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further change the blood returns by the nus of the Pentandria Monogynia class and veins, and again passes through the course order. Natural order of Hederacer. Ca. of circulation. From his experiments on prifolia, Jussieu. Essential character: pethe capacities of arterial and venous blood, tals five, oblong; berry five-seeded, surDr. Crawford found the capacity of the rounded by the calyx. There are six species, former for heat to be 1.030, and that of the with several varieties. latter only 0.892, whence he concludes, that HEDERACEÆ, in botany, the name of though beat must be given out in conse the forty-sixth order of Linnæus's “ Frag. quence of the diminished capacity of the ments of a Natural Method,” consisting of the combined oxygen absorbed by respiration, ivy, vine, and a few other genera, which from yet the increased capacity of the arterial their general habit and appearance seem blood will prevent its becoming sensible nearly allied. This order consists of herbainmediately in the lungs; instead of which, ceous and shrubby plants, most of which, it will be given out at the smaller ramifica- particularly the ivy and vine just mentiontions where the blood becomes changed in ed, have creeping branches, that attach its nature, and in its capacity for heat by themselves by tendrils to the borlies in their its conversion to the venous state. It has neighbourhood. The roots are long; the also been established by the experiments of stenus and young branches commonly cythe same philosopher, that the process of lindric. The leaves are alternate, sometimes absorption of oxygen is less in a higher thau simple, as in the ivy and vine ; sometimes in a low temperature; the difference be- winged, as in the zanthoxylam, or tooth-ach tween the arterial and venons blood being tree, in which the surface of the leaves is at the same tine less, and consequently the covered with points. On each side of the augmentation of temperature in the animal foot-stalk of the leaves of the vine are placed less considerable. This law of the animal two pretty large stipulæ, or scales ; from economy, assisted by the increased evapo- the side opposite to the leaves proceeds a ration, and by the slow conducting power branching tendril, which serves to fasten of an animal body, and perhaps by the per- the plant to the bodies in its neighbourhood. manency of the enlarged capacity, seems The flowers are either hermaphrodite, as in sufficient to account for the power which the ivy and vine ; male and female upon animals possess of maintaining their na. different roots, as in the ginseng; or herma. tural temperature without any remarkable phrodite and male upon different roots, as change in an atmosphere greatly heated, in the zanthoxylum. The calyx, or proper às was shewn in the experiments of For- flower cup, consists of one leaf divided into dyce and Blagden. (See Philos. Trans. five parts, which are small, and generally 1775.) It must be confessed, however, permanent. The petals are commonly five; that some farther investigations seem want, but in the cissus four, and in the zanthoxy. ing on this subject.

lum none. There are five stamina ; but Though the lungs appear to be the great the cissus has only four. The anthers, or organ of oxygenation in the larger animals, tops of the stamina, are roundish: in the it is well ascertained that a process of pearly ivy they are attached to the filaments by the same nature is carried on at the skin ; the sides. In the zanthoxylum the filaments and in many of the smaller or less perfect are crowned with twin anthers. The seed animals there appears to be no other means bud is of different shapes; the seed-vessel is for effecting this absorption.

of the berry kind, with one, two, or five HEATH. See ERICA.

cells, and the seeds are from one to five in HEAVINESS, in general, the same with number, placed either in distinct cells, or, weight or gravity. See Gravity and as in the case of the ivy and vine, dispersed WEIGHT.

through the pulp without any partition. See HEBENSTREITIA, in botany, a genus Panax, &c. of the Didynamia Angiospermia class and HEDGES, in agriculture, are either order. Essential character: calyx emar. planted to make fences round inclosures, or ginate, cleft underneath; corolla one-lipped, to divide the several parts of a garden. lip Ascending, four-cleft; stamens inserted When they are designed as outward fences, into the edge of the border of the corolla; they are planted either with hawthorn, capsule containing two seeds. There are crabs, or blackthorn; but those hedges six species, all natives of the Cape.

which are planted in gardens, either to snr. HECTIC. See MeDICINE.

round wilderness-quarters, or to screen the HEDERA, in botany, English ivy, a ge other parts of a garden from sight, are

nosæ.

planted according to the fancy of the owner, sieu. Essential character: corolla mona. some preferring ever-greens, in which case petalous, funnel-shaped ; capsule two-celled, the holly is best; next the yew, then the mapy-seeded, inferior. There are eight lanrel, lanrustinus, phillyrea, &c. others species, natives of the East and West Inprefer the beach, the hornbeam, and the dies, also of Cochin-china. elm.

