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profession as Christians, when this church, the admiration of the world- not to meet it face to face in your country. But the death note is soundthis church, so well grounded in doctrine—this church, having for its ing like the distant voice of many waters, and it will yet be swept away very name, the “Free Church,” gives its sanction to them, and receives as with the waters of a deluge: 303 Universalist ministers have entered their funds towards its support? I am persuaded that the cause of slavery their protest against the monstrous iniquity of slavery. Every year the is strengthened by such a state of things. (Hear, hear.)
Christian church makes a little advance against the system." I am sure The Rev. W. CHALMERS, of the Free Church of Scotland, said-As a it would stimulate our friends if the Free Scotch Church were to send minister of the Free Church, and as one of the deputation that was sent to back the money which they have received from the slave-holders of America, I hope I shall be permitted to say a few words in reference to America. (Hear.) I may also mention an interesting fact, of recent what has fallen from the preceding speakers. In doing so, I can feel that occurrence, connected with the state of New Hampshire. A member of I am placing myself in a somewhat false position, as men generally must the senate having given a vote against slavery, a pro-slavery advocate do when they have to oppose extreme views on a question upon which was put forward in opposition to him at the next election; but such was they substantially agree with their opponents. The odium theologicum the success of the anti-slavery candidate that he obtained near double which exists in Scotland has laid hold of this question for the purpose of the number of liberty votes that he had done at the previous election. turning it against the Free Church ; but I believe that the ministers of (Cheers.) The West Indian colonies have been referred to on this that church are pursuing a course which is more likely to lead to the at- occasion; and, though I am sorry to interpose between Mr. Douglass tainment of the common object than the course pursued by those who are and the meeting, I must read an extract from a gentleman who was foropposed to them. To prove that they have no sympathy with slavery or merly a slave proprietor, and who has suffered greatly, in a worldly point with slave-holders, I beg to read the following remonstance addressed by of view, by the abolition of the system. This gentleman says, the General Assembly to the American churches :
success which has attended that measure (emancipation) in our colonies " There is no question here as to the heinous sin involved in the in- ought to cheer and encourage you to proceed. There can be no doubt stitution of American slavery; nor can there be any terms too strong to that the large proprietors- the monopolists of land and slaves (I among be employed in pointing out the national guilt which attaches to the the rest)-have been great sufferers by the measure—that our dynasty continuance of that accursed system, and the national judgments which, has departed; but it was one of unrighteousness and unholiness, and it under the government of a righteous God, may be expected to mark the is right that it should go ; and, believe me, that a better ordered, a more divine displeasure against it. Neither can there be any doubt as to the happy, and a more contented peasantry than the late slaves of Jamaica duty incumbent upon all American Christians to exert themselves to the do not exist in any part of the world, and that I am as sanguine as ever utmost, in every competent way, for the purpose of having it abolished. I was for the ultimate prosperity of the island and its inhabitants, and I The only difference of opinion that can exist among the members of this do not think that Cooly importations will, in the slightest degree, add to church respects the duty of the churches in America, as churches who its progress, either in civilization or industy." No West Indian planter are called to deal impartially with the evils of slavery, when it forms part could, on hearing his name, dispute this gentleman's fitness to pronounce of the social system in the community in which they are placed. Even an opinion. I can hardly deny myself the satisfaction of reading a few as to this matter, it is believed, that the difference is more apparent than lines from a letter which I received a few days ago from my friend real." My dear brother says that the church to which he belongs can Thomas Clarkson, and which was addressed to him from Jamaica hold no Christian converse with any church containing slave-holders. by a coloured friend, named Pennington, who was some time ago Now, it is well to remember that those who think with him would have in this country, and who, as you will remember, having, like our excommunicated the churches in the times of the apostles. (“No, no.") coloured friend on the platform, run away with himself, has since, in The case of Onesimus has been referred to; but it is evident that Paul Jamaica, qualified himself to be a minister of a congregation in Con. acknowledged Philemon as a brother, and at the same time as a possessor necticut. He is now endeavouring to raise money enough to buy his of a slave. (Cries of “ No, no.") The rev. gentleman then quoted own freedom and that of his father and mother. Mr. Sturge then read the passage bearing on the point, dwelling particularly on the argument the communication referred to in which Mr. Pennington says that having drawn from the fact of Paul sending Onesimus to Philemon when he had the most ample opportunities of judging, he found the emancipated might have detained him for his own benefit. Now (continued the rev. negroes are a peaceable and laborious people ; and that although he never gentleman), I say to all the American churches, “ Emancipate yourselves, had a doubt that emancipation was a good work, it was now placed beyond it is your duty to do 60;" but then I also say, with respect to the case the shadow of a doubt. of Philemon and Onesimus, that Paul regarded Philemon as admissible In reference to the labour of women, Mr. Pennington, says—“I am to Christian communion at the same time that he referred to him as the frank to say, that the only thing that has given me pain in this respect; owner of a slave.
is to see the amount of heavy work that is done by females and children. Mr. ScoBLE, the secretary of the Society, here rose and said, I am As to the Coolies, he observes—“I have seen some of the Hill Coolies ; quite sure that, however interesting this case may be as matter of criti- the impression I received on seeing them was very painful ; they were nearly cism, this is not an occasion on which we can do justice to it. But I in a state of nudity, and presented a picture truly revolting to humanity." would just put this point for the consideration of our friend, Mr. And in conclusion, he remarks :-" I wish yourself and your worthy Chalmers. If the Apostle Paul considered it right to send back Onesi. coadjutors in England may be assured that you have been instrumental mus to Philemon, it must be the duty of this meeting to send back in accomplishing a great work in these islands which can never be undone. Frederick Douglass to his master. (Hear, hear.)
The blessing of a gracious God is certainly attending things here. I The Rev. W. CHALMERS resumed. I commenced by saying that I expect to return to America soon. Oh, that you might be spared to see might be placing myself in a false position. Unless, however, you mean the day of emancipation in my wicked country. I will only add, in to say that no man can be a Christian who is the master of a slave reference to our friend Thomas Clarkson, that although he has now been (cheers), it must be admitted that this is, after all, a debateable question, working in the cause sixty-one years, he still feel as much interest in it and it is one upon which the great majority of Christian churches do not as he ever did. (Cheers.) I would shortly allude to another friend whom take the view which is held by one or two.
we have lost since last year, William Knibb. In so doing, I will read an The CHAIRMAN then put the resolution, stated it to be his deliberate extract from a letter written on board the packet which wafted him for conviction that the Free Church of Scotland could not advance the abo. ever from his native shore; and this letter, besides showing how prepared lition cause more than by sending back the money received from slave. he was for his final charge, or to enter again on his field of labour, menholders ; and further, that it was their duty to do this. The resolution tions the circumstance of his having met with a person who had fled from was carried unanimously.
