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but the denomination is particularly applied cate, ovate; down simple, sessile ; recep. to those of large cattle, as bnllocks, cows, tacle naked. There are fifty-five species : buffaloes, horses, &c. Raw hides are still a most of these plants are reputed to be considerable object in the Egyptian trade:, weeds ; few of them are cultivated except about 80,000 hides of buffaloes, camels, in botanic gardens. cows, and oxen, are exported yearly. Nearly HIERARCHY, denotes the subordina10,000 go to Marseilles, and a still greater tion of the clergy, ecclesiastical polity, or number to Italy. The buffaloe hides being the constitution and government of the thicker and heavier than the others, are Christian Church considered as a society. chiefly transported to Syria. As the pas. HIERO's crown. Under the article ARtures of Lower Egynt ale excellent, the CHIMEDES we have given an account of the hides of its cattle, in consequence of their interesting fact to which this phrase alludes; being so well feil, are of the very best qua we shall only add here, an example to lity. Great numbers of buffaloes are also shew how the fraud was detected by a simin North America. They are larger than ple arithmetical process: suppose each of an ox, and their head is so full of hair that the three masses above referred to weighed it fails over their eyes, and gives them a 64 ounces, and that immersing them sepa. frightful look. There is a bunch on their rately in the same vessel of water, therc back, which begins at the haunches, and en. were displaced joz, of water by the golden creasing gradually to the shoulders, reaches ball, Goz, by the silver, and 6oz. by the com• on 10 the neck. The whole body is covered pound, or the crown itself, then the respecwith long hair, or rather wool, of a dun or tive bulks being as the quantities of water mouse colour, which is exceedingly valu- displaced, will be as 5, 9, and 6; and we say, able, especially that on the forepart of the
9—6= 3 bod:, being proper for the manufacture of
5 = 1 various articles. The hide makes a con. siderable article of export from America. There are hides of several denominations,
4:64::8:48 according to their state and quality. FAN
4:64::1:16 or green lide, is that which has not undergone any preparation, being in the same
And under such circumstances the crown condition as when taken off the carcase.
consisted of 48oz. of gold and 16 of silver. There are also liides dried in the hair.
HIEROGLYPHICS, in antiquity, mysSalted hide, is a green hide seasoned with tical characters, or symbols, in use among sea-salt and alum, or salt-petre, to prevent the Egyptians, and that as well in their its corruption. Most of the hides imported writings as inscriptions ; being the figures from Holland and France are so prepared. of varions animals, the parts of human boTanned hides are further prepared by the dies, and mechanical instruments. tanner, by paring off the hair, and steeping
But besides the hieroglyphics in common them in pits of lime and tan. Curried hides use among the people, the priests had cer. are those which, after tanning, have passed tain mystical characters, in which they through the carriers' hands, and have this wrapped up and concealed their doctrines received their last preparation, so as to be from the vulgar. It is said that these some. fit for use.
thing resembled the Chinese characters, Hide of land, was such a quantity of land and that they were the invention of Hermes, as might be ploughed with one plong within It has been thought that the use of these the compass of a year, or so much as wonld hieroglyphical figures of animals introduced maintain a family; some call it sixty, some the strange worship paid them by that naeighty, and some an hundred acres.
tion: for as these figures were made choice The distribution of this kingdom by hides of, according to the respective qualities of of land is very ancient, mention being made each animal, to express the qualities and of it in the laws of King Ina. Henry I. had dignity of the persons represented by them, three shillings for every hide of land, in who were generally their gods, princes, and order to raise a dowry for his daughter: great men, and being placed in their temthis tax was called hidage.
ples as the images of their deities ; hence HIERACIUM, in botany, English hawk- they came to pay a superstitious veneration weed, a genus of the Syngenesia Polygamia to the animals themselves. Aequalis class and order. Natural order of The meaning of a few of these hierogly. Compositæ Semiflosculosæ. Cichoraceæ, phics has been preserved by ancient wri. Jussieu. Essential character : calyx imbri ters. Thus we are told they represented
the Supreme Deity by a serpent, with the thereof; in which case he is bound to make head of a hawk. The hawk itself was the a perfect good way, and shall not be excused hieroglyphic of Osiris ; the river-horse, of for making it as good as it was at the time of Typhon; the dog, of Mercury; the cat, of the inclosure, if it were then any way defecthe moon, or Diana; the beetle, of a cou tive; because, before the inclosure, when the rageous warrior; a new-born child, of the way was bad the people, for their better rising sun; and the like.
