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758. Ingredients.—Sweetbreads, egg and bread crumbs, 5 pint of gravy, No. 442, 1 glass of sherry.

Mode.—Soak the sweetbreads in water for an hour, and throw them into boiling water to render them firm. . Let them stew gently for about 3 hour, take them out and put them into a cloth to drain all .the water from them. Brush them over with egg, sprinkle them with bread crumbs, and either brown them in the oven or before the fire. Have ready the abovj^uantity of gravy, to which add 4 glass of sherry; dish the sweetbreads, pour the gravy under them, and garnish with water-cresses. ■ Time.—Rather more than 1 hour. Average cost, 2s.6rf.to3s.6rf.each.

Sufficients sweetbreads for 1 entree.

Seasonable from Easter to Michaelmas.



759- A deep cut should, in the first place, be made quite down

to the bone, across the knuckle-end

^S^T"! ",*sas "s, of the joint, along the line 1 to 2.

^\T' ~TM ^ v\ This will let the gravy escape; and

^^ then it should be carved, in not too

HATOTCH OF HrTTOK. ^j. slices, along the whole length

of the haunch, in the direction of the line from 4 to 3. .

LEG OF MUTTON. 760. This homely, but capital English joint, is almost invariably served at table as shown in the engraving. The carving of it is not very difficult: the knife should be carried sharply down in the direction of the line from 1 to 2, and slices taken from either side, as the guests may desire, some liking the knuckleend, as well done, and others preferring the Leg Op sronoir. more underdone part. The fat should be sought near the line 3 to 4. Some connoisseurs are fond of having this joint dished with the under-side uppermost, so as to get at the finely-grained meat lying under that part of the meat, known as the Pope's eye; but this is an extravagant fashion, and one that will hardly find favour in the eyes of many economical British


housewives and housekeepers.


761. There is one point in connection with carving a loin of mutton which includes every other; that is, that the joint should be thoroughly well jointed by the butcher before it is

cooked. Thi3 knack of jointing requires

practice and the proper tools; and no one

but the butcher is supposed to have these.

If the bones be not well jointed, the carving

of a loin of mutton is not a gracious busi- loin Of mutton.

ness; whereas, if that has been attended to,

it is an easy and untroublesome task. The knife should be inserted

at fig. 1, and after feeling your way between the bones, it should be

carried sharply in the direction of the line 1 to 2. As there are some

people who prefer the outside cut, while others do not like it, the

question as to their choice of this should be asked.


762. Although we have heard, at various intervals, growlings expressed at the inevitable "saddle of mutton" at the dinner-parties of our middle classes, yet we doubt whether

any other joint is better liked, when it has been well hung and artistically cooked. There is a diversity of opinion respecting the mode of sending this joint to table; but it has only reference to whether or no there shall be any portion of the tail, or, if so, how many joints of the tail. We ourselves prefer the mode as shown in our coloured illustration "0;" but others may, upon equally good grounds, like the way shown in the engraving on this page. Some trim the tail with a paper frill. The carving is not difficult: it is usually cut in the direction of the line from 2 to 1, quite down to the .bones, in evenly-sliced pieces. A fashion, however, patronized by some, is to carve it obliquely, in the direction of the line from 4 to 3; in which case the joint would be turned round the other way, having the tail end on the right of the carver.

SHOULDER OF MUTTON. 763. This is a joint not difficult to carve. The knife should be



drawn from the outer edge of the shoulder in the direction of the line

from 1 to 2, until the bone of the shoulder is

reached. As many slices as can be carved in

this manner should be taken, and afterwards

the meat lying on either side of the blade-bone

should be served, by carving in the direction of

3 to 4 and 3 to 4. The uppermost side of the

shoulder being now finished, the joint should

be turned, and slices taken off along its whole length. There are some

who prefer this under-side of the shoulder for its juicy flesh, although

the grain of the meat is not so fine as that on the other side.