Cuba, on account of his abolition principles, but whose information JOSEPH STURGE, Esq., then proposed the following resolution :
showed that even in that benighted island abolition principles were pro
gressing. In this letter William Knibb says—" May we not then realize “ That this meeting, in view of the melancholy facts which have been the prayerful hope that ere long truth shall prevail in this awful place of submitted to them in relation to the present extent and atrocities of the wickedness and crime. May God hasten it in his time.” In another slave-trade, and after) lengthened and painful experience of the incom. part of his letter he says-“ My health, I am happy to say, is quite petency of an armed force to secure its suppression, feel it to be their good, and I am anticipating, with prayerful delight, yet further to engage
in the service of my adorable Saviour. Just so long as it shall please duty to reiterate their conviction, that, so long as slavery exists, there Him would I work in his vineyard, and then retiring from the field, hope is no reasonable prospect of the annihilation of the slave-trade, and that for mercy through the blood of the Lamb." Let me, in conclusion, the extinction, both of slavery and the slave-trade, will be attained most impress upon our friends that these rapid breaches in our ranks should
stimulate all who remain to redoubled exertions, that we may be instrueffectually by the employment of those means which are of a moral,
ments in God's hands in hastening the day when the great object of this religious, and pacific character."
Society shall have been accomplished, and slavery, in all its forms, swept After a few preparatory observations, in which he expressed his con
from the face of the earth. (Cheers.) currence in the view taken, that the money from the slave-holders should
Joseph FERGUSON, Esq., briefly seconded the resolution. be returned by the Free Church of Scotland, he said, the resolution
After a few observations by the Chairman, reminding the meeting that which I have read refers to two points. The first is the utter hopeless- the employment of force in preventing the carrying on of the slave trade ness of abolishing the slave-trade, except by the abolition of slavery.
was originally sanctioned by several of the leaders in the Anti-Slavery I have before often expressed, in public, my opinion that under no pos
cause, a view in which he himself concurred, the resolution was put and sible circumstances can we be justified in taking away life ; but on that carried unanimously. subject I know many of my friends differ from me. It must be admitted, G. THOMPSON, Esq., proposed the next resolution, which was as however, that notwithstanding all the efforts which have been made to follows :put down the slave-trade, its horrors have actually increased ; and this strengthens the conviction that it is to the extinction of slavery we ought
“ That this meeting feels bound solemnly to protest against the recent chiefly to look in struggling for the attainment of this object. I do annexation of Texas to the United States as one of the most iniquitous not wish on this occasion to discuss the question of refusing the produce acts which has ever disgraced the history of nations, whether viewed as of slave-states. As a society, however, we conceive that the produce of to the means by which it has been accomplished, or to the avowed design slave-labour ought to be treated as stolen property. If Englishmen were stolen and forced to labour in the production of articles to be sold in of its supporters-namely, the extension and perpetuation of slavery on some other country, there would be no difficulty in recognizing the force the American continent; but firmly trusting in the righteousness of their of this argument. (Hear, hear.) Our chairman has said that there is cause, and the justice of the Most High, they would call upon their considerable cause of discouragement. There is also great cause for esteemed fellow-labourers in the United States to redouble their exertions encouragement. (Hear, hear.). I have received from America one or two letters which justify me in taking this view. One is from the learned to promote the speedy downfall of that enormous evil. blacksmith, Elihu Burritt. He says :-I receive regularly the Anti- “ That in connexion with the subject of American slavery, this meeting Slavery Reporter, and have published the admirable letter of your Anti- feels bound to express its deep indignation and sorrow, not only as the Slavery Society to that of the Christian Alliance. Poor Torrey is at the point of death in the prison at Baltimore, for an act of Christian countless enormities which it heaps upon millions of victims who are charity. Slavery! Slavery! You ought to be grateful that you have treated as property, but the cruel injuries which it also heaps upon those
who were born American freemen, when brought within the power of the its states, it is still more than ever susceptible to that moral influence Slave States, and convicted of cherishing sympathy with their brethren in which, in the Northern States, they are bringing most powerfully to bear bondage ; and would especially record its sympathy with Charles T. American abolition has been one of steady progress down to the present
on the Southern States. It is gratifying to know that the cause of Torrey, a citizen of New England, now languishing in a dying state in moment, though its agents may not be so numerous as they once were. the city of Baltimore, under a sentence pronounced upon him for aiding This is not owing to want of zeal, but to that pecuniary embarrassment several slaves to escape from their captivity. This meeting would also which cramps their energies. There is, however, a deeper feeling express its unfeigned sympathy with the members of Mr. Torrey's family, in the Northern States than ever before existed, and more uncom
promising opposition to slavery than has ever before been known. from whom he has been so unjustly and cruelly torn.
(Loud cheers.) “That, whilst this meeting cordially sympathize in the objects, and G. W. ALEXANDER, Esq., in seconding the resolution, said - It highly appreciate the labours of the Abolitionists of the continent of affords me great satisfaction to say a few words to the meeting. It is Europe, and rejoice in the measure of success which has attended their prominent a place in connexion with the abolishment of slavery, walking
a source of pleasure to me to see the son of one who has occupied so efforts, they would, nevertheless, respectfully urge on them the duty of in the steps of his venerated father. (Hear, hear.) I draw from this organizing their forces on the principle of immediate and entire emanci- circumstance some encouragement. I trust his example will be followed pation, and of using their utmost exertions to give it practical effect.”