passage, went over the fields adjoining ont HIEROGLYPHICS. SeeWriting, origin of. of the common track, a liberty wlich tlie
HIGHWAY, a public passage for the inclosure has deprived them of. Particular king's people ; whence it is called the king's persons may be bound to repair an highway bigliway. It seems that anciently there by prescription. But in all cases, whether a were but four highways in England which private person be bound to repair an highwere free and common to all the king's sub- way by inclosure or prescription, the parish jects, and through which they might pass cannot take the advantage of it on the without any toll, unless there were a parti- general issue, but must plead it specially; cular consideration for it. All others which and, therefore, if to un indictment against we have at this day are supposed to have the parish for not repairing an highway, been made through the grounds of private they plead not guilty, this shall be intended persons, on writs of ad quod dammum, &c. only that the ways are in repair, or that it which being an injury to the owner of the is not an highway, but does not go to the soil, it is said they may prescribe for toll right of reparation. without any special consideration.
At common law, it is said that all die There are three kinds of ways, a foot- country ought to make good the reparations way, a pack and prime way, which is both of an bighway, where no particular persovs a horse and foot way, and a cart way, wlich are bound to do it; by reason the whole contains the other two. But notwithstand. county have their ease and passage by the ing these distinctions, it seems that any one of these 'ways which is common to all the By the ancient common law, villages are king's subjects; whether it lead directly to to repair their highways, and may be punisia market town, or only from town to town, ed for their decay; and, if any do injury to, inay properly be called an higliway, and or straighten the highway, he is punishable that any such cartway may be called the in the King's Bench, or before the justices king's highway. A river, common to all men, of peace in the court leet, &c. Destroying may also be called the king's highway; and any public turnpike-gate, or the rails or that nuisances in any such ways are punish- fences thereto belonging, subjects the offenable by indictment ; otherwise they would der to hard labour for three months, and to not be punished at all; for they are not ac be publicly whipped. 1 Geo. II. c. 19. tionable uuess they cause a special damage On conviction at the assizes, the offender to some particular person; because if such may be transported for seven years. And action would lie, a multiplicity of suits would on a second offence, or on demolishing any
turnpike-house, he shall be guilty of felony, If passengers have used, time out of mind, and transported for seven years. But in where the roads are bad, to go by outlets both these cases the prosecution must be on the land adjoining to an highway in an within six months; and on the convict's open field, such outlets are parcels of the returning from transportation he shall suffer highway; and, therefore, if they are sown death. 5 Geo. II. c. 33. wiih corn, and the track is foundrous, the Every justice of the peace, by the sta. king's subjects may go upon the corn. tute, upon his own view, or on oath made
Repairing highways. By the common to him by the surveyor, may make presentlaw, the general charge of repairiuall high- ment of roads being out of repair ; and, ways lies on the occupiers of the lands in thereupon, like process shall be issued as upthe parish wherein they are. But it is said on indictment. For the repairing of highways, that the tenants of the lands adjoining are there are certain regulations, by siatnte ; and bound to scour their ditches.
every inhabitant of a parish is bound to per. Particular persons may be burdened with form certain duties for that purpose. the general charge of repairing an highway, HIGH water', that state of the tides, in two cases; in respect of an inclosure, or when they have fowed to the greatest by prescription. As where the owner of height, or bave ceased to flow. It is Lighlands not enclosed, next adjoining to the water several minutes, as many as between lsighway, incloses his lands on both sides 15 and 30, before it begins to ebb again.
