to sion, the body is braced and strengthened, be ruined at an early period, twice as much the general circulation increased, and all will be lost as gained by this deceitful sys- stagnation in the smaller vessels prevented. tem. The truth of such a remark is strongly The commencement this practice, early, confirmed by what we every day observe will be the means of preventing the apin manufacturing towns, where life is sel. pearance of many constitutional diseases. dom protracted beyond its middle age, and It cannot be too much inculcated, and has little enjoyed, even if it should be, from the been in nse from time immemorial with VOL. III.


those nations who have been most distin- winē may be administered, containing s guished for the enjoyment of health and vi- few drops of volatile tincture of valerian. gour of constitution. No prejudices, there. These remedies may be repeated every fore, of the mother or nurse, should prevent two or three hours till recovery take place: the use of this salutary prophylactic; and after which, stools should be obtained by even where it cannot be employed to its means of a clyster, or a tea-spoonful of cas. full extent, still the extremities should be tor oil. every day bathed in cold water, and after

The name of meconium is given to the wards well dried, and the skin well rubbed. first contents of the bowels of children conIn this view, boys, instead of being pre- sisting of a black, pitchy matter, highly tevented by their fond and fearful mothers, nacious. This, usually passes away withio should, on every account, be encouraged to a day or two after birth, and if retained belearn and practise the salubrious and use yond this period, proves the source of very ful exercise of swimming.

troublesome complaints. This substance,

it is clear, whatever be its cause or interDiseuses of Infants.

tion, is no longer useful after the child is The diseases of infantile life are very pu. born, and should be discharged as soon as merous, and some of them very compli- possible; to which, from its own irritating cated. It would be absurd to attempt a nature, there is constantly a tendency. discussion of the whole of these within the Bit, in certain cases, from the torpor of limits of a narrow, and what is merely de- the bowels, or its own unusually viscid, or signed as a popular essay. We shall con. clammy state, this discharge is delayed, and fine ourselves, therefore, to those alone, irritation, pain, and griping ensue. If the which are more common or more manage- first milk, therefore, do not prove laxative, able, and a general knowledge of the nature and bring it away, a tea-spoonful of castor of which, may enable the mother to co-ope- oil should be given once, or oftener, till the rate with the intention of the medical prac. bowels be disburdened, and the symptoms titioner whom she may find it expedient to of uneasiness entirely cease. consolt. These we shall arrange under the It has been common, indeed, eren at heads syncope; retention of meconium; birth, antecedently to its discharge, to ad. jaundice; costiveness; looseness; acidity, minister a gentle laxative for this purpose; and flatulence; thrush ; cutaneous erup- nor can there be any objection to that praetions ; dentition; convulsions; and rickets. tice, however reprobated by some physiFor the rest, we must refer the reader to cians. A little syrup of roses will generally their regular classification, under the arti- be sufficient; or, in the country, a little cle Medicine.

fresh whey and honey. Should a stronger lar. The process of birth is, at times, attended ative be required, then the castor oil may be with difficulty and danger, and especially recommended, or a watery infusion of rhuexhaustion to the child, as well as to the barb, cannot fail to answer the effect. But mother: and as the latter, upon delivery, should they be slow in producing the ease experiences occasionally syncope, or faint and freedom from pain, for which they are ing, so does the former not unfrequently; intended, and no stools have been procured its life, when first born, appears feeble and for twelve or fourteen hours after birth, a uncertain, and the only proof of animation clyster may be thrown up, and repeated at is derived from the pulsation of the navel.. the distance of a few hours, which will an string. Generally the infant soon recovers swer every purpose, and the discharge once from this state, and without relapse. But begin, and the bowels brought into action, at times the syncope continues for hours; the neconium will gradually pass off, forsethe infant gasps faintly, and then cvinces veral days, without any further trouble. no sensible appearance of respiration, for Jaundice is a disease to which infants, at ten minutes or even longer; occasionally birttı, are very subject, and may be said to the face is languid and pale, but sometimes take place always to a certain degree. It sriffised with blood: this attack may also is easily known by the linge of the skin, repeatedly recur.