by men in the prime of life, who will dedicate themselves to the work till
it is fully accomplished. Although so much has been done for the slaves, After an allusion to the death of Mr. Knibb and Mr. Burchell—the and there is not one to be found within the dominions of Great Britain, yet a latter occurring on Saturday last—he said—I have lately visited Scotland, large number are still held in bondage, and they have not less claim upon and have held there several meetings in connexion with a subject which our sympathy than had our fellow-subjects. Indeed, in one respect, they has already been discussed. (Hear, hear.) There is in Scotland an have a greater claim ; for their number exceeds those whom we emancipated intense and almost universal feeling in favour of the object which I had in in the West Indies, and is, perhaps, even greater than all who have been view. (Hear, hear.) This is, in fact, the question of the day, though emancipated throughout the British empire. I am not one of those who it requires to be discussed with a just recognition of the talents and virtues look at the question with discouragement. When I think of the diffi. of the eminent men who differ from us. But, after paying them a de culties that have been removed, and the means by which our object has served tribute of respect, I must contend that their own deliverance, as been attained, I cannot doubt but that the efforts of other countries will read by Mr. Chalmers, requires them to refuse to have fellowship with be followed by similar success. The evil of American slavery is of slave owners. (Cheers.) That deliverance proceeds on the ground upon constant and increasing magnitude. Few of us can realize to ourselves which we demanded the immediate and unconditional emancipation of the the dreadful state of things in that country. At the time of the separation slave. There is no ground which can justify the keeping of any people of America from this country there were 700,000 slaves ; in 1830 there in the world in a condition of slavery. Where is the warrant? Where were two millions ; at the present time there are nearly three millions of our the bill of sale ? (Cheers.) Yet, we are told, there are some individuals fellow-men who are there held in cruel, ynjust, and ignominious bondage. who maintain slavery though they are doctors of divinity, or elders and I am surprised that any one can for a moment vindicate the slave-holder deacons of churches. Why, does not their profession and their position
as a Christian man. Let us consider what slavery is. It has been found make the matter worse? (Hear, hear.) I venture to say that these men, that wherever slavery exists, a vast amount of cruelty is inevitably who are in many respects irreproachable, are the main support of slavery practised, and such is the unavoidable consequence, because it is unjust in in the United States. (Hear, hear.) It is by such men as Dr. Plummer principle. It denies the poor man the reward of his labour, and punish. and Dr. Smythe that the system is upheld (hear, hear); and the im- ment must be resorted to to compel it. Slavery is fearfully destructive to moral slave owners of the Southern States justify themselves by referring human life. The increase has been 8 per cent. less for the ten years to such examples. (Hear, hear.) The speaker then went into an elabo- ending in 1840 than it was for the ten years ending in 1830; proving to us rate argument, to show that Christian principle was opposed to fellowship that since that time it has been more cruel than it was before. The with slave-owning churches. I cannot (he continued,) "love my neigh- marriage relation is not recognised; the husband and wife may be bour as myself” if I hold him as my slave ; I cannot recognise his separated from each other, and parents from their children ; indeed, equality with myself if I hold him as my slave; I cannot render unto him there is no protection whatever for the slave. In the Southern States the that which is just and equal if I hold him as a slave; I tell Mr. Chalmers slave is not allowed by law to become acquainted with the rudiments of that every penny that came from America was the produce of the slaves' letters, nor is he allowed to read the Scriptures of truth ; light must not be uncompensated labour. (Cheers.) Suppose the slaves of a Christian poured into his mind, for slavery cannot bear the light. (Cheers.) It minister were to present themselves before him some morning after may be naturally supposed that, belonging to comparatively a small section he had been preaching to them about the love of God and of all of the Christian church, but which is wholly opposed to the continuance men being equal in his sight, and on the ground of what he of slavery, I can have no sympathy in the conduct pursued by the Free had said, were to intimate that they were about to act upon his Church with regard to the slave-holders. I do trust that the Free Church doctrine by quitting his service, how, in such a case, would the slave. of Scotland will yet do her duty in this matter, that they will see that they master act? If he had a right to their persons, there must be some are fearfully failing in their duty as a Christian Church if they do anything process by which he could recover possession of them ; and if they were to encourage a system of such unmitigated evil. (Cheers.) I wish to not liable to punishment, he must have been taking advantage of their state my deep sympathy with that unhappy man who is a victim of this ignorance and debasement. (Hear, hear.) The deliverance of the General cruel system. I fear that there is no ground to hope that his life will be Assembly clearly recognises the doctrine that the man who recognises spared, but I do trust that the friends of the slave will feel that they have property in man is a sinner of the first magnitude ; and I assert that a solemn duty devolving upon them in connexion with his family (loud every ecclesiastical body in the Southern States has officially, formally, cheers), and that they will
, in the event of his death, adopt his family as and publicly recognised property in man. They assail the abolitionists of their own. With such feeble means as I possess, the family of Torrey the north for menacing the security of their property, and they have shall never want. (Loud cheers.). I would as cheerfully consent that my declared slavery to be inconsistent with the word of God. We are told, own family should want bread as the family of that man. (Cheers.) Í indeed, while we condemn the dice to spare the gambler-while we con- do hope that if he dies, the result arising from it will be the same as that demn the theft not to attack the thief. We cannot take such advice. which followed the death of the venerated Smith, in Demerara, that it will The antiquity of the wrong is no sanctification of the wrong; you may accelerate the downfal of American slavery. (Cheers.) From the infor. fetch your sanction fram the antediluvian world, but I still ask, "Whence mation I possess I do feel strongly convinced that slavery is tottering to does the title come, from heaven or from hell ?” (Cheers.) He then its foundation, not only in the United States, but generally in those referred at some length to the circumstances connected with the visit countri where it exists. I could adduce facts to prove this, but at this of the deputation of the Free Church to America, and the silence required late hour I will refrain. I cannot, however, sit down without expressing and observed in the Southern States on the subject of slavery. I tell Mr. the deep interest I feel in hearing that anti-slavery newspapers are estaChalmers and his church (he continued) that they are bound to send blished not only in the Northern but in the Southern States of America. back the money. (Applause.) I challenge Mr. Chalmers to deny it if There is an anti-slavery newspaper published at Baltimore, and another at he can. It was distinctly understood that there was not one word to be Lexington, where they could not have existed a few years ago-such said in the Southern States upon the subject of slavery, nor was there one is the progres of anti-slavery opinion. I believe there is a prospect of word. (Cries of “Shame !") I should like to see the text from which one being established at Washington; and I rejoice that anti-slavery the rev. gentlemen preached. 'I wonder whether any one gave out this papers are published in France. I have within the last few days received text>"Whoso stealeth a man and selleth him, or if he shall be found in a pamphlet from France, in which the cause is pleaded in a manner that his hand, he shall surely be put to death ?" (Loud cheers.) I wonder it will be impossible for any man to resist. I hope the day is not far whether they turned to that text in Isaiah, “Is this the fast that I have distant when France will follow the example of England, and which will, chosen ?” &c., or this, “ Owe no man anything?" I tell Mr. Lewis doubtless, greatly hasten the overthrow of slavery wherever it prevails. that had he or any other of his brethren taken one of these texts, and (Cheers.) spoken in the spirit of their Master, these very men, with Dr. Smythe at