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764. We always think that a good and practised carver delights in the manipulation of this joint, for there is a little field for his judgment and dexterity which does not always occur. The separation of the shoulder from the breast is the first point to be attended to; this is done by passing the knife lightly round the dotted line, as shown by the figures 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, so as to cut through the skin, and then, by raising with a little force the shoulder, into which the fork should be firmly fixed, it will come away with just a little more exercise of the knife. In dividing the shoulder and breast, the carver should take care not to cut away too much of the meat from the latter, as that would rather spoil its appearance when the shoulder is removed. The breast and shoulder being separated, it is usual to lay a small piece of butter, and sprinkle a little cayenne, lemon-juice, and salt between them; and when this is melted and incorporated with the meat and gravy, the shoulder may, as more convenient, be removed into another dish. The next operation is to separate the ribs from the brisket, by cutting throu gh the meat on the line 5 to C. The joint is then ready to be served to the guests; the ribs being carved in the direction of the lines from 9 to 10, and the brisket from 7 to 8. The carver should ask those at the table what parts they prefer—ribs, brisket, or a piece of the shoulder. •


are carved in the same manner as the corresponding joints of Mutton. (See Nos. 760, 761, 762, 763.)



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE COMMON HOG-. 765. The Hog belongs to the order Mammalia, the genus Sus scrofa, 'and the species Pachydermia, or thick-skinned; and its generic characters are, a small head, with long flexible snout truncated; 42 teeth, divided into 4 upper incisors, converging, 6 lower incisors, projecting, 2 upper and 2 lower canine, or tusks,—the former short, the latter projecting, formidable, and sharp, and 14 molars in each jaw; cloven feet furnished with 4 toes, and tail, small, short, and twisted; while, in some varieties, this appendage is altogether wanting.

7G6. From The Number And Position Of The Teeth, physiologists are enabled to define the nature and functions of the animal; and from those of the 8us, or hog, it is evident that he is as much a grinder as a biter, or can live as well on vegetable as on animal food; though a mixture of both is plainly indicated as the character of food most conducive to the integrity and health of its physical system.

767. Thus The Pig Tribe, though not a ruminating mammal, as might be inferred from the number of its molar teeth, is yet a link between the herbivorous and the carnivorous tribes, and is consequently what is known as an omnivorous quadruped; or, in other words, capable of converting any kind of aliment into nutriment.

768. Though The Hoof In The Hoo is, as a general rule, cloven, there are several remarkable exceptions, as in the species native to Norway, Illyria, Sardinia, and formerly to the Berkshire variety of the British domesticated pig, in which the hoof is entire and «»cleft.

769. Whatever Difference In Its Physical Nature, climate and soil may produce in this animal, his functional characteristics are the same in whatever part of the world he may be found; and whether in the trackless forests of South America, the coral isles of Polynesia, the jungles of India, or the spicy brakes of Sumatra, he is everywhere known for his gluttony, laziness, and indifference to the character and quality of his- food. And though he occasionally shows an epicure's relish for a succulent plant or a luscious carrot, which he will discuss with all his salivary organs- keenlyexcited, he will, the next moment, turn with equal gusto to some carries offal that might excite the forbearance of the unscrupulous cormorant. & is this coarse and-repulsive mode of feeding that has, in every country autf lattgttage, obtained'Aw him the opprobrium of being "an unclean animal."

770. In The MoswfcAL Law,, ine pig is condemned as an unclean beast. and consequently interdicted to the Israelites, as unfit for human food. "And the swine, though he divideth the hoof and be cloven-footed, yet he cheweth not the cud. He is unclean to you."—Lev. xi. 7. Strict, however, as the law was respecting the cud-chewing and hoof-divided animals, the Jews, with their usual perversity and violation of the divine commands, seem afterwards to have ignored the prohibition; for, unless they ate pork, it is difficult to conceive for what purpose they kept droves of swine, as from the circumstance recorded in Matthew xviii. 32, when Jesus was in Galilee, and the devils, cast out of the two men, were permitted to enter the herd of swine that were feeding on the hills in the neighbourhood of the Sea of Tiberias, it is veryevident they did. There is only one interpretation by which we can account for a prohibition that debarred the Jews from so many foods which we regard as nutritious luxuries, that, being fat and the texture more hard of digestion than other meats, they were likely, in a hot dry climate, where' vigorous exercise could seldom be taken, to produce disease, and especially cutaneous affections; indeed, in this light, as a code of sanitary ethics, the book of Leviticus is the most admirable system of moral government ever conceived for man's benefit.

771. Setting His Coarse Feeding And Slovenly Habits Out Of The Question, there is no domestic animal so profitable or so useful to man as the much-maligned pig, or any that yields him a more varied or more luxurious repast. The prolific powers of the pig are extraordinary, even under the restraint of domestication; but when left to run wild in favourable situations, as in the islands of the South Pacific, the result, in a few years, from two animals put on shore and left undisturbed, is truly surprising; for they breed so fast, and have such numerous litters, that unless killed off in

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