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34. binaque damna] 'I suffer a double loss,' that is, of health and spirits. Duo' would be used in prose, the numerals ending in 'nus' being distributive, so many each.' The poets do not always observe this distinction.

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35. Haeret et] He says the figure of his fortune cleaves to him and remains before his eyes as legible as a body actually visible. 39. querar ut cum] Queror de aliquo' is, I complain of a person to another;' 'queror cum' is to complain of a person to himself, in his presence.

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41. civiliter] This means 'courteously, generously.' We use civilly in that sense; but the Romans by 'civiliter' generally meant as a citizen.' Civilis' came to mean kind or civil, as opposed to 'regius' which meant despotic, tyrannical; an absolute monarchy such as that of their old kings being odious to the Romans. Ovid means that Augustus acted generously in sending him away from Rome rather than putting him to death, which he almost wishes he had done. He hopes that having once been so kind, he will now go further, and let him change his place of residence. Ovid was not punished with exile as the Romans understood it, which lost a person his citizenship; but with another sort of banishment called 'relegatio,' which, without taking away citizenship, required a person to leave Rome for ever or for a fixed time, the place of residence being named In Ovid's case it was named.

or not.

Spring.-P. 17.

2. Maeotis hiems] The people who lived about the Palus Maeotis, now called the Sea of Azov, were called Maeotici. But Ovid uses the name as equivalent to Scythian. Antiquis' means 'former' (see note on p. 1, v. 10). A diphthong before a vowel is very seldom made short, as it is here.

3. Hellen] According to a Greek legend, Helle was the daughter of Athamas, a prince of Boeotia. She was placed, with her brother Phrixus, who was about to be sacrificed by their father, on the back of a winged ram, to be carried to the shores of the Euxine, but on the way she fell off into the strait called after her Hellespontus (the Dardanelles). 'Qui' means the ram, which was that whose golden fleece afterwards became famous as the object of the Argonautic expedition. It was said to have been taken up into heaven, where it appears as the constellation Aries, one of the signs of the zodiac. See p. 3, v. 2.

4. Tempora nocturnis] The sun enters Aries about the 21st of March, which is the time of the vernal equinox, and Ovid therefore says Aries is making the day and night equal. But the equinox was past. See below, v. 17.

6. gerit] This, by a misprint, is 'ferunt' in the text.

8. Indocilique loquax] 'Indocilis' here means rude,' and is equivalent to indoctus.' Adjectives in 'ilis' and 'bilis' usually signify that which may be done, and 'docilis' is usually one who is apt to learn, who may be taught. But such adjectives in the poets sometimes mean what is as well as what may be, and sometimes they have an active sense, as, for instance, amabilis' is used for 'loving' as well as 'loveable.' 'Vernat' means comes with the spring. The bird here meant is the cuckoo.

9. malae crimen matris] The swallow is said to build a nest for its young in order to set aside the crime of the wicked mother. The first swallow, according to the fable, was Procne, who killed her son Itys, as related in the note on v. 7, p. 1. She is now said to build a nest for her young in order to atone for that crime.

10. cunas] This generally means a cradle. It is nowhere else used for a nest or applied to dumb animals. See p. 40, v. 313. 11. Cerealibus] As Ceres presided over the corn-fields, the furrows are called the furrows of Ceres.

13. Quoque loco] 'Wherever the vine grows the bud is put forth from the branch.' The Getae were a tribe near the mouths of the Danube on the north side, whose territory now forms part of Lower Wallachia and the southern part of Bessarabia. It once was on the south side of the river, and extended to the coast on which Tomi lay. The Scythians there were still called Getae. See p. 20, v. 47.

17. Otia nunc istic] 'There is idleness now there,' that is, at Rome. On the 4th April every year the Romans celebrated with great rejoicings games called Megalesia, in honour of the great goddess (which is the meaning of the name) Cybele. Junctis ex ordine ludis' means games succeeding each other in regular order, which was the same every year. While they lasted the business of the forum (see note on v. 24) was stopped, which is the meaning of the next line.

20. trochus] This was an iron hoop trundled with a hooked rod such as boys use now. Games of ball were very common with the Romans, and neither the ball nor the hoop was confined to boys.

21. oleo labente] The Romans oiled themselves all over before they bathed, which they usually did after their games. They played in the Campus Martius, a plain outside the walls of Rome, through which ran an aqueduct, lately built when this was written by Agrippa, called for some reason Virgo: it still exists. In this it appears they bathed as well as in the Tiber, to the banks of which the Campus Martius extended.

23. Scena viget] The stage is active.' The third day of this festival was particularly set apart for plays. The next words may be rendered, 'applause with varying ardour kindles.' Some actors are more applauded than others.

24. Proque tribus] 'Instead of the three fora, the three theatres resound.' A forum was an open space surrounded by buildings. Of these there were three (at the time when Ovid wrote), devoted chiefly to legal and other public business and assemblies of the people. There were also three principal theatres at this time, though till about sixty years before there was not one, the Romans having always been opposed to permanent theatres, as calculated to create idle habits. Wooden ones were erected from time to time, and pulled down again.

26. Urbe] The Romans called their cityUrbs,' as we call London Town,' without the name.

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28. Quaeque lacu duro] By lacus' he means a pond or a reservoir, which would be hard frozen after the ice had broken up in the sea and river. The Sauromates were the inhabitants of Sarmatia, about which see p. 15, v. 40. 'Stridula' means 'creaking.' The wheels were commonly of solid timber without spokes, and the carts of a cumbrous kind.

32. Ponti] See below, v. 38, and p. 15, v. 39. 33. nautae] See note on p. 13, v. 12.

Dicta salute' means 'after the usual greeting,' which was 'salve.' See p. 10, v. 34 n. 34. quisve quibusve]Who he is or from what parts.'

