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1753 Of the Art of refining SILVER. ** yard Thews you Westminster-bridge, with understood by those who practise the late all the prospect through the arches ; they ter; I shall call in what little knowledge cross it several times, and, not succeeding, the experiments I have made in metallurthey come to the house of a cenjurer, gick chemistry may have given me, to whom he employs to aid them, but all the affiftance of one of them in our own in vain. Colombine is discovered with kingdom, which is undoubtedly at this Harlequin, me languishing falls on the time better practised by others. ground, the genius enters to them, and A It is not without pleasure I see a rew tells them danger is near ; they exit, set of refiners attempting improvements and the pursuers entering are led by aerial in the profession. Their attempt seems to musick caused by the genius, till they come have succeeded so far as to produce filto the scene of rocks ; there Harlequin ver of a better colour than the ordinary and Colombine are seated on a pile of kind, but more harsh : It is not difficult them, but soon ascend in a sofa, that perhaps to discern from this, what is the was before hid by the craggy rocks ; the process by which there artists have made scene is hereupon changed to the palace the improvement ; but if they lose ducof Harlequin, who now appears in all B tility while they gain colour, they throw his grandeur, dismisses his rival with a away on one hand what they get on the frown, hut retains Pantaloon with great other. Perhaps what I shall add on this courtesy ; they seat themselves and are occasion, may point them out a remedy entertained with a dance of spirits, mon- to this objection, and they are not to be fieur Ferrere at their head ; and Panta- displeased if, in return, their secret be acloon, giving his consent, closes the enter- cidentally thrown open, among the metainment.

thods I shall name for the improvement I must here reconsider the laft scene, C of the art of refining in England. Let which beggars all description ; the most us once lay down the method of renderromantick Eastern account of sumptuous ing silver absolutely pure, and the French palaces are but faint to this display of will not long excel us in their metal; por beauty, this glow of light, this profufion will our own refiners any more complain of glittering gems, which adorn the of the uncertainty of their processes, or whole, and much exceeds all expectation. that they are not able at any time to make

two bars exactly of the same colour. The INSPECTOR, in bis Papor of

I am perfectly uninformed of the meJan. 30, pursues bis Subject relating to D thod which they use at present; it is ibe Gold and Silver LACE Trade, (see pe

probably a secret of their art, which they 35.) and trears of rbe Art of refining Silver.

keep to themselves : What I shall advance F it be enquired, says

is from experiments, which have been

made with my own hands, in small quanver, from whatsoever ore, perfectly pure, tities, but they may be calily extended to I am most certain that there is. if it be larger : And if chole gentlemen will make farther asked, whether the French obtain a trial of such as are new to them, they the advantage they have over us, from E will probably find the advantage. the use of the Indian filver only, or from With regard to the production of Alver their possessing this secret of refining in a from its several ores, che method varies greater degree of perfection ; is is not easy according to their different nature : That to speak with so much certainty, but which is naturally pure, and in large flakes most probably it is from the latter cause ; and threads, requires only melting to rethey are in general better chemifts than

parate any quantity of itony or other the English ; and there is this farther sup. matter about it : This is effected by the port of that opinion, that we know they same degree of fire which melts gold; and have often bought of our own refiners, F the metal thus produced is perfečtly white, that very filver, of which they have made soft, and ductile. When the same pure those laces, so superior in quality. I make native metal is scattered in the ore in leffer. no question but there is a possibility of particles, quicksilver is put to it ; this rendering any filver pure ; of refining it takes up the filver, and is afterwards disso perfectly as to take off all false tinges, tilled off, and the remaining metal purifi and all accidental occafions of tarninn, or ed by fire. There are the methods of in properer words, of ruft ; even that obtaining the Indian filver. Where the blue cast, to which the English silver ex. G ore is loaded with ftony and other sub. tracted from lead has always hitherto been stances, and arsenick and sulphur have liable, not excepted ; and as the sciences, penetrated the metal and changed its apaltho' they have been the foundation of pearance, it is powdered, and lead is addthe arts, have not been properly applied ed ; it is then put into the fire ; the fulto their improvement, nor are in general phur and arsenick burn away, and the