The mode of computing high-water is by HIPPIA, in botany, a genus of the Synhaving the moon's age given, of which take genesia Polygamia Necessaria class and or. , and adding it to the time of liigh-water der. Natural order of Compositæ Discoi
Essential on the day of full or change, and the sum is deæ. Corymbiferæ, Jussien. nearly equal to the time of high-water. character: calyx hemispherical, subimbriThus, for the present day, the 29th of May, cate, corollets of the ray ten, obsolete, subit was new moon, or change, on the 25th, trifid ;- seeds with very broad margins, of colirse the moon is four days old; naked; down none; receptacle naked. and on the 25th it was high-water at about There are three species. two o'clock; therefore 4 x+2=5112",
HIPPOBOSCA, in natural history, a ge. or to about twelve minutes after five.
nus of insects of the order Diptera. Mouth HILLIA, in botany, so named in honour with a short, cylindrical, straight, two. of Sir John Hill, M. D., author of many
valved sucker; the valves are equal; anworks in botany, a genus of the Hexandria
tennæ filiform ; feet armed with numerous Monogynia class and order. Natural order claws; body flat and hard. There are five of Contortæ. Rubiaceæ, Jussien. Essen- species, of which the most familiar is H. tial character : calyx double, lower six- equina, or horse-fly: head brown ; thorax leaved; corolla very long, contorted; cap- brown, varied with pale colour'; wings sule two-celled, two-valved, crowned ; seeds crossing each other, hyaline with a brown downy. There are two species, riz, H. lon- spot near the outer margin; legs annulate giflora, and H. tetrandria; both natives of with yellow and brown. This insect is exJamaica.
ceedingly troublesome to horses; it hides HIN, a Hebrew measure of capacity for itselt under the hairs, and fixes to the skin things liquid, containing the sixth part of by means of their crooked nails. It varies an epła, or one gallon two pints, English in size, in different districts, but is largest
in the southern and warm climates. The HIND, a female stag in the third year of skin of the insect is of a strong and coriaits age. See CERVUS.
ceous nature; hence it may be pressed to HINGES, the joints on which gates,
a considerable degree, without being appadoors, lids, folds of tables, &c. hang and rently injured. The female of this insect turn in opening, shutting, or folding. They deposits a single egg at distant intervals ; are of different denominations, as butts, but as the egg undergoes no further altera used by the joiners for hanging table-leaves, tion of form, it has been regarded rather as &c.; casement, for hanging casements upon
a pupa than an egg; it continues perfectly dove-tails ; and esses, for light doors and inert, but changes colour; and, if opened lockers ; garnet-cross, for hanging large after a certain period, it exhibits the fly in doors or heavy scuttles in ships ; port, for its unadvanced state, and of a white colour. hanging ships' ports ; scuttle, particularly winter in this state, the fly emerging in the
It not unfrequently lies during the whole used for scuttles. Besides these, there are many others of different forms and uses, dis- following summer
. H. avicularia, is obtinguished by different pames.
served on the bodies of various birds, which HIPS, in building, those pieces of timber it infests. H. hirundinis is, as its name im. placed at the corner of a of.
ports, to be found in the nests and on the HIP roof, among carpenters, called also bodies of swallows, swifts, and martins. Italian roof, is a roof which has neither gaa
H, ovina, is withont wings; it is known by ble-head, shread-head, nor jerken-head (by the name of the sheep-tick, and is found imwhich is meant such heads as are both ga- is so tenacions of life, that it has been found
bedded in the wool of these animals; this ble and hip at the same end): for it is a gable, or upright, as bigh as the collar-beam, in wool that lias been a long time packed and then there are two short hips, which up in fleeces. shut up with their tops to the tops of a pair
HIPPOCRATEA, in botany, so named of rafters, which country carpenters call in memory of Hippocrates, the famous Greek singlars. A hip-roof bas rafters as long, and playsician; a genus of the Triandria Monowith the angles of the foot, ac. at the ends gynia class and order. Natural order of of buildings, as it has at the sides; and the Accra, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx feet of the rafters, at the ends of such build. five parted; petals five; capsule three, obings as have hip-roofs, stand on the same
cordute or elliptic. There are two species, plane, viz. paralel with the horizon, and at viz. H. volubilis, and H. comosa. the same hcigut from the foundation, with HIPPOCREPIS, a genus of the Diadelrafters on the sides of the roof.
pbia Decaudria class and order.' Natural
order of Leguminosæ or Papilionaceæ. tics acquainted with natural history, to be Essential character: legume compressed, the behemoth so sublimely described in the several times emarginate along one of the book of Job. The Greek and Roman sutures, curved. There are five species. writers have also alluded to it; but their These are small herbaceous plants, with un observations upon it are by no means such equally-pinnate leaves and small stipnles; as could have resulted from accurate and peduncles axillary, and terminating, one or philosophical observation; and both Aristomany-flowcred, in umbels ; corollas mostly tle and Pliny have fallen, on this subject, yellow. Natives of ahe South of Europe. into the most absord deviations from truth.