Mr. FREDERICK DOUGLASs then stood forward and was received with their head, would have bounded on the Lynch law, and that they would enthusiastic cheers. Mr. Douglass, after a brief but interesting narrative not have come back either to bring their money or themselves. (Hear, of his escape from slavery, and his connexion with the Abolitionists of hear.) The men who are now quoting the speeches of Dr. Cunningham America, observed - One word with regard to the fact that there is no and Dr. Candlish, are offering rewards for the self-devoted Abolitionists part of America in which a man who has escaped from slavery can be free. of the north, who are bold enough to declare that America is guilty in This is one of the darkest spots in the American character. I want the keeping three millions of men in bondage. The Deputation have done audience to remember that there are those who come to this country who more to promote the cause of slavery than all the efforts of the pro-slavery attempt to establish the conviction that slavery belongs entirely to the party in that country. (Hear, hear.) I do hope, therefore, that from Southern States of America, and does not belong to the North. I am here, one end of this land to the other, will be raised a universal shout that however, to say, that slavery is an American institution (hear, hear), that shall be heard at the Cannon-mills next week :-"Send back the money." it belongs to the entire community, that the whole land is one great hunt(Loud cheers.) Part of the resolution I have to propose has been antici- ing ground for catching slaves, and returning them to their masters. pated by Mr. Burnet, when he spoke of the efforts made on the Continent, (Hear, hear.) There is not a spot upon which a poor black fugitive may and the duty devolving on the Abolitionists of this country, to admonish stand free, no valley so deep, no mountain so high, no plain so expanded, and encourage them, ever setting before them the only true and righteous in all that land, that I may enjoy the right to use my own hands without standard on this subject - namely, that slavery is sinful, and ought to be being liable to be hunted by the blood bounds. (Cheers.) Hence I came unconditionally abolished. Mr. Sturge has drawn your attention to the to this country, and I feel exceedingly glad to be here. (Loud cheers). situation in which Mr. Torrey is now placed for having asssisted the My master, whom I have accused of being a very mean man, and who hes unfortunate captive to escape from bondage. With regard to Texas, little attempted a refutation of the truth of my narrative, tried to show that he remains to be done but to express our sentiments as contained in this was an excellent man, and he has generously transferred his legal right in resolution. Suffice it to say, that Texas is now part and parcel of the my body and soul to his brother. He has actually made his brother a American union; but by being brought within its government, and within present of the body and bones of Frederick Douglass. His brother must
feel exceedingly rich to-day. (Laughter.) He must feel himself as most important offices in Church and State. A man-stealer is now the wealthy as though he had received a title deed to the planet Mars. President of the United States – man-stealers are members of the churches (Laughter and cheers.) He has given every proof of his meanness in giv. -man-stealers are office-bearers of the churches—man-stealers are doctors ing me away running. He ought to have given me to his brother, when I of divinity-man-stealers are actually bishops of churches. (Loud cries of should have been some service to him, but he has made him a present of “Hear, hear.") _Man-stealers are ministersplenipotentiaries at the a person three thousand miles off. The brother, however, seems very various courts of Europe--men stealers are in the American government proud of the gift, and resolves that if ever I touch American soil, I shall at this time; and to trade in the body and soul of a brother is not there be instantly reduced to a state of slavery. However, it is not to a state of regarded as a crime, because it is not elsewhere regarded as a crime as it slavery that they wish now to have me reduced. They have a feeling of ought to be. (Cheers.) It is to beget the conviction abroad, that slavery revenge to gratify. (Hear, hear.). I have not only exposed them in the is this crime and ought so to be treated, that I am among you to-day. Northern States, but daring the last nine months I have been going the Slave holders are not only ministers and members of churches, but they length of Ireland and Scotland, tearing off the mask from the abomi- openly defend it, by quoting the fact of Paul sending Onesimus to Philenable system of slavery, and exposing the American slave-holders to mon, and they allege that that case shows that neither Christ nor his the gaze and indignation of the Christian people of those countries. apostles had any objection to men holding slaves as property. Men are (Cheers.) They feel it sensibly, as the periodicals they have coming from sold to build churches-babies are sold to buy Bibles. (Loud cries of the other side show. They speak as though they felt the statements that “ Hear, hear."). The blood sold on the auction block goes into the are now being made for their character, by one who has broken the treasury of the church, and the pulpit in return covers it with the garb of chain, and has succeeded in teaching a land where he may be free. Christianity. Our Lord says, “ Search the Scriptures, for in them ye (Loud cheers.) There is a great deal said in this country with regard to think ye have eternal life;" but these men deny to three millions of the system of American slaving. For my part, I have done speaking of people, the right to learn the name of the God that made them. This is the system of slavery. I have heard persons who would start up, and the religious state of things in America. It has been said to me since i denounce the system in louder language, and more eloquent terms, than I came here, “ How can you say these things about the American churches ? am capable of using ; but, at the same time, would stand apologizing for Does not the Lord pour out his blessing on those churches? Have they the Christian character of the slave-holder, and speaking of him as being not had revivals ?" "Yes, they have revivals, but the revivals of religion and an excellent man as disconnected from the systen. Now I have done revivals of the slave trade go hand in hand together. When the slave with American slave-holders. This matter of holding slaves is an indi. trade is going on most prosperously, then there is the most money given vidual affair in America, as well as a national one. All attempts to remove to support "the gospel" as they call it; but it is not the gospel of Christ, the responsibility of the slave-holder from the individual to the nation, is it is not the gospel according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, or John, but it is erroneous, fallacious, false. All attempts to make it exclusively an indi. a gospel according to slavery. (Hear, hear.) I must here say a word vidual matter are equally wrong - however it is more of an individual upon another topic, for I cannot get the Free Church out of my mind. matter than a national one. The slave-holder holds his slave from choice (Hear, hear.) I have to charge its deputation that went to the United - he trades in the bodies and souls of his fellow-men, because it is con- States with going to a land where they saw 3,000,000 of people for whom venient for him to do so. He is not compelled, as some have stated in Christ poured out his precious blood divested of every right, stripped of this country, to hold his slave by law. There is not a single slave-holder every privilege, and denied the right of reading the Word of God." They in the United States but what could give liberty to every slave in his are herded together, are sold upon the auctioneer's block, and torn possession. (Hear, hear.) All the arguments, therefore, based on this from each other to satisfy the rapacity of the slave-dealer. That depu. position must fall to the ground, since the fact itself does not exist. Itation, however, did not raise a whisper against this infernal state of things. know that there are laws in some of the states making it impossible to In doing this they have inflicted a great wound on the glorious cause of emancipate their slaves on the soil, or making it impossible for them to emancipation, and I will tell you why they have done it. During the last remain on the soil in an emancipated state ; but there is not a state in the fifteen years, the Abolitionists have been arduously labouring, amidst all American Union to which a slave-holder may not take his slaves and give kinds of odium, to establish the conviction, that holding human beings in them that liberty to which they are entitled by the laws of God and of the condition of slaves is a sin against God, and ought so to be regarded nature. (Cheers.) One would think, from reading certain statements, by the churches. They have laboured to create such a moral and religious that the religious part of the slave-holders were anxiously desirous to get sentiment, as would