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Fig...Cuculus canoruw.cvetino - Fio... Didus ineptw.honderd kurdo - 110.3.Dioniedea orulina mkarimo albany. - tio. . . Emberizi retusirine buntino - Fins.E.hvemaks: Whak hoaded bunting Mo.c.Pringilla crurductis : rokhind 770.7...kinaria :kwar nad pode 77.8.F.m. vihaut: 112' agarrrw.

London Meblistrud for Lopemani Junv Rendirme 88.

great richness and variety of notes, and ex The other way is by a mill, worked either traordinary power in imitating sounds. F. by water, or a horse, or sometimes by men. canaria, or canary finch. These birds con This latter is esteemed the better way of stitate, to some little extent, an article of frizing, by reason the motion being uniform commerce, being exported from the Tyrol and regular, the little knobs of the frizing in considerable numbers every year to va are formed more equably and regularly. rious other parts of Europe. Buffon enu The structure of this useful machine is as merates no fewer than 29 varieties, and de- follows : votes 50 pages of his celebrated work to an The three principal parts are the frizer interesting detail of their manners, babits, or crisper, the frizing-table, and the drawer, and song. They are bred and reared in Eng- or beam. The two first are two equal land in aviaries with great facility; and the planks or boards, each about ten feet long, fidelity of their attachments, and delicacy of and fifteen inches broad, differing only in their attentions, their extreme neatness, pa- this, that the frizing-table is lined or corental affection, and animated and almost in- vered with a kind of coarse woollen stuff, cessant music, constitute a source of pure and of a rough sturdy nap; and the frizer is inexquisite entertainment to all the admirers crustated with a kind of cement composed of artless and interesting nature. F. linaria, of glue, gum arabic, and a yellow sand, or the linnet, is to be met with in every part with a little aquavitæ, or urine. The of Europe, and is particularly common in beam, or drawer, thus called, because it England, where it builds, generally, in draws the stuff froin between the frizer and thorns and furze bushes, and breeds twice the frizing-table, is a wooden roller, beset in the year. Linnets feed on various seeds; all over with little, fine, short poiuts, or but particularly relish those of the flax plant, ends of wire, like those of cards used in from the Latin name for which (linum) they carding of wool. probably derive their name. They can be The disposition and use of the machine is taught the notes of various other birds, and thus : the table stands immoveable, and eren to utter words with very distinct enun bears or sustains the cloth to be frized, ciation ; but their natural song, expressive which is laid with that side uppermost of tranquillity and rapture, and poured out on which the nap is to be raised : over in a strain of richly varied melody, is infi. the table is placed the frizer, at such a disnitely superior to these unmeaning and ela- tance from it as to give room for the stuff to borate articulations. For the red-pole and be passed between them, so that the frizer, the mountain-sparrow, see Aves, Plate VI. having a very slow semicircular motion, fig. 7 and 8.

meeting the long hairs or naps of the cloth, FRIT, in the glass manufacture, the mat twists and rolls them into little knobs or ter or ingredients whereof glass is to be burrs, while, at the same time, the drawer, made, when they have been calcined or which is continually turning, draws away baked in a furnace; or it is the calcined the stuff from under the frizer, and winds it matter to be run into glass. See Glass. over its own points., FRITILLARIA, in botany, imperial

All that the workman has to do while the fritillary, or crown imperial, a genus of the machine is a going, is to stretch the stuff on Hexandria Monogynia class and order. the table, as fast as the drawer takes it off; Natural order of Coronariæ. Lilia, Jus

and from time to time to take off the stuff sieu. There are five species with many va from the points of the drawer. The design rieties.

of having the frizing-table lined with stuff of FRIZING of cloth, a term in the woollen a short, stiff

, stubby nap, is, that it may demanufactory, applied to the forming of the tain the cloth between the table and the nap of a cloth, or stuff, into a number of lit- frizer long enough for the grain to be formed, tle hard burrs or prominences, covering al- that the drawer may not take it away too most the whole ground thereof. Some readily, which must otherwise be the case, cloths are only freezed on the backside, as as it is not held by any thing at the other black cloths; others on the right side, as end. coloured and mixed cloths, rateens, bays, FROG. See RANA. freezes, &c. Frizing may be performed FRONDESCENTIA, in botany, a term two ways; one with the hand, that is, by expressive of the precise time of the year means of two workmen, who conduct a and month, in which each species of plants kind of plank that serves for a frizing in- unfolds its first leaves. All plants produce strument.

