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And yet this first true cause, and last good end, If then by death the soul were quenched quite, She cannot here so well and truly see;

She could not thus against her nature run; For this perfection she must yet attend,

Since ev'ry senseless thing, by Nature's light, Till to her Maker she espoused be.

Doth preservation seek, destruction shun. As a king's daughter, being in person sought Nor could the world's best spirits so much err, Of divers princes, who do neighbour near,

If Death took all, that they should all agree, On none of them can fix a constant thought, Before this life their hor to prefer: Though she to all do lend a gentle ear:

For what is praise to things that nothing be ?, Yet she can love a foreign emperor,

Again, if by the body's prop she stand; Whom of great worth and pow'r she hears to be, If on the body's life, her life depend, If she be woo'd but by ambassador,

As Meleager's on the fatal brand, Or but his letters or his pictures see:

The body's good she only would intend : For well she knows, that when she shall be brought We should not find her half so brave and bold,

Into the kingdom where ber spouse doth reign; To lead it to the wars, and to the seas, Her eyes shall see what she conceiv'd in thought, To make it suffer watchings, hunger, cold,

Himself, his state, his glory, and his train. When it might feed with plenty, rest with ease. So while the virgin soul on Earth doth stay, Doubtless, all souls have a surviving thought,

She woo'd and tempted in ten thousand ways, Therefore of death we think with quiet mind; By these great pow'rs, which on the Earth bear But if we think of being turn’d to naught, sway;

A trembling horrour in our souls we find.
The wisdom of the world, wealth, pleasure, praise:
With these sometimes she doth her time beguile,
These do by fits her fantasy possess;

From the fear of death in the wicked souls.
But she distastes them all within awhile,
And in the sweetest finds a tediousness.

And as the better spirit, when she doth bear But if upon the world's Almighty King,

A scorn of death, doth show she cannot die ;

So when the wicked soul Death's face doth fear, She once doth fix her bumble loving thought,

E'en then she proves her own eternity.
Who by his picture drawn in er’ry thing,
And sacred messages, her love hath sought;

For when Death's form appears, she feareth not

An utter quenching or extinguishment; Of him she thinks she cannot think too much;

She would be glad to meet with such a lot,
This honey tasted still is ever sweet ;

That so she might all future ill prevent:
The pleasure of her ravish'd thought is such,
As almost here she with ber bliss doth meet:

But she doth doubt what after may befall;
But when in Hear'n she shall his essence see,

For Nature's law accuseth her within,

And saith, “ 'T is true what is affirm'd by all, This is her sov'reign good, and perfect bliss;

That after death there is a pain for sin."
Her longing, wishings, hopes, all finish'd be ;
Her joys are full, her motions rest in this :

Then she who hath been boodwink'd from her birth, There is she crown'd with garlands of content;

Doth first herself within Death's mirror see ; There doth she manna eat, and nectar drink :

And when her body doth return to earth, That presence doth such high delights present,

She first takes care, how she alone shall be. As never tongue could speak, nor heart could think.

Who ever sees these irreligious men,

With burtheu of a sickness weak and faint,
But hears them talking of religion then,

And vowing of their souls to ev'ry saint ?
From contempt of death in the better sort of spirits.

When was there ever cursed atheist brought For this, the better souls do oft despise

Unto the gibbet, but he did adore The body's death, and do it oft desire;

That blessed pow'r, which he had set at naught, For when on ground the burthen'd balance lies,

Scorn'd and blasphem'd all his life before? The empty part is lifted up the higher: But if the body's death the soul should kill,

These light vain persons still are drunk and mad, Then death must needs against her nature be;

With surfeitings and pleasures of their youth; And were it so, all souls would fly it still,

But at their death they are fresh, sober, sad; for nature bates and shuns her contrary.

Then they discern, and then they speak the truth. For all things else, which Nature makes to be, If then all souls, both good and bad, do teach,

Their being to preserve, are chiefly taught; With gen’ral voice, that souls can never die; And thongh some things desire a change to see, 'T is not man's flatt'ring gloss, but Nature's speech,

Yet never thing did loog to turn to naught. Which, like God's oracles, can never lie.