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72 OBSERVATIONS on the Pruflian MEMORIAL. stones are changed into a kind of glass : is finished ; it is to be taken off the fire, The silver is thus received into the lead ; and the filver is absolutely pure. and is to be separated afterwards by burn- This is not a method for valt quantities, ing that lead away. This is the method but all that is used for the wire trade used with the Hungarian and Norway might be thus prepared : And there would ores, and it is plain that it reduces the be then no fault at the door of the refiner. metal to the same ftate with that which is extracted originally from lead in Eng. A Observations on the PRUSSIAN MENORIAL, land. Lastly, when there are earths and concerning ibe Silesia Loan. (Seep.4.) other foulnesses in the are, glass of lead From the London - Evening-Post. is added, and this has the same effect. It is by one or other of these ways that most

SIR, of the filver is separated from the Euro.

A

S the stoppage of payment of the pean ores. They are therefore all, more emperor's loan by his Pruilian maor less, under the same disadvantage with jesty is a publick concern, and may be that from the English lead ores; and they attended with very bad consequences, it prove in effect all bad in colour. Hence B will not be amiss to consider his Prutian the reason appears wiry the Indian filver majesty's reasons for so doing ; and how is preferable.

far it has the colour of justice, and where This is the original difference of filver it is inconfiftent with reason. from its several ores, but this might be all His Prussian majesty says, “ It is a rule set aside in the refining : We are therefore founded both on reason and upon the to enquire how this is done, and how it taw of nations, that when a sovereign demay be done. The common method is nies the subjects of another sovereign that by a Itrong fire encreased by a continual C justice which he is required and solicited blowing, and by the addition of lead. to render them, or when he does not do This is an easy way, and it refines a great them due justice ; as well that sovereign, deal at a time ; but instead of mending, a: his subjects, are answerable for it in it encreases the disadvantage with regard their own special and personal name. to the lace trade ; for lead is the thing of Grot. de Jur. Bell. & Pac. This princi. all others to be avoided.

ple of the law of nations is founded on Silver will be excellently refined by on- natural reason, because the subje&s are ly melting it with a fourth part of pow- held to approve of the acts of their lovedered nitre, in a covered crucible this Dreign, and subscribe to his judgment : purifies it from every thing but gold : If Whence it naturally follows, that they are there mould have been any of this metal answerable for it ; and that when all other in it, it is easy to separate afterwards. means are wanting, recourse must be had The filver refined by this method will be to their private properties."-Now if we of a perfect white colour, but harsh. can possibly suppore, that a British court This fault however is to be remedied by of admiralty have unjustiy, and contrary only melting again in an open crucible, to the law of nations, condemned all the sprinkling a little more nitre over it. E goods and merchandize of his Prussian Thus it becomes tough and mellow, as majesty's subjects, as complained of, then well as white, If this be judiciously the reasons of his Pruffian majesty do ro done, all the tinge of the lead is burni far seem to be right ; for it is both jur. off, and will be found at the top in a tice, and the common method of pro. bluish glossy dross.

ceeding of all powers, to make reprisals I shall close this paper with one method on the subjects of each other, whenever more, which I have found to produce a the subjects of one are injured by those of lilver so perfectly pure, that no defect can another : And therefore, if thc seizures be charged upon it; and by which the F complained of were illegal, there is no metal, from whatsoever ore, will be the doubt but his Prusian majesty has a right fame. Silver, after it has been refined in to make reprisals. But then, what his the common way, is tò be dissolved in Prussian majesty asserts, that he may make aqua fortis : Some common fal armoniack such reprisals, by stopping the payment is to be melted in water, and this must be of the loan on Silefia, without breaking poured on the diffolution. The aqua for- the treaties of Brenau and Dresden, is not tis on this loses its power, and the filver only contrary to common sense, but is falls to the bottom in form of powder. Geven, by his own arguments, fully conThis powder is to be boiled in water re- futed, veral times ; then dried and put into a His majesty says, “ It is difficolt to crucible ; half its weight of powdered comprehend the meaning of the English falt of tartar is to be put over it: As soon ministry, when they pretend, that Eng*s the whule is well melted, the procels land will tbink herself disengaged from

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1753
Observations on the Pruffian MEMORIAL.

