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firming the above remarks by the shew very little inclination to spor following observations from the pen tive agility, of Dr. Pole of Bristol, who is not “ For the purpose of healthy exonly justly distinguished for his ac. ercise, and other considerations, the tive and enlightened benevolence as master marches the children several a philanthropist, but whose reputa: times round the room : this, in cold tion as a physician renders bim pe- weather, is a means of warming culiarly qualified to decide the par- them, much to be preferred to the ticular point in question.
warmth acquired by standing beMany persons think,” remarks fore the fire. In these marches, the Dr. Pole,
“ that the moment a child children beat time, by clapping their is brought into the school, he should hands together at every step: this, be taken to his seat, and there kept with the sound of their feet on the until the time of going home; but floor, makes a clattering noise very this is a most' injurious practice; delightful to the children, as may instead of which, they are per- be seen by the animation of their mitted, in these schools, to join countenances. These marches are in play with their schoolmates, as so managed as to make them addithey may be inclined, until they tionally amusing.' A double rank are all, or nearly all, collected. coming down the middle of the These amusements are calculated room, at the bottom divide off right to give the children habits of in- and left into two single ranks, one dustry, and to prevent their having on each side; when they meet at any time (if they had the inclina. the top of the room they join again tion) for repining: it also greatly into one double rank, with their tends to the promotion of health arms round each other's necks. The and bodily vigour. Herein we fol- line of their march is always varied, low the dictates of reason and na. according to certain rules, or the ture; for young growing children, word of command, or signals given and animals of every species, are by the master ; the line may be prone to activity, in proportion to zigzag, circular, vermicular, as their that kind of life which, in the order instructor may please. . In these of an all-wise Providence, they were marches, the master makes use of intended to live. We may observe a whistle capable of a loud' shrill this in all animals of prey (quadru- sound. When the children are peds) formed to live by feats of marching in ordinary pace or time, agility, effected by the elasticity a sharp stamp of the master's foot and spring of their muscles ; such is a signal to increase the march to animals
, in a young and growing a quicker time, and a double sound state, are remarkably active and of the whistle is to increase the playful; an instance of which, fa- march doubly quick. A single sound miliar to us all, is seen in the cat, of the whistle is to call the atten. and cats are animals of prey; they tion of the leader of the march to pursue their prey by celerity in the the master, who, by certain motions movement of their feet, or spring- of his hand, directs the leader to ing like a tiger at once upon it; and turn either to the right or to the young cats (kittens) are remarkably left, or 'to fall in any position he active and playful. On the other may think proper, in order to vary hand, swine, in a state of nature, the march. are formed to walk gravely over the ti If any person should inquire ground, to feed upon growing veger what the utility of these marches tables, the fruits which fail from can be, beyond what may respect trees, and to root with their noses healthy exercise'and the amusement under the earth for such productions of the children, I should say, I as are to be found there: their young conceive them to be of very ima CHRIST. OBSERY. No. 275.
9003) €0.9. vs dewe VICII B H02 903 ogni asusid (1910).* portant benefit, especially to the them.' There is, in fact, no part of very young learners ; inasmuch as
the school employments so calcuthey are the means of introducing lated to produce attention and obe them to habits of subordination. In dience, which are of the greatest these marches, they are obliged con- importance throughout the various tinually to attend to signals or the exercises." word of command, and to obey A FRIEND TO INTANT SCHOOLS.
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Sumner's Evidences ; Benson's for displaying the skill of the theo
Scripture Difficulties ; und Fa- logical combatant, than as a school BER's Difficulties of Infidelity. of instruction for expounding the
doctrines, and enforcing the prac( Continued from p. 655.)
