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• The principal modern languages may be learnt from approved masters in York, and the Rev. J. Kenrick gives instruction in German.
• In Mathematics the students are occupied during the first year upon the elements of Algebra, Plane Geometry, and Trigonometry. The text books are Wood's Algebra, the first part, Legendre's Geometry and Trigonometry, but a great deal of additional matter is given from various sources. The second year is devoted to Solid Geometry and Spherical Trigonometry, in which Legendre is still the text book, the remaining portions of Wood's Algebra, and the Conic Sections with some introduction to Algebraic Geometry. In the third year the Differential and Integral Calculus engage the attention, Professor Thomson's Treatise being employed as a text book; and this is followed by as much of the application of Mathematics to Physical Science as the time will admit, the course of instruction employed being derived from Poisson's “ Traité de Mecanique.” Occasional lectures are given in Chemistry, Natural Philosophy, and Natural History, and the students have frequently the opportunity of attending, for a very moderate charge, the excellent public lectures at the Museum of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society. Readings in Geography from Malte Brun's work, with occasional additions from various sources, and illustrated by maps, occupy an hour a week during the three sessions. 'In the Philosophy of the mind during the first year,
lectures are given only once a week, and of a very familiar character, calculated to smooth the difficulties attending the entrance to this science, and to prepare the young student for engaging with advantage in its systematic study. The second year is employed on a systematic analysis of the mind, in the course of which a view is given of the leading doctrines of the most eminent philosophers of Germany and France as well as Great Britain ; which is followed by the first and most important of the applications of the philosophy of the mind
-Moral Philosophy, or the consideration of the true theory, and the great practical principles of morality. In the third year the chief applications of mental science are further pursued under three principal divisions : Logic, or the science and art of reasoning ; Evidence, or the science and art of the discrimination of truth in matters of fact and experience; and Political Philosophy, or the theory of the social union, considered as having for its object the production of the greatest possible sum of diffused happiness. Under this last head is introduced Political Economy, which is studied with the assistance of the best works, French as well as English, and with a share of time and attention proportioned to the importance now deservedly attached to it.
' In almost all the classes which have now been enumerated, examination eonstantly accompanies instruction. There ar
also two public examinations, one about the middle, the other at the close of the session. Classical and Mathematical prizes are distributed, which are decided chiefly by written examinations, besides general prizes for proficiency and good conduct during the session.
• Provision is made for the cultivation of ENGLISH Style by the practice of composition through the whole of the course. After the first year, every student is required to deliver publicly an essay once a month, which after it has been read is returned to him, with the remarks of one of the tutors.
* An extensive course of lectures, by the Theological tutor, on the Evidences of NATURAL and Revealed Religion forms part of the business of the third year, or, if the course is compressed into two years, of the second.
“The Committee can hardly anticipate that the plan which they have now detailed will be considered as meagre and inadequate: they are more apprehensive that it may seem too much extended for the time allotted to it. To those who might be disposed to object to it on this ground, they would suggest that the object of an academical course is twofold—to'occupy the time of the student in the acquisition of useful knowledge during his residence in college, and to trace an outline of study for him, which he may fill up in the leisure of succeeding years. With this view subjects are indicated for future research, and references måde not only to those authors who may be immediately read, but also to others too voluminous for present study, or whose perusal may be more profitably undertaken when the judgment is more mature.
Regulations for the admission of Divinity Students. In order to secure, as far as possible, the respectability of the students for the Ministry, with regard to character and literary attainments, it is a rule of this Institution, “ That no one shall be admitted as a Divinity student, but on the recommendation of three Protestant Dissenting Ministers, residing in the neighbourhood where he lives, who shall certify, that at the commencement of his course he will have attained the full age of sixteen ; that on their personal examination, his moral character, natural endowments, and classical proficiency, are found to be such as to qualify him for becoming a student for the Ministry; and that the profession is the object of his own voluntary choice." It is required that he shall have read, in Greek, four books of Homer, and three books of the Cyropædia, or the Anabasis of Xenophon; in Latin, four books of Virgil, two books of the Odes of Horace, and Sallust's History of the Catilinarian Conspiracy and the Jugurthine War:-in all these he is to be examined in any part, pointed out at the time, without previous notice. It is also required that lie shall be thoroughly acquainted with the practical rules of Arithmetic, as far as Vulgar and Decimal Fractions, as usually taught in schools. Students admitted from other academical institutions, in any
than the first, will be required to have made classical proficiency, proportioned to the standing which they wish to take. If they enter in the second year, their testimonials must also state that they have been examined and found competently skilled in Hebrew, and have read the book of Genesis in the original ; if in the third year, the book of Psalms.
• Students in Theology begin their course with the study of the Hebrew language ; being employed during the first year in acquiring an accurate knowledge of Hebrew Grammar, and in reading select portions of the historical books of the Hebrew Scriptures. In the second year, they enter upon the reading of the poetical books, with the aid of Bishop Lowth's Prelections on Hebrew Poetry. In the three following years, the book of Job, the writings of Solomon, and the greater part of the prophetical books are read. During these three years instruction is occasionally given in the cognate dialects of the Aramæan.
In the third year the Divinity students attend a very full course of lectures on the Evidences of Natural and Revealed Religion ; in the progress of which all the best writers on these important subjects are brought under the notice of the class ; large portions of the works of many of them are read; and copious references are given by which the future inquiries of the student may be most effectually aided.