73 the guaranty of Silesia, the moment that of Grotius to his own use, but would his Prussian majesty stops the payment of refuse the same benefit to Creat-Britain ; the funds guarantied to the subjects of Eng. he would not have the treaties of Breflau land, by the creaties of Brenau and Drer. and Dresden broke by any new offence, den, in confideration of which alone the as to the guaranty of Silesia ; but at guaranty of Silesia was granted. This the fame time would, contrary to Gro. would be again to lose sight of the law of tius, break those creaties, on account nations : For neither the preceding peace, A of a new offence, by liopping the loan nor the motive upon which that peace of Silesia. Besides, the new offence comwas concluded, are here concerned ; but plained of, hy his Prussian majesty, has the matter in question is a new offence, no manner of relation to those treaties; committed fince the conclufion of the and therefore, according to Grotius, they peace, by Englith subjects against thore of

ought not to be broke by him on that Pruflia; and it is this new injury that led account: But the new offence comthe king to make use of reprisals, in order plained of by the British nation, is the to obtain satisfaction. It was not till breaking of those very treaties in that maafter the treaty of Breslau in 1742, and B terial point, which vas the fole cause of that of Dreiden in 1745, that the Englii such guaranty; and which therefore does subjects committed the outrages complain absolutely annul the same. His Pruffian ed of. The point in question therefore is majesty cannot, with the least colour of a new offence, which did not arise from the reason, at once avail himself of this rule preceding war, nor has any connexion of Grotius, and deny the same to Greatwith it ; and therefore demands a Britain ; nor expect that the guaranty of separation. To obtain this reparation, Silesia by this nation Mould sublift, after the king, authorized by the law of nati- C those terms, which caused fuch guaranty, ons, has recourse to the money of the Eng- have been by him broke.- But what Jith in his hands. -- But this doth not in- Briton can read, without resentment, validate the preceding treaties of peace ; the following menace of his Prussian mafor, by the laws of nations, the repara- jesty! “ But if, contrary to ail reason, tion of a new offence may be sued for it should be faid, that this atcachment without interruption of a peace. It is a makes void the guaranty

promised in the question (says the illustrious Grotius) that treaties of Brenau and Dresden, still the occurs every day, and is often debated, D guaranty, ftipulated by the 22d article when may a peace be looked upon as of the treaty of Aix la Chapelle, will rebroken? For it is one thing to furnith a main in full force; and, at all events, 'new subject for war by a new offence, and the Pruffian king will be equally disa another thing to break a peace. If it engaged from his guaranty of the crown happens, that after a peace concluded, of England to the house of Hanover, and one of the contracting parties commits of the electoral dominions of that family." violence upon the subjects of the other, -By this weak menace, his Prussian and.consequently offends that other afres, majesty seems to be ignorant, that the the peace does not therefore cease to sub. E guaranty of the crown of Great-Britain, fift; but the party offended may, without by any foreign power, rather weakens violating that peace (salva pace) recom- than supports the right of the wearer : mence war on this new ground."

The only true guaranty of the crown of If then, acoording to his Pruffian ma- Great-Britain to the king of it, is the jesty's citation from Grotius, any new affection of his people ; of whichi no offence besween nations, committed after monarch ever pofTeffed a greater degree a treaty of peace, tho' it may furnish than his present majesty. subject for a fresh war, yet nould not f. Upon the whole; if the seizures combe any reason for breaking the articles plained of by his Prussian majetty were of such a prior treaty; why does his indeed illegal, and contrary to the law of Prussian majesty break the treaties of nations, it would be but justice to make Breslau and Dresden, by stopping the fufficient reparation ; but if they were payment of the Silesia loan, on account justly condemned (as is indeed most rea, of a new offence, committed after the sonable to suppose) and yet his Prutian conclufion of those treaties? For even majefty should Aill perhift in stopping the supposing the Pruffians were really in- payment of the loan, there seems to be jured, as complained of ; yet, according 110 way fo just or natural, as to apply to to Grotius, his Pruflian majetły, tho' he G the Empress-queen for the payment of might commence a fresh war upon it, the remainder, who will thereupon have ought not to violate the terms of the a just right to re-enter and re-poiless Siformer treaties. His Pruffian majesty lefia. Yeems defrous of applying this maxim