entirely purify the churches of America from all conrid of their slaves--really praying daily and hourly to be shown some way nexion with the slave system. They had succeeded to some extent. In by which to get rid of this very troublesome species of property. While 1830 there was scarcely a church in America that stood out against the learned gentlemen in the north of this country are puzzling their slavery, and in 1836 the Methodist General Conference, at its meeting at brains in devising some way by which the masters may emancipate Cincinnati decided, “ that we have no right, wish, or intention to interfere them, there is not a slave in all America so ignorant but what he could with the relation of master and slave, as it exists in the Southern States of decide the question instantly as to how the master might put him in pos- the Union," which was equivalent to saying that they had no right, wish, session of freedom. (Laughter and cheers.) All that he has to do is to or intention to emancipate the slave from his thraldom. The Baptist, say-"I relinquish my claim upon you slaves. Tbere is the north star : Congregational, and Presbyterian Churches were all linked and interlinked, it shines upon the British dominions. Go to Canada, and in any of her woven and interwoven with the slave-holder ; they throw around him all Majesty's dominions the slave may be free." (Cheers.). The slave- the sanctions of Christianity, and endorse him, as the Free Church is now holder, therefore, is without excuse in this matter. He is individually doing, as a follower of Christ. The Abolitionists saw the state of things. responsible, for while the law permits him to hold a slave it does not com- They said that slavery was gnawing at the very vitals of the church - that pel him. But I have a word to say about the relation of master and slave it was corrupting it at the very core-and they determined to mete out to as it exists in the United States. I have had a little opportunity since I the slave-holder the same treatment that they would to any other thief. escaped from slavery of investigating the character of slavery as it exists They have succeeded to a considerable extent. In 1840 the northern in other countries, and I am able to say in no country in the world does churches spoke out on the subject. The Methodist Episcopal Church it exist in so hateful, so horrible a form as in the United States of has been rent because the northern churches were not willing to have a America. I think there is no part of the world where the spirit of slavery man preside over them as bishop whose hand was stained with the blood may be seen in so horrible a light as in the United States of America. of fifteen souls. (Cheers.) The Baptist Church has been divided on Slavery in America is a system of universal concubinage, and all the missionary operations, and they will have no fellowship with the slave churches of this country ought to be made acquainted with it
. There is holder who persists in retaining his slaves in bondage. (Cheers.) There not a slave holder in America who does not hold exclusive jurisdiction over is a large class of Presbyterians pursuing the same course. We were the body and soul-over the mind—the moral perceptions—the affec- looking forward with hope to a speedy purification of the entire church tions of his slave_indeed, over him entirely for time and eternity, in so from all connexion with the slave system when the deputation from the far as the occupancy of his time has anything to do with eternity, or his Church of Scotland bearing the name of “Free," a name which restate beyond the grave. He claims a right to decide on what he shall minded the slave of that for which his soul panted, visited America. In. work-- how much he shall work—when he shall be punished—by whom stead, however, of coming to break his yoke, that deputation came to shake he shall be punished— how much he shall be punished-for what he shall hands with the slave-holders, and to say to the northern churches, you be punished. He claims a right to determine for him what is virtue and are wrong in unfellowshipping these men; they are good and pious men, what is vice -- he claims a right to determine all circumstances as to his said one of them, whom the churches of Scotland would do well to imi. conduct. The slave is a marketable commodity in the hands of his tate. (Hear.) In this way they have injured our cause, and they have master; he may dispose of his person, and, in cases of extremity, may done it knowingly. The American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Committee, kill him, and no law in the United States will punish the guilty perpe- soon after the arrival of these gentlemen from the Free Church, put forth trator of the murder. Look to South Carolina, they have a law which a remonstrance eloquently written, full of pathetic appeal, imploring commences with a show of humanity, and says that the slave-holder who them in the name of humanity and of religion, not to stain their cause does kill his slave shall be punished as though he killed a free black man by taking blood-stained gifts to build their free churches, and pay their unless such slave dies under moderate correction ; so that a slave-holder Free Church ministers in Scotland. (Cheers.) They shut their ears to may deliberately whip his slave to death, and no law takes hold of the this remonstrance. 1 persist in calling slavery man-stealing; in calling murderer. If the slave-holder shoot him dead upon the spot he would the slave-holder a thief--and for the best of reasons, because it is his true not be punished unless he was prosecuted by his neighbours ; for if name.' I know there are some in this country who question my right, ten thousand slaves were present, not one would be allowed to give testi- as Mr. Burnet says, to myself—I have run off with stolen property. mony against him. But I need not narrate these circumstances of cruelty These hands do not belong to me—they belong to Captain Hall ; well, to you, and I do not like it myself. I have in the United States felt it I cannot believe it-I beg to differ from the gentleman. (Loud cheers.) necessary to go into a detail of the cruelty practised on the slaves ; but l I really think I have a right to myself; all the reasoning of Dr. Chalmers, take it there is no need to do a work of that kind in such an audience as and Dr. Cunningham, and Dr. Candlish, and a reverend gentleman who this. There is another mode that will have a better effect on the cause has addressed us, was based upon the ground that my master has a title that I am trying, in my feeble way to advocate ; and that is, to point out to me; it does not for a moment shake my opinion that I have the best the means by which slavery is upheld in the United States. This is the right to myself. (Cheers. ) Feeling this, I cannot consent to go back, question that must now be brought before the people of this country. even if some of these gentlemen should try to act the part that the Apostle You all know that slavery' is a crime—that it is the vilest system that ever Paul did in the case of Onesimus. However, I do not agree with the saw the sun—that so far as the relation of master and slave is concerned, opinion that the Apostle Paul recognised Onesimus as the property of it is one of those monsters of darkness to which the light of truth is blind. Philemon. The Jewish law says— *Thou shalt not deliver a man back Now slavery exists in the United States because public opinion upholds to his master; he shall dwell with thee in the land." I do not think it. Slavery is reputable there because it is not disreputable out of those that if, under Moses and the prophets, it would have been wrong to states--because its character is not fully known-- and because certain per return me back to bondage, that in the nineteenth century of the Chris. sons have felt it their duty to cover up their own delinquency in travelling tian era it would be right to send me back. I think, however, it would in America by casting a veil on the bloody enormities that are being prac- be right to send back the money. (Laughter and immense cheering.) Wo tised. (Cheers.) At all times whan travelling on my anti-slavery mission, do not think, however, that the Free Church has any objection to sending I felt it my duty to expose this. That slavery in the United States is back the money on account of the money itself; but I think they have reputable, is evident from the fact that you see slave-holders filling the worked themselves up to believe that it would be wrong for them to send it