For.e'en the thought of immortality,

Being an act done without the body's aid,

Shows, that herself alone could move and be,
From the general desire of immortality.

Although the body in the grave were laid.
Hence springs that universal strong desire,

Wbich all men have of immortality:
Not some few spirits unto this thought aspire,
But all men's minds in this united be.

And if herself she can so lively move,

And never need a foreign help to take; Then this desire of Nature is not vain,

Then must her motion everlasting prove, “ She covets not impossibilities;

“ Because herself she never can forsake." Fond thoughts may fall into some idle brain, But one assent of all is ever wise.”

But though corruption cannot touch the mind,

By any causes that from itself may spring, From hence that gen’ral care and study springs, Some outward cause fate hath perhaps design'd,

That launching and progression of the mind, Which to the soul may utter quenching bring. Which all men have so much of future things, That they no joy do in the present find. Perhaps her cause may cease', and she may die :

God is her cause, his word her maker was; From this desire, that main desire proceeds, Which shall stand fix'd for all eternity,

Which all men have surviving fame to gain, When Heav'n and Earth shall like a shadow pass." By tombs, by books, by memorable deeds; For she that this desires, doth still remain.

Perhaps some thing repugnant to her kind,

By strong antipathy, the soul may kill: Hence, lastly, springs care of posterities,

But what can be contrary to the mind, For things their kind would everlasting make: Which holds all contraries in concord still? Hence is it, that old men do plant young trees, The fruit whereof another age shall take. She lodgeth heat, and cold, and moist, and dry,

And life and death, and peace and war together ; If we these rules unto ourselves apply,

Ten thousand fighting things in her do lie,
And view them by reflection of the mind,

Yet neither troubleth or disturbeth either.
All these true notes of immortality
In our heart's tables we shall written find.

Perhaps for want of food, the soul may pine?;
But that were strange, since all things bad and


Since all God's creatures, mortal and divine ;

Since God himself is ber eternal food. From the very doubt and disputation of immortality.

Bodies are fed with things of mortal kind,
And though some impious wits do questions move,

And so are subject to mortality :
And doubt if souls immortal be, or no;
That doubt their immortality doth prove,

But truth, which is eternal, feeds the mind;

The tree of life, which will not let her die.
Because they seem immortal things to know.

Yet violence, perhaps, the soul destroys,
For he who reasons on both parts doth bring,
Doth some things mortal, some immortal call;

As lightning, or the sun-beams, dini the sight;

Or as a thunder clap, or cannon's noise,
Now, if bimself were but a mortal thing,
He could not judge immortal things at all.

The pow'r of hearing doth astonish quite ;

But high perfection to the soul it brings, For when we judge, our minds we mirrors make;

T'encounter things most excellect and high ; And as those glasses wbich material be,

For, when she views the best and greatest things, Forms of material things do only take;

They do not hurt, but rather clear the eye. For thoughts or minds in them we cannot see:

Besides, as Homer's gods 'gainst armies stand, So when we God and angels do conceive,

Her subtle form can through all dangers slide : And think of truth, which is eternal too;

Bodies are captive, minds endure no band; Then do our minds immortal forms receive,

“ And will is free, and can no force abide." Which if they mortal were, they could not do.

But, lastly, time perhaps at last hath pow'r' And as if beasts conceiv'd what reason were,

To spend her lively pow'rs, and quench her light; And that conception should distinctly show, But old god Saturo, which doth all devour, They should the name of reasonable bear;

Doth cherish her, and still augment her might. For without reason, none could reason know:

s Her cause ceaseth not. So when the soul mouts with so high a wing,

6 She hath no contrary. As of eternal things she doubts can move;

? She cannot die for want of food. She proofs of her eternity doth bring,

& Violence cannot destroy her. E'en when she strives the contrary to prore.