new leaves every year ; but all do not re

new them at the same time. Among woody two cubits, or Swedish ells into the earth, and plants, the elder, and most of the honey- turns what moisture is found there into a suckles; among perennial herbs, crocus whitish substance, like ice ; and standing and tulip, are the first that push or expand water to three' ells or more. The same author their leaves. The time of sowing the seed also mentions sudden cracks or rifts in the decides with respect to annuals. The oak ice of the lakes of Sweden, nine or ten feet and ash are constantly the latest in pushing deep, and many leagues long; the rupture their leaves : the greatest number unfold being made with a noise not less loud than them in spring ; the mosses and firs in ` if many guns were discharged together. By winter. These strikiog differences, 'with such means however the fishes are fur. respect to so capital a circumstance in nished with air; so that they are rarely plants as that of unfolding their leaves, seem found dead. to indicate that each species of plant has a The natural history of frosts furnish very temperature proper or peculiar to itself, and extraordinary effects. The trees are often requires a certain degree of heat to extri- scorched and burnt up, as with the most excate the leaves from their bnds, and pro. cessive heat, in consequence of the separaduce the appearance in question. This tion of water from the air, which is theretemperature, however, is not so constant as, fore very drying. In the great frost in to a superficial observer, it may appear to

1683, the trunks of oak, ash, walnut, &c. be. Among plants of the same species, were miserably split and cleft, so that they there are some more early than others; might be seen through, and the cracks often whethur that circumstance depends, as it attended with dreadful noises like the exmost commonly does, on the nature of the plosion of fire arms, Philos. Trans. Num. plants, or is owing to differences in heat, ber 165. exposure, and soil. In general, it may be The close of the year 1708, and the be. affirmed, that small and young trees are ginning of 1709, were remarkable throughalways earlier than larger or old ones. See out the greatest part of Europe, for a seGERMINATION, and Milne's Bot. Dict. vere frost. Dr. Derham says, it was the

FROST, such a state of the atmosphere greatest in degree, if not the most universal as causes the congelation or freezing of in the memory of man ; extending through water or other fluids into ice. In the most parts of Europe, though scarcely felt more northern parts of the world, even

in Scotland or Ireland, solid bodies are affected by frost, though

In very cold countries, meat may be prethis is only or chiefly in consequence of the served by the frost six or seven months, and moisture they contain, which being frozen prove tolerably good eating. See Captain into ice, and so expanding as water is Middleton's observations made in Hudson's known to do when frozen, it bursts and Bay, in the Philos. Trans. Number 465, rends any thing in which it is contained, as plants, trees, stones, and large rocks. Many

In tliat climate the frost seems never out fluids expand by frost, as water, which ex of the ground, it having been found hard pands about th part, for which reason

frozen in the two summer months. Brandy ice floats in water ; but others again con

and spirit, set out in the open air, freeze to tract, as quicksilver, and thence frozen solid ice in three or four hours. quicksilver sinks in the fluid metal.

Lakes and standing waters, not above 10 Frost, being derived from the atmosphere,

or 12 feet deep, are frozen to the ground in naturally proceeds from the upper parts of winter, and all their fish perish. But in bodies downwards, as the water and the rivers where the current of the tide is earth:

: so, the longer a frost is continued, strong, the ice does not reach so deep, and the thicker the ice becomes upon the water the fish are preserved. Id. ib. in ponds, and the deeper into the earth the Some remarkable instances of frost in ground is frozen. In about 16 or 17 days Europe, and chiefly in England, are refrost, Mr. Boyle found it had penetrated 14 corded as below; in the year inches into the ground. At Moscow, in a 220 Frost in Britain that lasted five hard season, the frost will penetrate two feet

months. deep into the ground: and Captain James 250 The Thames frozen nine weeks. found it penetrated 10 feet deep in Charlton 991 Most rivers in Britain frozen six Island, and the water in the same island was

weeks. frozen to the depth of six feet. Sheffer as 359 Severe frost in Scotland for 14 sures us, that in Sweden the frost pierces


sect. 2.

away by ice.