DRITANNICUS. February, 1753•

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74 Abstract of Mr. FIELDING'S PROPOSAL. Feb.

the labourers and prisoners with the neThere having lately been published, A Pro- cessaries of life.

posal for making an etřectual Provision for the poor, for amending their Mo.. leased to proper persons, by the governor

7. That, the faid 18 houses shall be rals, and rendering them usetul Mem

for the time being, for the term of 7 bers of Society, by HENRY FIELD

years, subject to a condition of forfeiture ING, Esa; we shall give our Readers

and re-entry on the breach of certain fome Account of it, with an Alpract of the Proposal itself.

A rules and Atatutes of the said house.

8. That the lodging-rooms of the counT of . 10 this pamphlet is added a plan ty. house Thall be furnished with beds,

allowing one bed to two persons; ons dedicated to the Rt. Hon. Henry Pelham, large joint-ftool, and two small ones, for chancellor of his majesty's exchequer : each bed. And that the working-rooms In the introduction is thewn the neces- of the said house Thall be provided with lity of some such scheine, from the present all kinds of implements and tools for miferable condition of the poor, the carrying on such manufactures, as Mall from little care that is taken of them, and B time to time be introduced into the said the burthen they are upon the publick: house. And at the end are printed the arguments 9. That the lodging-rooms of the coun. in support of his proposals for a county ty house of correction mall be furnished work house, &c. which proposals are in with a coverlet and blankets, for the priSubstance as follows.

foners, and matting to lie on; and the 1. That there Mall be erected, for the working-rooms shall be provided with imcounty of Middlesex *, at some con- plements for beating hemp, chopping rags, venient place within the said county, a c and for other of the hardest and vilett lalarge building, consisting of three several bour.

The two outermost of the said 10. That A, B, &c. fall be commiscourts to be called the county-house, and fioners for carrying this act into executhe innermoit court to be called the tion. That the said commissioners or county-house of correction.

three of them, thall meet once a week, 2. That the said county-house mall be at such places within the said county as large enough to contain 5000 persons, they shall think most proper, from Ladyand upwards ; and the said county-house day 1753, to Michaelmas 1753; and once of correction large enough to contain 600 Da fortnight from Michaelmas 1753, to persons, and upwards.

Lady.day 1755 ; then to make up their 3. That both the said houses Mall be accounts before a committee of the house so contrived, that the men and women of commons, if then fitting ; if not, may be kept entirely separate from each at the next session, after which the other.

said commission to cease and be deter4. That the said county-house thall mined. conlist, 1. Of lodgings for the officers. 31. That, in order to defray the expence of 2. Of lodging rooms for the labourers. E the foresaid building, and provide the same 3. Of working-rooms for the same. 4. with all neceffary furniture, as well as to Of an infirmary. 5. Of a chapel. 6. Of provide implements and materials for fet. teveral large store.rooms, with cellarage. ting the poor to work, and for other ex.

5. That the said county-house of cor. pences during the first year, a sum not ex. reétion thall confiit, 1. Of lodgings for ceeding

Thall be the officers. 2. Of lodging-rooms for the immediately raised. prisoners. 3. Of working rooms for the 12. That the following officers thall fame. 4. Of an infirmary. 5. Of a be appointed for the government and falling-room. 6. Of several cells or dun. F care of the said houses ; and these ofgeons. 7. Of a large room with iron ficers Mall be allowed the following salagrates, wisich Mhall be contiguous to and rics + : look into the end of the chapel.

County-house : One governor, two 6. There ihall be likewise built one clerks. Two deputies, one clerk each. bure for the governor, one for the deputy- Treasurer, receiver, three clerks. Storegovernors, one for the chaplains, one for keeper, three clerks. Two chaplains. the treasurer, and one other for the re- Six keepers. Six affiftants. One supercriver-general of the said house. There G intendent to every room. Four watchmen. thall be likewile built on each side of the Clerk. Sexton, Said county-house, 9 houses for providing House of correction : One keeper.