Time cannot destroy her.


Heav'n waxeth old, and all the spheres above Evin so the soul to such a body knit,

Shall one day faint, and their swift inotion stay; Whose inward senses undisposed be; And time itself, in time shall cease to move; And to receive the forms of things unfit, Only the soul survives, and lives for ay.

Where nothing is brought in, can nothing see. “Our bodies, ev'ry footstep that they make, This makes the idiot, which hath yet a mind,

March towards death, until at last they die: Able to know the truth, and choose the good;
Whether we work or play, or sleep or wake, If she such figures in the brain did find,
Our life doth pass, and with Time's wings doth As might be found, if it in temper stood.

But if a phrensy do possess the brain,
But to the soul, time doth perfection give,

It so disturbs and blots the forms of things, And adds fresh lustre to her beauty still; As fantasy proves altogether vain, And makes her in eternal youth to live,

And to the wit no true relation brings. Like her which nectar to the gods doth fill.

Then doth the wit, admitting all for true, The more she lives, the more she feeds on truth; Build fond conclusions on those idle grounds : The more she feeds, her strength doth more in- Then doth it fy the good, and ill pursue ; crease :

Believing all that this false spy propounds. And what is strength, but an effect of youth, Which if time nurse, bow can it ever cease? But purge the humours, and the rage appease,

Which this distemper in the fancy wrought; Then shall the wit, which never had disease,

Discourse, and judge discreetly, as it ought. SECTION XXXII. OBJECTIONS AGAINST THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL, So, though the clouds eclipse the Sun's fair light,

Yet from his face they do not take one beam ;

So have our eyes their perfect pow'r of sight, Bot now these Epicures begin to smile,

Ev'n when they look into a troubled stream. And say, my doctrine is more safe than true; And that I fondly do myself beguile,

Then these defects in sense's organs be, While these receiv'd opinions I ensue.

Not in the soul, or in her working might:

She cannot lose her perfect pow'r to see,

Though mists and clouds do choke her window

light. Por, what, say they doth not the soul wax old ? How comes it then that aged men do dote;

These imperfections then' we must impute, And that their brains grow sottish, dull and cold,

Not to the agent, but the instrument: Which were in youth the only spirits of note?

We must not blame Apollo, but his lute,

If false accords from her false strings be sent. What? are not souls within themselves corrupted ?

How can the idiots then by nature be ? rey The soul in all hath one intelligence ;
How is it that some wits are interrupted,

Though too much moisture in an infant's brain, That now they dazzled are, now clearly see?

And too much dryness in an old man's sense,

Cannot the priots of outward things retain: ANSWER. These questions make a subtil argument

Then doth the soul want work, and idle sit,
To sach as think both sense and reason one ; And this we childishness and dotage call;
To whom nor agent, from the instrument, Yet hath she then a quick and active wit,

Nor pow'r of working, from the work is known. If she had stuff and tools to work withal:
Bat they that know that wit can show no skill, For, give her organs fit, and objects fair;

But when she things in sense's glass doth view, Give but the aged man the young man's sense;
Do know, if accident this glass do spill,

Let but Medea Æson's youth repair, It nothing sees, or sees the false for true.

And straight she shows her wonted excellence For, if that region of the tender brain,

As a good harper stricken far in years, Where th inward sense of fantasy should sit, Into whose cunning bands the gout doth fall, And th' outward senses, gath'rings should retain ; All his old crotchets in his brain he bears, By nature, or by chance, become unfit :

But on his harp plays ill, or not at all!
Esther at first uncapable it is,

But if Apollo takes his gout away,
And so few things, or none at all receives ; That he his nimble fingers may apply;
Or marr'd by accident, which haps amiss: Apollo's self will envy at his play,
And so amiss it ev'ry thing perceives.