tical influence, of Christianity. This In our last Number we confined has been productive both of good our notice to Mr. Sumner's volume, and of evil. On the one hand, it which is highly important, as af- has been the means of supplying us fording perhaps a fuller display of with an abundant mass of excellent the internal evidences of Christi- matter on the evidences of revelaanity than can be found in any pre- tion which we might not otherwise ceding writer. The lectures of Mr. have possessed. Our public uniBenson, on Scripture Difficulties, versity lectures, were they to be are now to be considered. These collected in a uniform edition, would discourses were preached before the exhibit a sort of armoury of Chrisuniversity of Cambridge, in 1822, tian evidence, where the future at the lecture founded by the Rev. champions of religion might equip J. Hulse, and have excited, we be- themselves with good weapons and lieve, very considerable attention harness, of all sorts and sizes, both both in that university and among for defence and for attack. There the reading part of the clergy. They is hardly one important subject that are indeed of a high order, and pre- has remained unnoticed; hardly one sent an example which well deserves important vantage-ground that has to be studied by all who may in not been seized and secured. And future be called to occupy the same so far is well. “ The truth," as important station. Amongst much Bishop Horsley remarks,“ must other excellent matter, they abound be not only taught, but defended. with some very free observations, The stubborn infidel will raise oband somewhat unpalateable advice, jections against the first principles delivered with that boldness which of our faith: and objections must marks a man of a thoroughly inde- be answered. The restless spirit of pendent spirit, and that mixture of scepticism will suggest difficulties firmness, feeling, and moderation, in the system, and create doubts which never fails to produce a bene about the particulars of the Chrisficial effect upon candid and reflect- tian doctrine : difficulties must be ing minds. Every one knows that removed, and doubts must be satisthe pulpits of our two universities fied." - And, if all this must be have been very generally-we are done, not only from the press, but far from saying exclusively-devot- occasionally from the pulpit also, ed to topics of theological criticism what place is so proper for such disand controversy. They have been cussions as the pulpit of a univertoo often occupied, rather as a stage sity? While, therefore, the paro
chial minister should confine him- insecurity of earthly things, and unacquaintself chiefly to the explanation and ed with the best teachers of heavenlyenforcement of Christian doctrine mindedness, – affliction, disappointment, and practice, the preacher before a either the employment of the mind abates university, especially at an endow, the edge of the sorrows into which we ed lecture, may often be allowed fall
, and renders religion less essential to to direct his principal efforts against our happiness, or else an indolent melanthe infidel, the sceptic, and the choly shuts up every genial glow of kindliheretic.
ness, and unfits us at once for every exer-But then, on the other hand, there tion and sympathy, either for the good of are serious inconveniences and evils
others or our own. All these things are attending the perpetual recurrence against godliness of soul. Independent of conflicts of this description.
and intellectual in every thing that we think Mr. Benson, though a champion double need, therefore, of having the holy
or do in our ordinary life, we stand in eminently qualified for this war- affections of the heart enlivened and spifare, gives us to understand how
ritualized by practical preaching. But it much he lamented the necessity he is not only of ourselves we should think, was under of devoting to it so large nor is it only for ourselves we should fear. a portion of his time and labour. There are those around us for whose welLet us hear the admirable remarks fare it is our duty and interest to feel. with which he concludes his lec
There are those, over whose inexperience tures; remarks which deserve to be
we are to watch, as they that must give noted down in the common.place confines of youth and manhood, with the
an account, and who, standing upon the book of every student, but espę passions of the one unsubdued, and the cially of every teacher in our uni. principles of the other unconfirmed, are versities.
in an hour of life most full of temptation, “ It now only remains for us to conclude, and most dangerous to religion and to by solemnly and finally beseeching all to en
virtue. If these, then, when they come deavour to obviate the dangers to which within these sacred walls, are condemned the constant recurrence of those contro
to hear from us only of the objections of versial discussions which, whether from infidelity, or the controversies of divines; choice or necessity, so often abound in if we reason ever upon the rudiments or this place, must unavoidably lead. For of mysteries of our faith, and appeal but selall modes of life, that which we are here dom to their consciences, and press but accustomed to pass is, perhaps, as little little upon their affections the spirituality favourable as any to the attainment of deep of the Gospel, and the serious and heavensentiments of serious piety.