HIPPOMANE, in botany, a genus of Indeed it is only recently, that clear and the Monoecia Monadelphia class and order. just representations of this animal have Natural order Tricoceæ. Euphorbiæ, Jus- been published, with interesting circumsieu. Essential character: male, ameut; stances relating to its manners and habits, perianthum bifid; corolla neve: female, pe collected by persons who had inclination rianthum trifid; corolla none ; stigma three and opportunities of particularly examining parted; drupe or capsule Hiree-grained. it. Dr. Sparman, and Colonel Gordon, There are three species ; of which H. man. and Mr. Mason, are particularly entitled to cinella, manchineel tree, is exceedingly honourable mention on this occasion. The large in the West Indies, almost equalling largest female which the Colonel ever had the oak in size. The first accounts of this an opportunity of observing, was eleven tree were very much exaygerated; it was feet in length, and the largest male nearly said to be dangerous to sit or lie under it, twelve. It is stated, however, on respecand that the rain which falls from the table authority, that they are frequently leaves will raise blisters in the skin. Pro- much larger; and Mr. Bruce reports, that fessor Jacquin inforins us, that he and his they are occasionally found even of the companions reposed opwards of three hours length of twenty feet. The form of the under a manchineel tree, without receiving hippopotamus is particularly auk ward: its any injury; and that he experienced rain head is astonishingly large, and its body ex. dropping from the leaves to be perfectly tremely fat and round; its legs are very innocent. It is dangerous to eat of the short and thick, and its teeth are of vast fruit, which resembles crab-apples, it occa strength and size, one of them is stated to sions vomiting, and a burning heat in the weigh no less than three pounds, occasionmouth, throat, and stomach, for many hours ally, each of the tusks weiglis even six ; the after. The juice of the buds of the white whole animal is covered with short hair; its cedar is esteemed an antidote to this poi- skin is so tough, as in some parts to resist a son, and is generally used with success. It bullet; and its colour, when dry, is an obis said, that goats, sheep, and macaws feed scure brown. It inhabits the warmer latigreedily on the fruit. The wood is very tudes, and is to be found chiefly in the inmuch esteemed, and is used for ornamental terior of Africa, dwelling in the largest rie purposes.
vers, in which it ranges at the bottom, HIPPOPHAE, in botany, a genus of the sometimes reaching the surface for the pur• Dioecia Tetrandria class and order. Natu- pose of' respiration. It sometimes quits the sal order of Calycifloræ. Elæagni, Jussieu. rivers for the sea, merely, as is supposed, for Essential character: male, calyx two parts the sake of expatiating with greater freeed; corolla none: female, calyx bifid ; co. dom, as it never drinks salt water, and eats Tolla none; style one ; berry one-seeded. no fish, and indeed takes no animal fool There are two species, riz. H. rhamnoides, whatever. By night it quits the water to common sea-buckthorn, and H. canadensis, feed, and devours a vast quantity of grass, Canadian sea-buckthorn.