• The fourth and fifth years are devoted chiefly to the study of the Scriptures. The principle on which the Theological tụtor most scrupulously proceeds in this part of the course is, that while the student is furnished with such information as may enable him to read the Scriptures so as to understand them, no bias should be given to his mind that might incline him to adopt any particular system of religious faith ; but that he should be left at perfect liberty to examine, and to decide for himself. On this principle, the students are fully instructed, in the beginning of the fourth year of the course, in the sources and the rules of criticism, and also of interpretation, in reference to the Hebrew Scriptures: after which they proceed to the perisal and examination of the books of the Old Testament, in chronological order. They are thus enabled to acquire an accurate knowledge of the Mosaic dispensation, and of Jewish history and antiquities; and are prepared, by their familiarity with the language of the Jewish Scriptures, to enter with great advantage on the study of the writings of the New Testament. This is the chief business of the fifth year; at the commencement of which the attention of the students is directed to the sources and the rules of criticism, and then of interpretation, in reference to the Christian Scriptures. One of the three first Evangelists is then read-generally Luke-reference being constantly made to the other two; after this the Gospel of John, the Acts of the Apostles, and the Epistles, in chronological order. The student being now supposed to have formed for himself some opinion concerning the most important doctrines, at least, of Christianity, a short course of lectures on some of the most interesting periods of ecclesiastical history is delivered; with a view of pointing out the origin and progress of the most distinguished sects into which the Christian world has, at different times, been divided.'
ON THE ADMISSION OF DISSENTERS TO THE
UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD.*
We need hardly remark that the subject to which these two pamphlets refer is one of the highest importance in the eyes of all who feel any concern in the diffusion of knowledge, or in the recognition of the claims of all religious sects to a participation in the advantages of national institutions. It is not our intention to discuss the propriety of legislative assistance being given, and control being exercised, with respect to the education of the people, because we conceive it an admitted principle, by all who are best capable of judging, that these are matters which require national support and legislative superintendence. But questions have arisen as to the mode in which these principles are best carried into effect. The existing universities have for a long time had but a very limited influence as places of public instruction; and having been regulated by no other authority than that which exists within their own bodies, they have been in a great measure insensible to more enlarged views of the advantages which they might confer on the nation. Long habituated to regard themselves as the privileged seats of learning and education, they have come to imagine these privileges conferred upon them solely for their own benefit; and to infer, that having been so long their own legislators, they are actually exempt from the authority of the state. The spirit of exclusiveness has shown itself equally in their internal regulations, and in their ready adoption of those acts of the legislature which in former times chimed in so harmoniously with their own opinions and prejudices. But the moment anything like an inroad is threatened (though by the very same authority) on their exclusive domain, a cry is raised of tyranny, oppression, and vested rights.
We are aware that much difference of opinion prevails on the question between the Universities and the Dissenters, as to the particular mode in which the advantages of academical instruction, and the civil rights conferred by academical rank, may be best secured to them. But we do not think that any sensible and liberal-minded person can question the general principle, that to all such civil rights and privileges, persons
* Thoughts on the Admission of Dissenters to the University of Oxford, and on the Establishment of a State Religion : in a Letter to a Dissenter. By the Rev. W. Sewell, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Exeter College, Oxford. Talboys. 1834.
A Second Letter to a Dissenter on the Opposition of the University of Oxford to the Charter of the London College. By the same.
all persuasions ought, as fellow-subjects and citizens, to be freely admitted. The Universities are essentially lay corporations. The removal of tests and restrictions from all other lay corporations ought to apply equally to these. But religion, it is urged by the opponents to the Dissenters' claims, is an essential part of the University system ; and no other religion than one can be publicly recognized as a part of the system ; and that religion must be the religion of the Established Church. If we ask why it must be so, we are told, by the same authority, it is because the founders of the Universities so willed it. Here we dispute the fact : the founders (at least, by far the greater portion of them) endowed colleges for the Catholic Church. Some few, it is said, left their statutes so framed as to admit or alteration in this respect; others, about the time of the Reformation, endowed them for Protestantism; and some, still later, for the Established Church exclusively. All the old foundations were, however, made over to the use of the Protestant establishment, by those Acts of the legislature which successively established Protestantism as the religion of the nation. But even, independently of this, in all these cases (except possibly a few of the more recent), be it observed, the religion contemplated by the founder was the religion of the nation. There were then no Dissenters. The state of things is now altered : the Dissenters are numerous and powerful-formerly they were few, and chiefly of a class caring little about the advantages of learning—they now include a large portion of the highest intellect in the country. We will suppose, merely for argument's sake, the religious character of the colleges admitted; what does it amount to but this ?-Colleges were endowed for the purpose of education in the national religion ; that religion was formerly one, it is now in many divisions. Ought this circumstance to make a difference? ought it to hinder the just and equitable enjoyment of University advantages ? But if the colleges are religious, semi-monastic endowments, and open only to the members of the Church of England, still this rule will not apply to the university, which has, or at least ought to have, an existence distinct from the aggregate of colleges, which are but its dependencies—its boarding-houses. Suppose the colleges to be as exclusive as they please, there is no need that the university should be so. Its lectures, its examinations, its degrees, its prizes, its public and open scholarships, its professorships, might still be, and ought to be, free of access to all, without any religious test or qualification whatever. But there is a statute (and the university statutes, we are told, cannot be changed) which obliges every member of the university to be also a member of some college or hall, there to reside and