Removed ly character of the life it requires, what from the softening intercourse of domestic can they conclude, but that religion is the life, our feelings are not mellowed into object of the understanding rather than that tenderness which is so congenial to the heart ; a thing of thought, rather than the spirit of Christian love. Withdrawn of feeling? And if such should ever be from the temptations of society and the the unhappy imagination they imbibe, a world, and restrained from the grosser chilness will quench their love of God for sins, by station, by character, and the ever, and, the bloom of their religious afmany human eyes that are upon us, we
fections being blighted when it should have zure apt to forget the Eye that is over all, been cherished, they will grow cold and and to feel less sensibly the necessity of careless, and mere philosophic Christians, God's preventing grace, and the value of destitute of all warmth of heavenly-mindcontinual prayer for his aid. Living in edness themselves, and the enemies of all solitude too, the undisputed lords of our display of heavenly-mindedness in others." dwelling, and with no inclinations to con- pp. 417–419. sult but our own, the harshness of our After such a quotation as this, our tempers is not worn down by collision, nor readers, we are sure, will not acthe selfishness of our dispositions subdued
cuse us of prolixity, if we enter by the habit of yielding to the wishes of another
. Lastly, the uniformity and equa- upon a somewhat lengthened review lity of our days
, and the competency of of Mr. Benson's volume. We can which,, without a thought, we are sure to not, however, pretend to give any partake, makes us at once insensible of the thing like an enlarged abstract of
its contents. All we can do is, to and eternal things. Either these state the author's general views of things have been revealed from his subject, and to exhibit some Heaven, or they have not. If not specimens of his learning, his rea- so 'revealed, what becomes of their soning, his piety, and his eloquence. authority? They are then rather
These lectures consist of two se- plain fancies or delusions, than leries; the first relating to Scripture gitimate sources of difficulty. And, difficulties in general; the second if revealed, as we firmly believe to the moral and historical difficul- them to have been, they necessarily ties of the Book of Genesis in par- imply the Divine inspiration of the ticular. - The author begins with the volume in which they are conconsideration of difficulties which tained. might naturally be expected in the In the three following lectures Bible, even on the supposition of our author discusses the existence its being merely an uninspired work. of difficulties in Scripture, consiAmong the sources of these diffi- dered both as a divinely inspired, culties, he notices the various per- and as a religiously instructive, comsons by whom it was written, as position. Viewing it in the first of well as the various periods and coun- these lights, he contends that the tries in which it was composed; the benefits we derive from “ things changes which time has produced hard to be understood,” are not in the meaning and combination of only considerable in themselves, but words; the perplexities attendant such as no other obvious method upon two languages, the Greek and could have supplied; and that these Hebrew, now dead and disused; benefits are sufficient greatly to overthe obscurity springing from our balance any alleged concomitant in comparative ignorance of the man- conveniences ;-in short, that by sners, customs, and civil and ec
their absence we might have lost clesiastical polity of ancient times; much, and gained comparatively the variety and extent of the sub- little. We give the following pasjects which the Bible embraces; its sage as an illustration of his views prophetic character; its mysterious with respect to historical and philonature; its reference to changes both logical difficulties. It may serve as in the physical and moral worlds ; a good specimen of his reasoning, and, lastly, its being conversant which we think will be found equally with events and transactions of a solid and ingenious; requiring some spiritual and divine nature, such attention from the common reader, as the fall and recovery of man. but satisfactory when it is thoroughkind, the conversion and sanctifica- ly understood. tion of the soul, the state of separate spirits, the last judgment, the
« What, for instance, is the character joys of heaven, and the terrors of of those internal evidences to which we hell.