And all the world applaud his minstrelsy.
Then, as a cunning prince that useth spies, Then dotage is no weakness of the mind,

If they return no news, doth nothing know; But of the sense; for if the mind did waste, But if they make advertisement of lies,

In all old men we should this wasting find, The prince's counsels all awry do ge :

When they some certain terma of years had passid ; FOI. V.



Bat most of them, e'en to their dying hour,
Retain a mind more lively, quick, and strong ;

And better use their understanding pow'r,
Than when their brains were warm, and limbs See how man's soul against itself doth strive:

Why should we not have other means to know? were young.

As children, while witbin the womb they live,
For, though the body wasted be and weak,

Feed by the navel : here they feed not so.
And though the leaden form of earth it bears;

These children, if they had some use of sense,
Yet when we hear that half dead body speak,
We oft are ravish'd to the heav'nly spheres.

And should by chance their mother's talking hear, That in short time they shall come forth from thence,

Would fear their birth, more than our death we OBJECTION 11.

fear. Yet say these men, if all her organs die,

They would cry out, “ If we this place shall leave, Then bath the soul no pow'r her pow'rs to use: Then shall we break our tender navel strings: So, in a sort, her pow'rs extinct do lie,

How shall we then our nourishment receive,
When unto act she cannot them reduce.

Since our sweet food no other conduit brings ?" And if her pow'rs be dead, then what is she? And if a man should to these babes reply,

For since from ev'ry thing some pow'rs do spring; That into this fair world they shall be brought, And from those pow'rs, some acts proceeding be; Where they shall view the earth, the sea, the sky, Then kill both pow'r and act, and kill the thing. The glorious Sun, and all that God hath wrought :

That there ten thousand dainties they shall meet,
Which by their mouths they sball with pleasure

take; Doubtless, the body's death, when once it dies,

Which shall be cordial too as well as sweet ;
The instruments of sense and life doth kill ;

And of their little limbs tall bodies make:
So that she cannot use those faculties,
Although their root rest in her substance still.

This world they'd think a fable, e'en as we

Do think the story of the golden age;
But (as the body living) wit and will

Or as some sensual spirits 'mongst us be,
.Can judge and choose, without the body's aid;

Which hold the world to come, a feigned stage:
Though on such objects they are working still,
As through the body's organs are convey'd :

Yet shall these infants after find all true,

Though then thereof they nothing could conSo, when the body serves her turn no more,

ceive: And all her senses are extinct and gone,

As soon as they are born, the world they view, She can discourse of what she learn'd before,

And with their mouths, the nurses' milk receive. In heav'nly contemplations, all alone.

So when the soul is born (for death is naught. So, if one man well on the fute doth play, "And have good horsemanship, and learning's Ten thousand things she sees beyond ber thought;

But the soul's birth, and so we should it call) skill,

And in an unknown mapper, knows them all.
Though both his lute and horse we take away,
Doth he not keep his former learning still?

Then doth she see by spectacles no more,

She hears not by report of double spies;
He keeps it, doubtless, and can use it too;

Herself in instants doth all things explore;
And doth both th' other skills in pow'r retain;
And can of both the proper actions do,

For each thing's present, and before her lies.
If with his lute or horse he meet again.

So though the instruments (by which we live,

And view the world) the body's death do kill; But still this crew with questions me pursues :
Yet with the body they shall all revive,

If souls deceas'd (say they) still living be, And all their wonted offices fulfil.

Why do they not return, to bring us news

[see? Of that strange world, where they such wonders



But how, till then, shall she herself employ?
Her spies are dead, which brought home news Fond men ! if we believe that man do live

Under the zenith of both frozen poles,
What she hath got, and keeps, she may enjoy, Though none come thence, advertisement to give,

But she hath means to understand no more. Why bear we not the like faith of our souls?
Toen what do those poor souls, which nothing get? The soul bath here on Earth no more to do,

Or what do those which get, and cannot keep? Than we have business in our mother's womb : ets! Like bucklers bottomless, which all out-let; What child doth covet to return thereto,

Those souls, for want of exercise, must sleep. Although all children first from thence do come? But as Noah's pigeon, which return'd no more, And if that wisdom still wise ends propound,

Did show, she footing found, for all the food; Wby made he man, of other creatures, king; So when good souls, departed through Death's When (if he perish here) there is not found door,

In all the world so poor and vile a thing? Come not again, it shows their dwelling good.