508 The rivers in Britain frozen for two particularly on those of the common white. months.

field lychnis or catch-fly. See Cicada. 558 The Danube quite frozen over. FRUCTESCENTIA, in botany, com. 695 Thames frozen six weeks; booths prehends the precise time in which, after built on it.

the fall of the flowers, the fruits arrive at 759 Frost from Oct. 1, till Feb. 26, maturity, and disperse their seeds. In 760.

general, plants which Aower in spring, 827 Frost in England for nine weeks. ripen their tiuits in summer, as rye; those 859 Carriages used on the Adriatic Sea. which flower in summer, have their fruits 908 Most rivers in England frozen two ripe in autumn, as the vine; the fruit of months.

autumnal flowers ripens in winter, or the 923 The Thames frozen 13 weeks. following spring, if kept in a stove, or 987 Frost lasted 120 days: began Dec. otherwise defended from excessive frosts. 22.

The time in which plants ripen their fruit, 998 The Thames frozen five weeks. combined with that in which they germinale 1035 Severe frost on June 24 : the corn and unfold their leaves, gives the entire and fruits destroyed.

space or duration of their life, which, in 1063 The Thames frozen 14 weeks. the same species, is proportionably short 1076 Frost in England from Nov. till or long, according to the greater or less April.

inteusity of heat of the climate, in which 1114 Several wooden bridges carried they are cultivated. In general, it appears,

that if the heat is equal and uninterrupted, 1205 Frost in England fiom Jan. 14, the time betwixt the germinating or sprouttill March 22.

ing and flowering of annual plants, is equal 1407 Frost that lasted 15 weeks.

to the interval betwixt their flowering and 1434 From Nov. 24, till Feb. 10, Thames the maturation of the fruits, or even the

frozen down to Gravesend, total destruction of the whole plant. In 1683 Frost for 13 weeks.

very hot climates, an annual plant general1708-9 Severe frost for many weeks. ly lives as long before as after flowering. 1715 The same for many weeks.

But in temperate climates, as France and 1739 One for nine weeks : began De. England, plants which rise in spring and cember 24.

flower before the month of June, live a 1742 Severe frost for many weeks. little longer before than after flowering; 1747 Severe frost in Russia.

such as flower in summer, as barley and 1751 Severe one in England.

oats, which flower in June, live as long be1760 The same in Germany.

fore as after; while the latter plants, 1776 The same in England.

which do not rise till autumn, live longer 1788 The Thames frozen below bridge ; after flowering than before. These ob booths on it.

servations apply chiefly to herbaceous an1794 Hard frost of many weeks. Ther, puals. See Milne's Bot. Dict.

at London, mostly at 20 below 0 FRUSTUM, in mathematics, a part of of Fahrenheit.

some solid body separated from the rest. Hoar frost, is the dew frozen or congealed The frustum of a cone is the part that early in cold mornings ; chiefly in autumn. remains, when the top is cut off by a plane Though many Cartesians will have it formed parallel to the base; and is otherwise callof a cloud; and either congealed in the ed a truncated cone. The frustum of a cloud, and so let fall; or ready to be con. pyramid is also what remains after the top gealed as soon as it arrives at the earth. is cut off by a plane parallel to its base.

Hoar frost, M, Regius observes, consists To find the solid content of the frustum of of an assemblage of little parcels of ice a cone, pyramid, &c. the base being of any crystals, which are of various figures, ac- figure whatever: add the areas of the two cording to the different disposition of the ends, and the mean proportional between vapours, when met and condensed by the them together, then of that sum will be cold.

the mean area, or the area of an equal prism, FROTH spit, or Cuckow spit, a name of the same altitude with the frustum ; and given to a white froth, or spume, very com. consequently that mean area multiplied mon in the spring, and first months of the by the height of the frustum, will give the summer, on the leaves of certain plants, solid content for the product:

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