back, or at least that it would be humiliating to do it. I am rather inclined to commend me to your consideration in the way of education, by which to this last opinion. (Cheers.) But I know that if they do not send it to claim attention ; and you are aware that slavery is a very bad school back they will put themselves in such a relation to the slave-holders that for rearing teachers of morality and religion. Twenty-one years of my they will demand it to be returned as loudly as we do. They are already life have been spent in slavery, personal slavery, surrounded by degrading denouncing Mr. Lewis, one of the deputation. They say, he dined at influences such as can exist nowhere beyond the pale of slavery, and it our tables, we welcomed him to our pulpits, he took our money, and would not be strange, under such circumstances, that I should not betray he never uttered a word against our slavery; but as soon as he got back in what I have to say to you that refinement that is seldom or ever found, to Scotland, being stung by the rebukes he has received, he finds it except among people that have experienced superior advantages to those necessary to denounce it. Send back the money. Cheers.) All their which I have enjoyed. (Hear, hear.) But I will take it for granted you rebukes fall powerless on the slave-holder while they retain the money. I know something about the degrading influences of slavery, and that you The slave-holders say, these men turn round and lecture us on the im will not expect great things from me this evening, but such facts as I propriety of using the very means to get the money by which they have may be able to advance immediately in connexion with slavery. The built their churches. (Hear, hear.) If the Free Church would only subject of American slavery is beginning to attract the attention of the consult expediency in the matter, and lay aside its pride for a few mo- philosophers of all countries—it is a matter to which philosophers, states. ments, they will see that it is not only just, but expedient to return the men, and theologians, in all parts of the world, are turning their attention. money. There are many parties who have given their tens, and scores, It is a matter in which the people of this country especially, and Scotland and hundreds of pounds to that Church, who will not contribute another and Ireland, are taking the deepest interest - it is a matter in which all farthing to it while it retains this money. (Cheers.) I was in the people, who speak the English language, must eventually become inAssembly of the Church of Scotland when they came to the conclusion terested. It is no longer an obscure question, although there is much yet that they would not admit a slave-holder amongst them. We have no to be learned. Mr. Douglass, after giving a clear account of the conmeans in America of accomplishing the object we have in view, except nexion of the whole of the United States with the existence of slavery, and religious means. We do not ask you to send your army or your navy, pointed out the fact that although there are 3,000,000 of slaves, there are but you are bound to use every means within your reach to remove
more than 300,000 slave-holders, observed – Slavery in the United blot from the country. The world is looking to England on this subject. States is that by which one man claims a right of property in the body As early as I can remember, I have thought of England in connexion and soul of another. The condition of a slave is simply that of the brute with freedom, and both foes and friends are still looking there. I would beast. He is a piece of property--a marketable commodity in the advise you to concentrate your energies on America ; for I regard that language of the law, to be bought or sold at the will and caprice of the country as the sheet-anchor of slavery throughout the world. While on master who claims him to be his property; he is spoken of, thought of, the one hand there is a determination on the part of the United States and treated as property. His own good, his conscience, his intellect, his to uphold slavery; on the other, there never was so great a deter- affections are all set aside by the master. The will and the wishes of the mination among large numbers to get rid of it as at the present time. master are the law of the slave. He is as much property as horses. If (Cheers.)
he is fed, he is fed because he is property. If he is clothed, it is with a
view to the increase of his value as property. Whatever of comfort is C. CARROLL, Esq., moved :
necessary to him for his body or soul that is inconsistent with his being “That this meeting feel it to be their duty earnestly to protest against property, is carefully wrested from him, not only by public opinion, but
by the law of the country. He is carefully deprived of everything that the existing schemes of African and Indian immigration into the British tends in the slightest degree to detract from his value as property. He colonies, as odious in their character and demoralizing in their results ; is deprived of education. God has given him an intellect-the slaveand, when viewed in connexion with the oppressive system of taxation holder declares it shall not be cultivated. If his moral perception leads to which they have given rise, as equally impolitic and unjust. They him in a course contrary to his value as property, the slave-holder
declares he shall not exercise it. The marriage institution cannot exist would, therefore, respectfully yet urgently call on her Majesty's Govern
among slaves, and one-sixth of the population of democratic America is ment to withdraw their sanction from them, and to leave the supply of denied its privileges by the law of the land. What is to be thought of a the labour market to the operation of those natural laws which should, nation boasting of its liberty, boasting of its humanity, boasting of its in their judgment, always be allowed to regulate and control it.
Christianity, boasting of its love of justice and purity, and yet having
within its own borders 3,000,000 of people denied by law the right of "That this meeting would express their deep regret that any portion marriage ?-what must be the condition of that people? I need not lift of her Majesty's subjects should be allowed to be held and used as slaves up the veil by giving you any experience of my own. Every one that in foreign countries, contrary to the general law of civilized nations; and can put two ideas together, must see the most fearful results from such a that the authorities in slave-holding States should be permitted, in oppo- state of things as I have just mentioned. If any of these 3,000,000 find sition to the express stipulation of treaties, to molest, imprison, and virtuous persons to each other ; yet in these cases-few as I am bound to otherwise injure her Majesty's free subjects, on the ground of their confess they are_in these cases, the virtuous live in constant apprehension colour, repairing to those States on their lawful occasions; and would of being torn asunder by the merciless men-stealers that claim them as urge on her Majesty's Government the necessity of taking immediate education---the light of the gospel shut out from the dark mind of the
their property. (Hear.) This is American slavery-no marriage-no steps to secure the liberty and protect the persons of the parties referred bondman—and be forbidden by law to learn to read. If a mother teaches to."
her children to read, the law in Louisiana proclaims that she may be hung J. ScoBle, Esq., seconded the motion, which was then put and by the neck. (Sensation.) If the father attempts to give his son a knowcarried.
ledge of letters, he may be punished in one instance, and in another killed, Rev. J. WOODWARK moved, and the Rev. Mr. BROWNING, of New. at the discretion of the court. Three millions of people shut out from castle, seconded, a vote of thanks to the Chairman, which was put and the light! It is easy for you to conceive the evil that must result from briefly acknowledged, after which the meeting separated.
such a state of things. (Hear, hear) I now come to the physical evils of slavery. I do not wish to dwell at length upon these, but it seems right to speak of them, not so much to influence you on this question, as to let the slave-holders of America know that the curtain is being lifted
abroad (loud cheers); that we are opening the cell, and leading the people AMERICAN SLAVERY.
into the dark recesses of what they are pleased to call their “domestic
institution.” (Cheers.) We want them to know that a knowledge of A public meeting was held at Finsbury Chapel, on Friday evening, the their whippings, their scourgings, their brandings, their chainings, is not 22nd inst., to receive from Frederick Douglass an account of the dreadful confined to their plantations; but that some negro of theirs has condition, both in law and practice, of 3,000,000 of slaves in the United broke loose from his chains (loud applause), has broke up through States. The meeting was convened after three days' notice only, but so the dark incrustation of slavery, and is now exposing their deeds of intense was the interest excited, that every part of this large edifice was deep damnation to the gaze of the Christian people of England. (Im. crowded to suffocation. On the platform we observed the Rev. Drs. mense cheers.) The slave-holders resort to all kinds of cruelty. If I Campbell, Carlile, Godwin, and Fletcher, Revs. J. H. Hinton, John were disposed I have matter enough to interest you on this question for Charlesworth, and J. J. Freeman, G. W. Alexander, Esq., J. T. Price. five or six evenings, but I will not dwell at length upon these cruelties. Esq., G. Thompson. Esq., Stafford Allen, t.sq., E. o. Tregelles, Esq., Suffice it to say, that all the peculiar modes of torture that were resorted John Scoble, Esq., H. Sterry, Esq., Dr. Oxley, &c.