and more particularly the saffron kne of the The only remedies here are gentle stimu- eye. The nails, however, are not here colants and cordials. The nostrils and tem- loured, as with adults; but the yellowness ples, as well as the hands and feet, may be of the complexion gradually increases, as in rubbed with a little volatile salt, and as other cases. soon as swallowing is practicable, a little . This disorder is evidently the effect of a

viscid matter obstructing the gall-ducts ; in and injections of the common enematic deorder to remove which, a gentle emetic is coction, with a little sweet oil, and a soln. required. That generally preferred, is the tion of neutral salt. This complaint nsualtartarised wide of antimony, in the dose of ly proceeds from too rapid an absorption of a single drop or two; and it has the advan- the more fluid parts of the chyle, by the bitage of also passing downwards. In giving bulons months of the lacteals,in consequence vomits, however, at this period, there is of which the part that remains is too comoften much danger, and instead of the tar- pact and solid to be forced away by the tarised antimony, which is rather uncertain common peristaltic action. This morbid in its operation, three or four grains of ipe- activity of absorption should be next atcacuanla will be safer, which shonld be fol tended to, to prevent a recurrence of the lowed the next day with the same quantity disease; and occasional doses of rhubarb, of rhubarb. Where the symptoms do not alternating with castor oil, is perhaps the seem to yield, the same plan should be con- best method that can be pursued to obtain tinued every other day, till the yellowness this object. begin to disappear, which it generally does Looseness, or diarrhea, is, however, a in about a week. In this complaint, the much more common complaint among inmere opening the bowels does not seem en. fants than costiveness. It is often connecttirely sufficient to remove the colour of the ed with vomiting; and both arise most freskin. Even at times, along with the former quently from one of these three causes; untreatment, some addition of saponaceous or wholesome food, moist cold air, or the sud. soapy medicines becomes necessary, as iwo den disappearance of some cutaneous erupor three drops of prepared kali; while, to

tion. From whichever of these it proassist its operation, both the warm bath, ceeds, it ought not to be liastily stopped ; and friction of the stomach may be con- certainly not till the offensive matter, on joined.

which it depends, be totally removed, On this subject it may be farther observ. Where joined with a vomiting, an emetic ed, that no linge is communicated to the onght to be the first step, after that the use child from the mother, though she have of rhubarb and absorbents may be ventured been afflicted with the disease during preg. on, and continued, with an occasional emetic nancy; but, at the same time, if it continue till the first passages be completely cleared with her after delivery, and she suckle her of any irritation which may keep up the dischild, the true janndice will be communi- ease. If it continne after a sufficient percated to the infant, and the disease remain severance in this plap, light cordials and till it be either weaned or the mother reco- opiates should be interposed. If the purg

ing be connected with toothing, or attended • There are few infants, even under the with fever, though it continue obstinate, it most favourable circumstances of manage requires much caution. For, in this case, ment, that will reach the termination of the go far from being a disease, it may, perhaps, first six, or even the first three months, be considered itself as a remedy, in prevent. without some morbid affection of the bowels. ing the occurrence of more dangerous sympThe diseases of this tribe are chiefly cos. toms. Keeping the discharge merely within tiveness, looseness, acidity, and flatulence. bonnds is the proper mode of proceeding,

Of these the first is not very frequent: it and the chalk julep will be the best remeexists nevertheless occasionally, in a very dy; when the bowels being once great and even alarming degree; sometimes and the irritation removed, the treatment derived from the constitution of the mother, will be mnch regulated by the appearance and sometimes as an idiopathic affection. of the stools. These have been distingnishIn the former case we may be always under ed into sour, clayey, watery, bloody, and Jess apprehension; in the latter case the fetid. constipation is occasionally so severe, and The last kind, when it occurs, requires accompanied with so much pain, and even the use of a powerful purgative, such as spasm, as to threaten an inflammation of the senna-tea, it the child be old enough to bear buwels, if not speedily ren ved. As in. it. Blood is seldom mixes with the stools, stantaneous applications, the best remedies but towards the end of the disease, and an are fomentations of hot water, or chamo. occasional streak of it is of little conseinile decoction, to the belly; doses of calo. quence. Watery stools, where combined mel, from one to three grains, according to with greenness, or an appearance of curdled the age of the patient, given by the soutli, matter, are best removed by a gentle emetic,





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