HEDYPNOIS, in botany, a genus of the HEDGE hog. See ERINACEUS.

Syngenesia Polygamia Æqualis class and Hedge sparrow, the brown motacilla, order. Natural order of Compositæ Semiwhite underneath, and with a grey spot be. Aosculosæ. Cichoracee, Jussieu. Essen. hind the eyes. See MOTACILLA.

tial character : calyx calycled, with short HEDWIGIA, in botany, so called from scales; seeds crowned with the calycle; J. Hedwig, a genus of the Octandria Mono- outer without down, covered up in the gynia class and order. Essential character: scales of the calyx ; inner having a down of calyx four-toothed; corolla four-cleft; style five erectish awned chaffs: receptacle naked, none; capsule tricoccous; seed a nut. There hollow dotted. This genus, according to is only one species ; viz. H. balsamifera, a Professor Martyn, embraces some species lofty tree more than sixty feet in height, of Hyoseris and of CREPIs, which see. and nearly five feet in circumference, a na HEDYSARUM, in botany, a genus of tive of St. Domingo. The wood is used the Diadelphia Decandria class and order. for many purposes : the red gum that issues Natural order of Papilionaceæ or Legumifrom the bark has a strong aromatic smell,

Essential character: corolla keel and is serviceable in the cure of wounds: it transversely obtuse ; legume jointed, with is frequently called bois cochon.

one seed in each joint. There are ninety HEDYCARYA, in botany, a genus of species, only one of which is a native of the Dioecia Icosandria class and order. Great Britain; viz. H. onobrychis, saintNatural order of Scabridæ. Urticæ, Jas- foin, or cockshead, and but ten which are sieu. Essential character: calyx eight or natives of Europe. Most of these are peten cleft; corolla zone: male, filaments rennial. - Linnæus relates a remarkable phenone; anthers in the bottom of the calyx, nomenon belonging to H. gyrans, sensitive four-furrowed, bearded at the tip: female, hedysarum, which is as follows: “ This is germs pedicelled; nuts pedicelled, one a wonderful plant, on account of its volunseeded. There is but one species; viz. H. tary motion, which is not occasioned by dentata, a native of New Zealand.

any touch, irritation, or movement in the HEDYCREA, in botany, a genus of the air, as in the Mimosa, Oxalis, and Dionæa; Pentendria Monogynia class and order. nor is it so evanescent as in Amorpha. No Essential character: calyx one-leafed, he sooner had the plants raised from seed acmispherical, five-toothed; corolla none; quired their ternate leaves, than they bedrupe oval, one-celled; nut ovate, covered gan to be in motion this way and that: this with fibres, one-celled; the shell hard. movement did not cease during the whole There is but one species; viz. H. incana, a course of their vegetation, nor were they native of Guiana, where it is called caligni observant of any time, order, or direction; by the natives, who are remarkably fond of one leaflet frequently revolved, whilst the the fruit, which is about the size of a large other on the same petiole was quiescent; olive; the pulp is white, and of a sweetish sometimes a few leaflets only were in motaste; the shell is bony, and separates with tion, then almost all of them would be in difficulty from the fibres in the pulp; the movement at once; the whole plant was kernel is two-lobed :'it is but a small tree, very seldom agitated, and that only during not exceeding four feet in height.

the first year. It continned to move in the HEDYOSMUM, in botany, a genus of stove during the second year of its growth, the Monoecia Polyandria class and order. and was not at rest even in winter." Essential character : male, ament covered HEEL, in the sea language. If a ship with anthers ; no perianth, corolla, or fila- leans on one side, whether she be aground ments: female, calyx three-toothed; corol or afloat, then it is said she heels a starboard, la none; style one, three.cornered; berry or a-port; or that she heels offwards, or to three-cornered, one-seeded. There are two the shore ; that is, inclines more to one side species, both natives of Jamaica.