to in the West India Islands, are resorted to, I believe, even more JOSEPH STURGE, Esq., on taking the chair, rose and said : -The object frequently in the United States of America. Starvation, the bloody of the present meeting is to hear an address from Frederick Douglass. 1 whip, the chain, the gag, the thumb-screw, cat hauling, the cat-o'-ninewill not detain you more than a very short time by any observations of tails, the dungeon, the bloodhound, are all had in requisition to keep the my own, but I wish to remind our friends that the design of this meeting slave in his condition as a slave in the United States. (Hear, hear.) If is not to gratify curiosity, or exhibit an extraordinary instance of the any one has a doubt upon this point, I would ask them to read the chapter development of the power of the human mind under the most disadvan- in Dickens' Notes on America. If any man has a doubt upon it, I have tageous circumstances, but to remind every one present, that as a member here the “testimony of a thousand witnesses,” which I can give at any of the great family of man, he has a duty to perform in endeavouring to length, all going to prove the truth of my statement. The bloodhound accelerate the day when the chains of slavery shall be broken from is regularly trained in the United States, and advertisements are to be 3,000,000 of his fellow-creatures now in degrading bondage. (Hear, hear.) found in the southern papers of the Union, from persons advertising Mr. Sturge having adverted to several subjects of interest connected with themselves as bloodhound trainers, and offering to hunt down slaves at slavery, and expressed his opinion that the United States would be the fifteen dollars a piece, recommending their hounds as the fleetest in the next battle field of abolition, observed our friend Douglass will speak of neighbourhood, never known to fail. (Much sensation.) Advertisements events which have occurred in Scotland. It is well known that the Free are from time to time inserted, stating that slaves have escaped with iron Church of Scotland sent a deputation to America, and that the deputation collars about their necks, and some with bands of iron about their feet; brought back a considerable sum of money from the slave holding others horribly marked with the lash, others branded with red-hot irons, churches. Such is the feeling abroad as to the impropriety of receiving the initials of their master's name burned into the quivering flesh, and the money from such a source, that we hope and believe the Free Church may masters advertise the fact of their being thus branded with their own sigbe induced to send back this money to the place from whence it came. nature; thus proving to the world, however daring it may appear to non(Cheers.) Having briefly referred to the past history of Frederick slave-holders, that it is not regarded discreditable or daring among the Douglass, Mr. Sturge introduced him to the meeting.
slave-holders themselves. The slave-dealer publishes his infamous acts to F. Douglass rose amid loud cheers, and said -- I feel exceedingly glad the world. Of all things that have been said of slavery to which excepof the opportunity now afforded me of presenting the claims of my tion has been taken by slave-holders, this, the charge of cruelty, stands brethren in bonds to so many in London and from various parts of foremost, and yet there is no charge capable of clearer demonstration than Britain, who have presented themselves on this occasion. I have nothing that of the most barbarous inhumanity on the part of the slave-holders
towards their slaves. And all this is necessary-it is necessary to resort to most prominent place in the neighbourhood. (Sensation.) If a coloured these cruelties in order to make the slave a slave, and to keep him a slave. woman, who, in defence of her own virtue, in defence of her own Why, my experience all proves the truth of this, what you will call a person, shield herself from the brutal attacks of her tyrannical master, marvellous proposition, that the better you treat a slave, the more you or make the slightest resistance, she may be killed on the spot. (Loud destroy his value as a slave, and enhance the probability of his eluding cries of “Shame.") No law whatever will bring the guilty man to justice the grasp of the slave-holder ; the more kindly you treat him, the more for the crime. But, you will ask me, can these things be possible in a land wretched you make him while you keep him in the condition of a slave. professing Christianity? Yes, they are so ; and this is not the worst of My experience confirms the truth of this proposition. When I was it. No, a darker feature is yet to be presented than the mere existence of treated exceedingly ill, when my back was being scourged daily, when I these facts. I have to inform you that the religion of the Southern States was kept within an inch of my life, life was all I cared for. Spare my at this time is the great supporter, the great sanctioner of those bloody life. When I was looking for the blow about to be inflicted upon my atrocities to which I have referred. (Deep sensation). While America head, I was not thinking of my liberty; it was my life first. But as soon is printing tracts, printing Bibles, sending missionaries abroad, expending as the blow was not to be feared, then came the longing for liberty. her money in various ways for the promotion of the gospel in foreign (Cheers.) If a slave has a bad master his ambition is to get a better; lands, the slave not only lies forgotten—uncared for, but is trampled when he gets a better, he aspires to have the best ; and when he gets the under foot by the very churches of the land. What have we in America ? best master, he aspires to be his own master. (Loud cheers.) But the Why, we have slavery made part of the religion of the land. Yes, the slave must be brutalized to keep him as a slave. The slave-holder feels pulpit there stands up as the great defender of this cursed institution, as this necessity. I admit this necessity : if it be right to hold slaves at all, it is called. They come forward and torture the hallowed pages of it is right to hold them in the only way in which they can be held ; and inspired wisdom to sanction the bloody deed. (Loud cries of." Shame.") this can be done only by shutting out the light of education from their They stand forth as the foremost, the strongest defenders of this minds, and brutalizing their persons. The whip, the chain, the gag, “ institution." As a proof of this I need not do more than the thumb-screw, the bloodhound, the stocks, and all the other bloody state the general fact that slavery has existed, right under the droppings paraphernalia, are indispensably necessary to the relation of master and of the sanctuary of the South for the last two hundred years, and there slave. (Cheers.) He must be subjected to these, or he ceases to be a has not been any war between the religion and the slavery of the South. slave. Let him know that the whip is burned, that the fetters have been Instead of preaching the gospel against this tyranny and wrong, they have turned to some useful and profitable employment, that the chain is no sought all and every means to throw in the background whatever in the longer for his limbs, that the bloodhound is no longer to be put upon his Bible could be construed into opposition to slavery, and to bring forward track, that his master's authority over him is no longer to be enforced by that which they could torture into its support. (Cries of "shame !") taking his life, and immediately he walks out from the house of bondage, This I conceive to be the darkest feature in slavery, and the most difficult and asserts his freedom as a man. (Loud cheers.) Some of the most to attack, because it is identified with religion, and exposes those who awful scenes of cruelty are constantly taking place in the middle states of oppose it to the charge of infidelity. I have found it difficult to speak on the Union. We have in the middle States what are called the Slave-breed this matter, without persons coming forward, and saying, “ Douglass, are ing States. Allow me to speak plainly. (Hear, bear.). Although it is you not afraid of injuring the cause of Christ? You do not desire it, harrowing to your feelings. it is necessary that the facts of the case should but are you not undermining true religion?” This has been said to me be stated. We have in the United States slave breeding states. The again and again even since I came to this country, but I cannot be induced very State from which the minister from our Court to your's comes is one to leave off these exposures. (Loud cheers.) I love the religion of our of these States. (Cries of "hear."). Maryland, where men, women and blessed Saviour, I love that religion that comes from above, and in that children, are reared for the market just as horses, sheep, and swine, are “ wisdom of God, which is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, and easy to raised for the market. It is there looked upon as being a legitimate trade, be entreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality and with. the laws sanction it, public opinion upholds it, the church does not con- out hypocrisy." I love that religion that sends its votaries to bind up demn it. (“ Cries of “Shame!"') It goes on in all its bloody horrors the wounds of him that has fallen among thieves. I love that religion sustained by the auctioneer's block.