Three * It is proposed to make the trial fit in this County, and if the plan should be approved by experience, it will be caly, be says, do extend it over the kingdom. Blanks are left for be falaries,

1753 .
Abstract of Mr. FIELDING'S PROPOSAL,

75 Three under-keepers. Six assistants. Su. Parish of Permit A. B. the bearer hereperintendent to every room. Two watch. Middlesex of, to pass to the town of men.

Shaftesbury in the county of Infirmary : Surgeon. Apothecary.

Dorset, and there to remain Matron. Nurses.

during the time limited in this 13. That the governor skall sue and be

pars, he behaving himself or. sued by the name of the governor of the

derly and according to law. county-house of Middlesex. And that A

Given under my hand this besides all other powers to be given him,

Joth of Nov. 1752. he Mall have power, as governor of the

C. D. minister of the said pasaid house, to make contracts with all

rilh. persons whatever, and to draw on the This pars to continue in force one treasurer for any sums of money fo con- month from the date hereof inclusive, tracted for, in payment for any imple- and no longer. ments or materials of any kind of ma- 19. That it shall be lawful for any gennufacture, trade, or myAery. He shall Bitleman, farmer, artificer, or tradesman, likewise have full power to exercise and to employ any journeyman, servant, or carry on, in either of the said houses, any labourer, of any other parith or county such manufacture, trade, or mystery, as besides his own, he having first obtained may be lawfully exercised and carried on from such magistrate, minifter, or church. within this kingdom ; and may once eve- warden as aforesaid, such pass as aforesaid, ry month hold a grand market at the which the said magistrate, &c. are hereby county-house, or in some convenient required to grant, at the desire of such place near adjoining thereto, for the dis. gentleman, farmer, &c. Such pass to be posal of such wares and manufactures as C appointed to continue in force for fo Thall be wrought by the labourers in the long time as such gentleman, &c. Ihall said houses.

require. 14. That when any person shall be 20. And whereas many able and indurbrought before a justice for the county of trious persons, who are willing to get a Middlesex, and shall be convicted before livelihood by honest labour, are often, for him, on the oath of one credible witness, want of such labour, reduced to great disof any offence by which he is made a tress, and forced against their will to bedisorderly person, or a rogue and vaga: D come chargeable to the parishes to which bond, by a certain act passed in the 17th they belong : That when any poor perion of his present majesty, called the vagrant mall apply to the minister, or churchact; or shall be so convicted of any other warden of any parish, and thew' to either crime, for which he is liable to be com- of then such their inability to procure a mitted to the house of correction for any livelihood in their own parish, or in any fixed time, or at the discretion of one or other parish in that neighbourhood, the more justices, by any law now in being, said minister or churchwarden shall deliver it shall be lawful for the said justice to to such poor person a certificate in the commit such person to the county-house, E words following: or the county house of correction, at his

To the governor of the coundiscretion.

ty-house of the said county. In the 15th, 16th and 17th paragraphs, Parish of I recommend to your care c. the same is proposed with regard to per- Middlesex. D. the bearer hereof, to be fons appointed to be commitred to the

provided for in your councounty goal by way of punishment for

ty-house, he being an honest, their offences ; persons accused on oath

industrious person, but in. of small thefts; and idle persons wander- F

capable, at present, of proing about without a pass.

curing work in this neigh18. And whereas it may often hap

bourhood. pen, that poor persons have lawful occa- Given under my hand this icth Nov. hons to travel above fix miles from home,

1752 and into a foreign county, on errands of

A. B. churchwarden of the bufiness for themselves or others, or to

said parih. procure work, or sometimes to visit their The 2ift and 22d paragraphs relate to near relations, who live at a distance from the penalties to be infiicted on persons them ;,That any magistrate of the coun. G who counterfeit patles, or do not return ly or place, or minifter, or churchwarden at the expiration of their palles. of the parish, being applied to, and pro- The 23d and a 4th specify the manner perly informed of the truth of such law- of admission of those who come voluntaful occasion, thall deliver to such person's rily to the county house, and how they a país in the following words, mutatis are to be detained and discharged, Puiuardia,

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