than to another. HEDYOTIS, in botany, a genus of the HEEL of the mast, that part of the foot of Tetrandria Monogynia class and order. any mast which is pared away slanting on Natural order of Stellatæ. Rubiaceæ, Jus: the aftward side thereof, in order that it

may be stayed aftward on. The heels of die without issue, all his brothers may in. the top-masts are squares. 1

herit, is good. HEGIRA, in chronology, a celebrated To prevent injury to creditors by the epocha among Mahometans. See CHRO- alienation of the lands descended, &c. and NOLOGY. The event which gave rise to this depriving them of their claim on the lands, epocha was the flight of Mahomet from it is enacted by 3 and 4 William and Mary Mecca, with his new proselytes, to avoid c. 14, that in all cases, where any heir at the persecution of the Coraischites; wbo, law shall be liable to pay the debt of his being then most powerful in the city, could ancestor, in regard of any lands, tenenot bear that Mahomet should abolish ido- ments, or hereditaments descending to him, latry, and establish his new religion. This and shall sell, alien, and make over the flight happened in the fourteenth year after same before any action brought or process Mahomet had commenced prophet: he re sued out against him, such heir at law shall tired to Medina, which he made the place be answerable for such debt or debts in an of his residence.

action or actions of debt to the value of HEIGHT, in geometry, is a perpendi- the said land so by him sold, alienated, or cular let fall from the vertex, or top, of any made over; in which case all creditors shall right-lined figure, upon the base or side snb. be preferred, in the same order as in actending it. It is likewise the perpendicular tions against executors and administrators, height of any object above the horizon; and such execution shall be taken out upon and is found several ways, by two staffs, any judgment or judgments so obtained a plain mirror, with the quadrant, theo. against such heirs, to the value of the said dolite, or some graduated instrument, &c. land, as if the same were his own proper The measuring of heights or 'distances is debts; saving that the lands, tenements, of two kinds; when the place or object is · and hereditaments, bona fide aliened before accessible, as when you can approach to its the action brought shall not be liable to bottom; or inaccessible, when it cannot be such execution. Provided, that where approached. See SURVEYING.

any action of debt upon any specialty, is HEIR, in law, is he to whom lands, tene- brought against any heir, he may plead ments, hereditaments, by the act of God riens per descent at the time of the original and right of blood, descend of some estate writ brought, or the bill filed against him; of inheritance.

and the plantiff in such action may reply, Heir apparent. No person can be heir that he had lands, tenements, or beredita. in fact until the death of his ancestor; yet ments from his ancestor before the original he who stands nearest in degree of kindred writ brought, or the bill filed; and if apon 10 the ancestor, is called even in his life. issue joined thereupon, it be found for the time, heir apparent.

plantiff, the jury shall inquire of the value And the law takes notice of an heir of the lands, tenements, or hereditaments, apparent, so far as to allow the father to so descended, and thereupon judgment bring an action of trespass for taking away shall be given, and execution shall be his son and heir, the father being guardian awarded as aforesaid ; but if judgment be by nature to his son, where any lands de given against such heir, by confession of the scended to him.

action, confessing the assets descended, or The heir, heir general, or heir at com- upon demarrer, or nihil dixit, it shall be mon law, is he who after his father's or for the debt and damages, without any ancestor's death has a right to all his land, writ to enquire of the lands, tenements, or tenements, and hereditaments; but he must hereditaments so descended. be of the wliole blood, not a bastard, alien, Before this statute, if the ancestor had &c. None but the heir general, according devised away the lands, a creditor by spe to the course of the common law, can be heir cialty had no remedy, either against the to a warrantry, or sue an appeal of the heir or devisee. But by this statute it is death of his ancestor.