If death do quench us quite, we have great wrong, And doubtless, such a soul as up doth moont, Since for our service all things else were wrought;

And doth appear before her Maker's face, That daws, and trees, and rocks should last so long,
Holds this vile world in such a base account, When we must in an instant pass to naught.
As she looks down and scorns this wretched place.

But bless'd be that Great Pow'r, that hath us blessid But sach as are detruded down to Hell,

With longer life than Heav'n or Earth can have; Either for shame, they still themselves retire; Which bath infus'd into our inortal breast Or tyd in chains, they in close prison dwell, Immortal pow'rs not subject to the grave. And cannot come, although they much desire.

For though the soul do seem her grate to bear,

And in this world is almost bury'd quick,

We have no cause tbe body's death to fear;

For when the shell is broke, out comes a chick. Well, well, say these vain spirits, though vain it is

To think our souls to Heav'n or Heli do go;
Politie men have thought it not amiss,
To spread this lie, to make men virtuous so.



OF THE SOUL. Do you then think this moral virtue good ?

For as the soul's essential pow'rs are three ; I think you do, ev'n for your private gain;

The quick’ning pow'r, the pow'r of sense and reason; For commonwealths by virtue ever stood,

Three kinds of life to her designed be, (son. And common good the private doth contain. Which perfect these three pow'rs in their due seaIf then this virtue you do love so well,

The first life in the mother's womb is spent, Have you no means, her practice to maintain;

Where she the nursing pow'r doth only use; But you this lie must to the people tell,

Where, when she finds defect of nourishment, That good souls live in joy, and ill in pain? Sh' expels her body, and this world she views. Most virtue be preserved by a lie?

This we call birth; but if the child could speak, Virtue and truth do ever best agree;

He death would call it; and of nature plain, By this it seems to be a verity,

That she would thrust him out naked and weak, Since the effects so good and virtuous be.

And in his passage pinch him with such pain. For, as the Devil the father is of lies,

Yet out he comes, and in this world is plac'd, So rice and mischief do his lies ensue :

Where all his senses in perfection be; Then this good doctrine did not he devise ;

Where he finds flaw'rs to smell, and fruits to taste, Bat made this lie, which saith, it is not true.

And sounds to hear, and sundry forms to see. For, how can that be false, which ev'ry tongue

When he bath pass'd some time upon the stage, Of ev'ry mortal man affirms for true ?

His reason then a little seems to wake; [age, Which truth hath in all ages been so strong,

Which though she spring when sense doth fade with As, load-stone like, all bearts it ever drew. Yet can she here no perfect practice make. Por, not the Christian, or the Jew alone,

Then doth aspiring soul the body leave, The Persian, or the Turk, acknowledge this;

Which we call death; but were it known to all, This mystery to the wild Indian known,

What life our souls do by this death receive, And to the cannibal and Tartar is.

Men would it birth or jail-deliv'ry call. This rich Assyrian drug grows ev'ry where;

In this third life, reason will be so bright, As common in the north as in the east :

As that her spark will like the sun-beams shine, This doctrine doth not enter by the ear,

And shall of God enjoy the real sight,
But of itself is native in the breast.

Being still increas'd by influence divine.
Koue that acknowledge God, or providence,
Their soul's eternity did ever doubt;

For all religion taketh root from hence,
Which no poor naked nation lives without.

THE CONCLUSION. for since the world for man created was,

O IGNORANT poor man! what dost thou bear., (For only man the use thereof doth kuow)

Lock'd up within the casket of thy breast? If man do perish like a wither'd grass,

What jewels, and what riches hast thou there? How doth God's wisdom order things below?"

What beav'nly treasure in so weak a.chet ::

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