35. mirum nisi] This must be taken as one word, like 'nimirum,' which form is more common. It may be translated 'no doubt.' Literally it is, 'strange if otherwise.'

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36. ararit] Will have ploughed,' that is, when he comes. 'Araret' in the text is wrong.

38. portubus orba] Without harbours.' The sea was originally called by the Greeks Axīnum,' which means 'inhospitable,' from its being subject to violent storms, and having few safe harbours, and a savage population on its shores. The name was afterwards changed to 'Euxīnum,' which is 'hospitable,' for good luck. The Romans called it 'Pontus Euxinus,' or 'Pontus.' It was called Black Sea by the Turks, from its storms.

41. Fas quoque] The proper meaning of 'fas' is, that which the gods allow. He says it may be some one will come from the entrance of the straits or the distant Propontis. This is the Sea of Marmora, which was separated from the Euxine by the Bosporus, now the Straits of Constantinople. 'Certo' may be translated 'steady.' As to 'vela dare,' see note on p. 13, v. 16.

43. Quisquis is est] He says, 'whoever he is, he may remember and repeat what has been told him by others, and so become a part and step of rumour:' that is, he may tell part of the news from Rome, and send it one step farther on.

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45. triumphos] Triumphus' was a procession celebrated on the occasion of great victories, in which the commander rode on a triumphal car in great pomp, with his prisoners behind him and music before, round the Campus Martius and through the chief streets and forum.

46. Latio reddita] And that his vows have been paid to Latian Jove.' Jupiter was worshipped at Rome under various names, of which one was 'Latiaris, the tutelar god of Latium. When armies took the field it was common to vow a temple or other offering to some god in the event of their being victorious.

47. Teque rebellatrix] Ovid hopes he may hear that the German tribes, against whom at this time the Roman armies were engaged under Tiberius, who was afterwards emperor, had submitted to him. He says 'tandem' because the Germans had long resisted the power of the Romans, and very lately a great disaster had been inflicted on one of their generals, Varus, by a German tribe. He calls Germany rebellious, but the Germans owed no allegiance to Rome. Not long after this was written Tiberius had a triumph for his victories over the Illyrians, but many tribes remained unsubdued.

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48. ducis] A general who had not the supreme command called imperium,' and the power of taking the auspices on going into the field, was called 'dux:' he who had that power was called imperator.' From this the emperors had their title, and they did not usually allow their generals to share it. But the commanders-in-chief with the armies of the republic were 'imperatores.'

49. quae non vidisse] 'Though I shall grieve not to have seen them.'

52. Jamque suum]And does my punishment assign me from henceforth its own spot for my home?' He means, is he always to live in the place to which for his fault he was banished.

53. penetrale] The inner rooms of a house were called 'penetralia,' and one of them was generally set apart for the images of the Penates (p. 3, v. 7 n).

54. Hospitium] This means an inn, a temporary restingplace.

The Exile inconsolable.-P. 19.

4. lupos] The bit, so called from its being jagged like the teeth of a wolf.

5. Poenorum] 'Carthaginian. The inhabitants of Carthage were called Poeni or Punici from Phoenicia, the city being supposed to have been founded by Dido, who was a Phoenician. 8. Bellua] That is, the elephant.

10. grana] The seed of fruit is properly called 'granum ;' but here Ovid uses the word for the grapes themselves. Merum' is wine unmixed with water, it being properly an adjective signifying pure, with 'vinum' understood.

14. adamanta] 'Adamas' is 'hard steel.'

19. Ut patria careo] This is the same idiom as ut tetigi Pontum,' above, p. 16, v. 27. Area' was a raised floor on which corn was threshed, the wind carrying away the chaff.

20. pressa bis uva] The first process in wine-making among the ancients was to put the grapes in large vats, where men with naked feet trod upon them and so squeezed out the greater part of the juice. This process is often alluded to in Scripture. 21. Nec quaesita] 'Quaesita' means 'gotten,' and 'spatio' is 'space of time,' as in p. 9, v. 7.

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23. et veteres] Even old steers.' 'Juvencus' is properly 'a young steer' just after he has ceased to be a calf and is fit for the plough. It is here used for ploughing-oxen in general.

26. Ut sit enim sibi par] 'For suppose it is the same, it has grown and been increased by length of time.' If no new suffering has been added, the old has got worse by long continuance.

28. hoc, quo sunt] 'In proportion as they are better understood.' He had not seen the full extent of his calamity at first.

29. Est quoque] He says it is a thing of greatest consequence to bring fresh strength to the endurance of suffering, and not to have been worn out beforehand with sorrows of long continuance.

31. arena] The space in the circus or amphitheatre in which the wrestlers appeared was called 'arena' because it was strewed with sand to prevent them from slipping.

33. Integer] This word contains the root 'tag' of 'tango,' and means untouched, fresh.'

39. deficio] I am falling away, and as far as I can augur from the state of my body'

44. In circumspectu] It stands in the midst of an endless view of its misfortune:' like one who looks round at sea and sees nothing but waters about him.

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45. mea cura] See p. 6, v. 32 n. The friends I love.' 47. Getarum] See p. 17, v. 14 n. All the nations of continental Europe, except the Greeks and Romans, as well as the eastern nations with whom the Romans were acquainted, wore trowsers (braccae'). The practice was held in contempt by the Romans.

48. non videoque] By the ills he sees he means the barbarians who surround him. Mala' does not properly belong to 'non video,' since that which he did not see was his friends and home. He means that what he sees causes him pain by its presence, and what he does not see by its absence.

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The aged Exile.-P. 21.

5. posito fine] To put an end' is to set up a boundary-mark (which is the meaning of 'finis') beyond which a thing is not to go.

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