enacted, that all wills and testaments, limiA custom in particular places varying the tations, dispositions, or appointments, of or rules of descent at common law is good, concerning ang manors, messuages, lands, such is the custom of gavel-kind, by which tenements, or hereditaments, or of any rent, all the sons shall inherit, and make but one profit, term, or charge out of the sanie, ' heir to their ancestor. The general custom whereof any person at the time of his de

of gavel-kind lands extends to sons only, cease shall be seised in fee-simple, posses. - but a special custom, that if one brother sion, reversion, or remainder, or have power

to dispose of the same by his last will and prevented the descent of so much to the testament, shall be deemed and taken only heir, and consequently took away their reagainst such creditor as aforesaid, his heirs, medy against him, who was only liable in successors, executors, administrators, and respect of the lands descended; and as a assigns, and every of them, to be fraudulent, bond is no lien whatsoever on the lands in and clearly, absolutely, and utterly void, the hands of the obligor, much less can it be frustrate, and of none effect; any pretence so, when they are given away to a stran. culour, feigned or presumed consideration, ger. or any other matter or thing to the contrary Heir looms, in law, are such goods and notwithstanding. And in those cases every personal chattels, as, contrary to tbe nature such creditor may maintain his action of of chattels, shall go by special custom to debt upon his said lands and specialties, the heir, along with the inheritance, and against the heir at law of such obligor, and not to the executor of the last proprietor. such devisee and devisees jointly, by virtue HEISTERA, in botany, so called in of this act; and such devisee and devisees honour of Lanrence Heister, a genus of the 'shall be liable and chargeable for a false Decandria Monogynia class and order. plea by him or them pleaded, in the same Natural order of Holoraceæ. Aurantia, manner as any heir should have been for Jussieu. Essential character: calyx fivefalse plea by him pleaded, or for not con cleft; petals five; drupe with a very large fessing the lands or tenements to him de- coloured calyx. There is but one species, scended. Provided, that where there hath viz. H. coccinea, a native of Martinico, in been or shall be any limitation or appoint close woods near torrents. The French ment, devise, or disposition, of any manors, inhabitants call it bois perdrix, birds being messuages, lands, tenements, or heredita- very fond of the fruit. ments, for the raising or payment of any

HELENIUM, iu botany, a genus of the real or just debt, or any portion, sum or Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua class and sums of money, for any child or children of order. Natural order of Compositæ Dis. any person other than the heir at law, in coideæ. Corymbiferæ, Jussieu. There are pursuance of any marriage, contract, or two species. These plants are natives of agreement in writing, bona fide made before America, where they grow wild in great such marriage ; the same and every of them plenty, in the woods and other shady shall be in full force, and the same manors, places, where the ground is moist. &c. may be holden and enjoyed by every HELIACAL, in astronomy, a term apsuch person, lis heirs, executors, admini- plied to the rising or setting of the stars, strators, and assigns, for whom the said limi- or, more strictly speaking, to their emersion tation, appointment, devise, or disposition out of and immersion into the rays and was made, and by his trustee, his heirs, ex- superior splendour of the sun. A star is ecutors, administrators, and assigns, for such said to rise heliacally, when after having estate or interest as shall be so limited or been in conjunction with the sun, and on appointed, devised or disposed, until such that account invisible, it comes to be at debt or debts, portion or portions, shall be such a distance from him, as to be seen in raised, paid, and satisfied. And every de- the morning before sun-rising; the sun, by visee made liable by this act, shall be liable his apparent motion, receding from the and chargeable in the same manner as the star towards the east; on the contrary, the heir at law, by force of this act, notwith heliacal setting is when the sun approaches standing the lands, tenements, and heredi. so near a star, as to hide it with his beams, taments to him or them devised, shall be which prevent the fainter light of the star aliened before the action brought. In the from being perceived, so that the terms apconstruction of this statute it has been held, parition and occultation would be more that though a man is prevented from de- proper than rising and setting. feating his creditors by will, that yet any set.

All the fixed stars in the zodiac, as also tlement or disposition he shall make in his the superior planets, Mars, Jupiter, and life-time of his lands, whether voluntary or Saturn, rise heliacally in the morning, a. not, will be good against bond creditors; little before sun-sising, and a few days after, for that was not provided against by the they have set cosmically. Again, they set statute, which only took care to secure such heliacally in the evening, a little before creditors from any imposition, which might their achronycal setting. But the moon, be supposed in a man's last sickness; but if wliose motion eastward is a:ways quicker he

gave away his estate in his life-time, this than the apparent motion of the sun, rises

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heliacally in the evening, after the new ple; capsule two-celled, compressed, lonmoon; and sets heliacally in the morning, gitudinally radiated on both sides. There when old and approaching to a conjunction is only one species, riz. H. americana, with the sun.

