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BY JOHN ADAMS, LL. D.
So me philosophers have begå lcolith ingugh to imagine thråt improvements
might be made in the typicin of the universes by a different arrangement
MY DEAR SIR,
Oftober 4, 1787 THE Roman republic, according to les cu * of placing
judges in all places under its dominion, fent to Pistoia a prætor, who had the whole jurisdiction, civil and criminal, over the city; reserving always, according to the tenor of the Roman laws, the obedience to the magistrates of that commonwealth. This jurisdiction, acquired by the Roman republic over the city of Pirtoia, passed to the Roman emperors, and from these into the power of the Goths and the Lom. bards, and successively in those who, from time to cime, where the lords (signore) of Tuscany; and has continued, down to our times, under the same tie and obligation of dependence. It is very true, that the province being liberated from the government of foreign nations, and its governors (dominatori) having permitted the people to make laws
* Memorie Storiche della citta di Pistoia, raccolte de Jacopo Maria Fioravanti, nobile Patrizio Pistoiese. Edit. Lucca. 1758, cap. ij.p.15. VOL. III. B 2
and create magistrates, the authority became divided : hence, when the concession was made to the Pistoians to create magistrates, take the name of consuls, and form the general council of the people, they were permitted to expedite, by the authority of these, many things in their city ; reserving always, nevertheless, the sovereignty to their lords. This concession of governing themselves by their own laws, obtained by the provinces of Italy, was the mere liberality of Charlemain, * at a time when, having delivered them entirely from the government of the barbarians, he placed theut under the command of one of his
royal ministers, with the title of marquis, or of duke Under this system of government was
comprehended Tuscany, which had its dukes and maigruffes, who governed it. But as it was the custom of Charlemain, and, long after him, of his fucceffors, to send to the cities of this province two subaltern ministers, one with the name of castaldo, or governor, and the other with that of count, which is as much as to say, judge of the city, who held his courts of justice either alone, or in conjunction with the castaldo, and very often with the bithop of the place, as the bishops were assessors and officers, deputed as vassals of the king or the emperor; so the city of Pistoia was a long time ruled and governed by this order of castaldi and counts. Otto the Second, having ascended the Imperial throne, and having conducted, with little good fortone, the affairs of Italy, the people began to think it lawful to lose their respect, and to fail in their veneration, for the imperial commands, and the cities advancing in their inclination for liberty, many of them began to
Sigonius, de Regno Italiæ, lib, iv.