commonly appeal for a proof of the geOur readers will perceive that
nuineness and authenticity of the Seriphere is abundance of matter and torical difficulties that for this purpose we
tures? It is to their philological and hisfood for thought. A glimpse of the most generally turn. It is to the peculivestibule promises a rich collec- arīties of the Scripture style, and to the tion in the interior of the museum, multiplicity of the Scripture allusions to and our expectation will not be the manners and customs of the ages and disappointed. We think, however, countries in which we affirm them to have that, in accounting for the difficul- been written, and the sentiments and ac
tions of those of whom they treat. These ties of Scripture on the supposi
are the topics on which we most strongly tion of its being a mere human com
and successfully insist. We resort to these position, the last head should cer- themes, because we feel justly convinced, tainly have been omitted ; namely, that such difficulties are the best internal its information respecting spiritual arguments we can use upon the subject;
since, had the Bible been so framed that it history of theological science one or two might have been alike understood by men of the most obvious examples by which it of every capacity and in every age, it could has been sometimes so irresistibly conhave had none of the characteristic fea- firmed. tures which would have fixed its compo
* “ It is well known, then, that it had long. sition to any particular person or period. been a matter of wonder to find St. Paul, Strip the Bible, then, of all those peculi- when brought before the Jewish Sanhe arities which so evidently originate in the drim, expressing himself as if ignorant that circumstances under which it was pro- Ananias, their president, was the high duced, and you will rob it for ever of one priest; though, at the very moment, Anti of the best internal marks of its having nias was sitting before him in his judicial been produced under those circumstances. capacity, and perhaps also in his pontifical So far, therefore, as philological and his robes. I wist not, brethren, that he torical things hard to be understood,' was the high priest,' said the Apostle, corroborate the external evidences for the when rebuked for censuring him; and the genuineness and authenticity of the Scrip- saying undoubtedly seemed strange, until tures, so far is their permitted existence the researches and ingenuity of Michaelis influential, and, consequently, beneficial, drew forth facts from the history of the in the formation of every inquiring Chris- times, which removed the wonder at once. tian's faith. Hence we may state it as the He has shewn that Ananias had indeed first of those disadvantages to which we been for a very short time in possession of should have been subjected by the removal the power, but was still without any just of all difficulties from the Bible, that we claim to the authority of the pontifical should have lost a direct and very power- office; and that, consequently, the ignoful internal evidence in favour of its ge- rance which St. Paul expressed, and which, nuineness and authenticity.
at first sight, appears merely assumed as « But the faith of the Christian re- an excuse for his own conduct, was either, quires not only to be formed, but also to as it easily might be under such circumbe protected and preserved. Amidst the stances, real, or else was intended as a bustle of worldly business the direct and reproof to the usurpation of his judge. .! positive evidences in favour of revelation “ Again, it had often been alleged as an are too frequently forgotten, almost as objection to the historical accuracy of the soon as learnt; and, even where remem- New Testament, that it gave the title of bered, they are apt to lose their influence proconsul to the governor of Cyprus, over the mind by losing the charm of no- when, in strict propriety, he could only be velty to the imagination. It is, therefore, styled prætor of the province. So stronghighly expedient that we should have a ly did this apparent inaccuracy weigh with constant opportunity of fortifying the un- Beza, that he absolutely attempted to resteadiness or weakness of our belief by the move it by his mode of translating the aid of some indirect and incidental argu- text; and our own Authorized Version ments which, arising up from time to time seems in like manner to have evaded the with all the freshness of unexpected dis- difficulty by adopting the neutral term coveries, may strengthen our dependence deputy,' instead of the correct title of upon the general proofs of the Divine ori- proconsul. A medal, however, has since gin of the Bible, and renew, at intervals, been discovered on which the very same our fading remembrance of their force. title is assigned about the same period to Now as the ordinary philological and his- the governor of the same province, and torical difficulties contribute to give the thus the difficulty has vanished for ever. first origin to our belief in the truth of the But it has not vanished without leaving Scriptures, so do those of a more arduous a strong evidence of truth behind. For nature tend to its preservation and pro- discoveries like these are of incalculable tection when formed. For it is constantly importance to the believer in the evil hour happening that things hardest to be under- of temptation. When, as in the former stood are receiving a complete elucidation; instance, a passage which had long puzzled and every great obscurity elucidated is an our understanding receives at last an unobjection removed; and every objection expected and satisfactory interpretation, removed affords one of the best, because assurance revives with double energy. Or most unsuspicious, testimonies to the truth when, as in the latter of the two cases, the and authority of any writing. But, in- learning or ingenuity of some laborious antistead, of reasoning upon the justice of this query or divine, has met with an inscription remark, let us at once endeavour to illus- on a marble or a coin which had hitherto been trate, and apply it by selecting from the overlooked or unknown, and, by applying