American heliocarpus. It is found growing The inferior planets, Venus and Mercury, wild about La Vera Cruz, in New Spain. which sometimes seem

to go westward

HELIOMETER, the name of an instrufrom the sun, and sometimes again have a ment for measuring with particular exactquicker motion eastward, rise heliacally ness the diameters of the heavenly bodies, in the morning, when they are retrograde; and especially those of the sun and moon. but when direct in their motions they rise This instrument is a kind of telescope, cob. 'heliacally in the evening. The heliacal sisting of two object-glasses of equal focal rising or setting of the moon, happens when distance, placed one of them by the side of she is seventeen degrees distant from the the other, so that the same eye-glass serves sun; but for the other planets, twenty de- for both. The tube of this instrument is of grees are required; and for the fixed stars, a conical form, larger at the upper end,which more or less according to their magnitude. receives the two object-glasses, than at the

HELIANTHUS, in botany, sun-flower, lower, which is furnished with an eye-glass a genus of the Syngenesia Polygamia Frus- and micrometer. By the construction of tranea class and order. Natural order of this instrument two distinct images of an Compositæ Oppositifoliæ. Corymbiferæ, object are formed in the focus of the eyeJussieu. Essential character: calyx imbri. glass, whose distance, depending on that of cate, somewhat squarrose; down two. the two object-glasses from one another, may leaved ; receptacle chaffy, tlat. There are be measured with accuracy ; nor is it necestwelve species. These are hardy lierbace- sary that the whole disc of the sun or moon ous plants, most of them tall and large, all should come within the field of view, since, perennial excepting two, viz. H. annus and if the images of only a small part of the disc H. indicus. They are all natives of Ame be formed by each object-glass, the whole rica.

diameter may be easily computed by their HELICOID parabola, or Parabolic Spirul, position with respect to one another : for if is a curve arising from the supposition that the object be large, the images will ap. the common parabola is bent or twisted, till proach, or perhaps lie even over one anthe axis comes into the circumference of a other, and the object-glasses being moveable, circle, the ordinates still retaining their the two images may always be brought places - and perpendicular positions with exactly to touch one another, and the diarespect to the circle, all these still remaining meter may be computed from the known in the same place.

distance of the centres of the two glasses. HELICONIA, in botany, a genus of the Besides, as this instrument has a common Pentandria Monogynia class and order. Na. micrometer in the focus of the eye-glass, tural order of Scitamineæ. Muse, Jussieu. when t:e two images of the sun or moon Essential character: spathes ; perianth none; are made in part to cover one another, that corolla three-petalled ; nectary two-leav- part which is common to both the images may ed ; pericarpium tricoccous; seeds solitary. be measured with great exactness, as being There are three species, natives of the West viewed upon a ground that is only one half Indies and South America.

less luminous than itself; whereas, in geneHELICTERES, in botany, a genus of ral, the heavenly bodies are viewed upon a thie Gynandria Decandria class and order. dark ground, and on that account are imaNatural order of Columniferæ. Malvaceæ, gined to be larger than they really are. By Jussieu. Essential character: pentagynons ; a small addition to this instrument, provided calyx one leafed, oblique ; petals five; it be of a moderate length, M. Bouguer, nectary of five leaflets ; capsule five-twist the inventor, thought it very possible to ed. There are nine species, shrubs or trees, measure angles of three or four degrees, natives of both Indies, mostly tomentose; which is of particular consequence in taking leaves alternate ; peduncles axillary, few. the distance of stars from the moon. With flowered.

this instrument he found that the sun's verHELIOCARPUS, in botany, a genus of tical diameter, though somewhat diminished the Dodecandria Digynia class and order. by the astronomical refraction, is longer Natural order of Columniferæ. Tiliaceæ, than the horizontal diameter ; and, in asJussiei. Essential character : calyx four- certaining this phenomenon, he also found, leaved ; corolla four-petalled; styles sim- that the upper and lower edges of the sun's

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