that makes it the duty of its votaries to visit the fatherless and widow in Mr. Douglas here gave some deeply affecting anecdotes, which we their affliction. I love that religion that is based upon the glorious prinregret our limits will not allow us to give at length, illustrative of the ciple, the world-loving principle of love to God and love to man (cheers); dreadful results of the internal slave-trade, and the deaths from crushed which makes its votaries do unto others as they themselves would be done affections, and despair to which the slave-system gives rise. He then by. If you demand liberty to yourself, it says, grant it to your neighbours. proceeded to quote the laws of those States, to show that the horrors If you claim a right to think for yourselves, it says, allow your neighwhich he had depicted were fully sanctioned.
bours the same right. If you claim to act for yourselves, it says, allow Let me read to you a few of the laws of the slave-holding States of your neighbours the same right. It is because I love this religion that I America. I think no better exposure of slavery can be given than is hate the slave-holding, the woman-whipping, the mind-darkening, the made by the laws of the States in which slavery exists. I prefer reading soul-destroying religion that exists in the Southern States of America. the laws to making any statement in confirmation of what I have said (Immense cheering.) It is because I regard the one as good, and pure, myself; for the slave-holders cannot object to this testimony, since it is and holy, that I cannot but regard the other as bad, corrupt, and wicked. the calm, the cool, the deliberate enactment of their wisest heads, of their Loving the one I must hate the other, holding to the one I must reject most clear-sighted, their own constituted representatives. (Hear, hear.) the other, and I here proclaim myself an infidel to the slave-holding “ If more than seven slaves together are found in any road without a religion. (Reiterated cheers.) white person, twenty lashes a piece ; for visiting a plantation without a Mr. Douglass then proceeded to show how British Abolitionists could written pass, ten lashes ; for letting loose a boat from where it is made help forward the great cause of abolition in the United States-namely, fast, thirty-nine lashes for the first offence; and for the second shall have by rendering it disreputable, and by bringing public opinion to bear upon cut off from his head one ear. For keeping or carrying a club, thirty- it in every possible way; and concluded a long and powerful speech, nine lashes. For having any article for sale without a ticket from his which was listened to with intense interest throughout, by an eloquent master, ten lashes. For travelling in the night without a pass, forty appeal to the Free Church of Scotland to refuse all connexion with lashes.” I am afraid you do not understand the awful character of these American slave-holders, and to mark their abhorrence of American lashes. You must bring it before your mind. A human being stripped slavery by sending back the money their commissioners had received from in a perfect state of nudity, tied hand and foot to a stake, and a strong slave-holders during their recent visit to the United States. The audience man standing behind with a heavy lash, knotted at the end, each blow heartily joined in the cry which has been raised in Scotland—“Send back cutting its gash in the flesh, and leaving the warm blood dripping to the the money!” feet (sensation), and that for these trifles. “For being found in another We can do no more than add that the following resolutions were passed person's negro-quarters, forty lashes ; for hunting with dogs in the woods, unanimously at the close of Mr. Douglas's effective address :thirty lashes; for being on horseback without the written permission of Noved by the Rev. Dr. CAMPBELL, and seconded by Geo. IW. his master, twenty-five lashes; for riding or going abroad in the night, or ALEXANDER, Ese :—That the cordial thanks of this meeting be presented riding horses in the day time, without leave, a slave may be whipped, to Frederick Douglass, the representative and advocate of three millions of cropped, or branded in the cheek with the letter R, or otherwise punished, American slaves whose deplorable condition, both in law and practice, not extending to life, or so as to render him unfit for labour. The laws whilst it reflects the deepest disgrace on the republican institutions and referred to may be found by consulting Brevard's Digest ; Haywood's Christian professions of the United States, excites in the heart of every Manual ; Virginia Revised Code; Prince's Digest ; Missouri Laws : friend of humanity and freedom the liveliest sympathy and commiseraMississippi Revised Code.
tion: and further, that this meeting would encourage the noble band of In answer to a question relating to the price of slaves, Mr. Douglass Abolitionists of every political party and religious denomination in the said :-I will give you an invariable rule by which to ascertain the price United States to unite in one common, vigorous, and persevering effort to of human flesh in the United States. When cotton gets up in the market promote the entire abolition of the system of slavery which unhappily in England, the price of human flesh gets up in the United States. prevails among them. (Hear, hear.) How much responsibility attaches to you in the use of that Moved by Joseph TREGELLES Price, Esq., Neath Abbey, and commodity. (Loud cheers.) To return to my point. A man for going seconded by John ScoBLE, Esa.—That in the opinion of this meeting, to visit his brethren without the permission of his master (and in many it is the duty of the Free Church of Scotland to send back the money instances he may not have that permission, his master from caprice or they have received from the American slave-holders, in order to bear an other reasons, may not be willing to allow it) may be caught on his way, upright and Christian testimony against the crime of American slavery. dragged to a post, the branding iron heated, and the name of his master, or the letter R branded into his cheek or on his forehead. (Sensation.) They treat slaves thus on the principle that they must punish for light
CONTENTS : offences in order to prevent the commission of larger ones. I wish you to mark that in the single state of Virginia, there are seventy-one crimes for which a coloured man may be executed. While there are only three of Abstract of Report for 1946 ...... 81 Advertisements these crimes which, when committed by a white man, will subject him to
Death of Mr. Torrey.. that punishment. (Hear, hear.) There are many of these crimes which,
Proceedings of the Annual Meeting if the white man did not commit, he would be regarded as a scoundrel
Emigration to the British Co
of the British and Foreign Antiand a coward. In South Maryland there is a law to this effect :- That
Slavery Society. if a slave shall strike his master, he may be hung, his head severed from
American Slavery. Public Meeting his body, his body quartered, and his head and quarters set up in the Leaders
at Finsbury Chapel
The Slave Trade
83 85 88
Pelated by JACOB UNWIN, of 33, Dowgate Hill, in the City of London, at his Printing Office, 81, Bucklersbury, in the parish of St. Stephen Walbrook, in the City of
London, and published by Peter JONES Bolton, of No. 8, Kennington Terrare, Kennington Lane, in the county of Surrey, at No. 27, Now Broad Street, in the Pariola alm. Botolpl, Bishopsgute, in the City of London. MONDAY, JUNE 1, 1846.
Sold by W. Everett, 14, Finca Lane, and 17 Royal Exchange.