and the tender branches of trees. Its disHIPPOPOTAMUS, in natural history, a position has nothing in it sanguinary or fe. genus of Mammalia, of the order Bellux. rocious; it never attacks other animak. Generic character: four front-teeth in each It frequently commits great depredations jaw; the upper ones distant, in pairs; the on the plantations of corn or sugar, which lower ones prominent; the two interme are within the reach of its nocturnal pro. diate ones longest ; tusks solitary; those of gresses, and by destroying with its vast the lower jaw very large, long, curved, and teeth the roots of trees. Its motion on land obliquely truncated; feet, hoofed at the is geherally not only highly inelegant, but margin. This animal appears very nati- slow; yet if surprized and pursued, it rins rally to have attracted the early attention with great speed till it reaches the water, of mankind, and is supposed, by most cri- into which it instantly plunges; and, though
it is able to swim with great rapidity, its only one species, riz. H. reclinata, a native progress in the water is at the bottom by of Carthagena in New Spain. walking. If wounded in the water, it some HIRCUS, in anatomy, a part of the auritimes is highly infuriated, and has been cle or outer ear, being that eminence next known to attack the boats or canoes, which the temple. See Ear, it supposed to contain its enemy, and over Hircus, a goat, in astronomy, a star of turn them by its vast strength, or sink them the first magnitude, the same with Capela. by making a large hole in them with its See CAPELLA. teeth. It prodnces but one at a birth, ge Hircus is also a name used by some nerally in the little rusby isles of the rivers writers for a comet, encompassed, as it which it frequents, and in these islets it ge- were, with a mane, seeminyly rough and nerally sleeps., When taken young, it is ca- hairy. pable of being tamed. These animals are HIRTELLA, in botany, a genus of the sometimes seen in considerable numbers, Pentandria Monogynia class and order. ranging for several miles beyond the banks Natural order of Rosaceæ, Jussieu. Es. of their rivers. They are often shot by the sential character: petals five; tilaments Africans, and frequently taken by the har. very long, permanent, spiral ; style lateral; poon; pitfalls al:o are sometimes dug for berry one-seeded. There are three spethem. They are valued by the natives of cies. Africa for food, and the fat which it supplies HIRUDO, he leech, in natural liis. is supposed to be equal to that of the hog. tory, a genus of the Vermes Intestina class The feet are highly gelatinous, and regard- and order. The body moves either fored as a particular delicacy. With their ward or backward. There are seventeen skins the warriors of Africa are furnished species, principally distinguished by their with shields and bucklers. The grand mo colour. The most remarkable are the foltive to destroy these animals, however, is lowing: the value of their tusks, whicii are whiter H. medicinalis, or medicinal leech, the than those of the elephant, and retain their form of which is well known, grows to original clearness and beauty. They are the length of two or three inches. The likewise of a harder consistence, and are, body is of a blackisla-brown colour, marked on both these accounts, preferred by den on the back with six yellow spots, and tists, for artificial teeth, to every other sub- edged with a yellow line on each side; but stance.
both the spots and the lines grow faint, and In the Ædileship of Scaurus a temporary almost disappear at some seasons. The head lake was formed, into which he introduced is smaller than the tail, which fixes itself four crocodiles and a hippopotamns, for the very firmly to any thing the creature pleases. entertainment of the Roman people, and it is viviparous, and produces but one young Augustus, in his triumph over Cleopatra, at a time, which is in the month of July. amidst many other objects characteristic of It is an inhabitant of clear running waters, Egypt, exhibited a hippopotamus. In Upper and is well known for its use in bleeding. Egypt, and in the fens of Ethiopia, tra H. muricata, or muricated leechi, bas a versed and inundated by the Nile, these taper body, rounded at the greater extreanimals are more particularly abundant. mity, and furnished with two small tentaFor the hippopotamus, see Mammalia, Plate cula, or horns, strongly annulated and rug. X. tig. 2.
ged upon the rings, the tail dilated. It in. HIPPURIS, in botany, mare's-tail, a ge- habits the Atlantic ocean, and is by the nus of the Monandria Monogynia class and fishermen called the zea-leech. It adheres order. Natural order of Inundatæ. Naia.
to fish, and generally leaves a black mark des, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx a on the spot. two-lobed rim to the germ; corolla none; The mouth of the leech is armed with a stigma simple; seed one. There are three sharp instrument, that makes three wounds species.
at once, and may be compared to the body HIRÆA, in botany, so named frożn Nic of the pump, and the tongne or fleshy nipcol de la Hire, a genus of the Decandria ple to the sucker: by the working of this Trigynia class and order. Natural order piece of mechanism the blood is made to of Trihilatæ. Malpighiæ, Jussieu. Essen- rise up to the conduit which conveys it to tial character: calyx five-leaved; petals the animal's stomach, which is a membranaa róundish, on claws; capsule three-celled, ceous skin, divided into twenty-four cells. with three wings ; seeds two. There is The blood which is sucked out is there VOL. III.