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of secrecy. After the House had quiry proceeded; and again an determined that he should be com- effort was made to extort from sir pelled to answer, the inquiry was A. B. King, the sign and passurged in every possible shape: he words of the Orangemen.-Mr. was told by Mr. Brougham that Brougham said, it had been his oath was an absurdity, and of proved that sheriff Thorpe had no force, and admonished by the boasted of having an Orange chairman that his refusal might panel in his pocket, and that drive the committee to a painful some of the grand jurors were in course. But neither casuistry nor fact Orangemen; and therefore, menaces, nor persuasion availed: the committee bound to sir A. B. King firmly persisted probe the Orange system to the in respecting the pretended sanc- bottom. Mr. Peel, Mr. Dawson, tion of his oath ; nor would he Mr. Goulburn, and colonel Barry communicate more than that the urged, that the moral tenor fo the pass-words were to be found in system might be thoroughly known the Old Testament. The attor- without extorting its formal and ney-general (sir Robert Gifford) insignificant symbols. Sir thought that, before compelling King assured the House, that the the disclosure of these words by so earnestly-pursued symbols had measures of severity, it might be no hostile allusion whatever to any worth inquiring whether the class of his majesty's subjects; answer was likely to bear upon and that they hinted nothing of exthe subject before the committee. termination. Mr. Brougham, ori Mr. Canning too recommended pressing the proposition of a specinot to press this line of exami- fic examination to a division, was nation.-Sir John Newport, Mr. defeated by a majority of 117 to 87. Grattan, Mr. Scarlett, and Mr. Mr. Hume then proposed to ask J. Smith urged the necessity of the witness the purport of the pascommitting the witness; but Mr. sages from which the Orange symBrougham and Mr. Plunkett bols were taken. On a division, thought it better to give him the motion was rejected by a maanother opportunity of answer- jority of 131 to 77. Mr. Plunkett ing. Being recalled, sir Abra- voted both times in opposition to ham King again explained, that ministers. the only words, which he hesitated The inquiry terminated on the to divulge, were the signs and sym- following day, by the examination bols by which Orangemen are ena- of Mr. Plunkett himself; the bled to distinguish each other; and members who advocated the cause these had no reference whatever of the sheriff and jury, conceiving to any maxim or rule of conduct that they had already sufficiently Mr. Peel declared, that, after this made out their case. The effect answer, he could not press the of it certainly was, to disprove the inquiry. Mr. Brougham come inculpatory allegations of the atplained, that the witness had torney-general: but it had another triumphed over the committee. more important use; for it showMr. Calcraft, on the other hand, ed how familiar corruption, in the thought the last answer perfectly administration of justice, was to satisfactory.
the minds of the Irish people. On the 26th of May, the in- The tendency of these proceed
ings, relative to the riot in the stance is an illustration of the theatre, to excite strong party feel- mode in which party spirit was ing in the capital could not be constantly interfering with the doubted; and when a spirit of administration of justice. At the faction is called into activity in a Lent assizes of Mullingar, a primetropolis, the remoter districts soner was put on his trial for seldom
escape the contagion. The murder, and the clearest evidence violence of religious animosity dis- of his guilt was produced. The turbed the tranquillity even of accused was a Catholic, and a those districts where property was single Catholic was on the jury. in general secure. For instance, Eleven of the jurors were agreed the counties of Antrim and Ar- to convict the accused of murder, magh exhibited frequent scenes of but the twelfth stood out. No violence, though few or none of argument, no appeal to justice, or plunder. Wherever the Riband- to conscience, could influence him. men and Orangemen met, or came The jury, after being locked up within reach of reciprocal insult or until the judge left the town, provocation, riot seldom failed to were dismissed without a verdict, ensue. At Çarrickfergus, a pro- and the murderer escaped. secution for riot took place before The disturbances in the southern baron M'Clelland, where the par- counties and the adjacent districts, ties indicted were Catholics; but, had never been entirely suspended; after the examination of several but in the beginning of the year, witnesses, whose evidence just the outrages were less numerous went far enough to prove the im- than they had previously been, possibility of discovering which and hopes were entertained of a faction was the aggressor, the gradual return to tranquillity and judge stopped the further progress peace. This expectation was quickly of the trial, and dismissed both disappointed: for, during the month Orangemen and Ribandists, with a of March, the system of outrage just reproof of that unnatural spirit was pursued in parts of the proby which the banners of two com- vince of Munster with increased munities, calling themselves Chris- activity and vigour, and reached tian, were made the incitements other parts of the country which to devastation and civil bloodshed. had been pearly exempt from dis
On the 12th of June, the turbance. During the first week Orangemen,
and Ribandmen, in March, five malicious conflagramet at the fair of Maghera, in tions and twelve outrages of difthe county of Derry. A quarrel ferent descriptions took place with ensued; when the Orangemen, in the county of Cork; and for being driven to the barracks, there some subsequent weeks, scarcely a provided themselves with arms and night elapsed, in which, within ammunition, and fired repeated those districts, some house or provolleys upon the country people, perty was not destroyed by fire, of whom some were killed, and or in which attempts were not from 16 to 30 were wounded. made by the insurgents to enforce The Orange triumph was after- the penalties previously denounced wards celebrated by an attack on against all those who resisted the houses and windows of Roman the authority of these desperate Catholics. The following circum- offenders. Notwithstanding the most unremitting exertions on the of insurrection was rapidly expart of the military and the police tending--that there had to intercept the perpetrators of before the county grand jury, such crimes, few persons were nearly a hundred petitions for apprehended. Conflagrations were compensation for damage sustained so easily effected, even by one skilful by fire, destruction of cattle by offender, and the system of terror stabbing and houghing, breaking had been so firmly established in machinery, &c.; and that, after a the minds of the inhabitants, that patient inquiry, there were not more the detection of the crime became than four or five cases which did a matter of extreme difficulty, in not appear fit subjects for relief consequence
of the extent of the from the county-that many had evil.
been turned naked out of their Lord Combermere, early in the dwellings, to behold them, a few month of March, visited the prin moments afterwards, in ashes cipal military stations in Munster, that others had been intimidated and also conferred with the ma- into an abandonment of their gistrates in the vicinity of Done- lands that all who had given raile, and in the disturbed districts evidence against insurgents, had in that part of the county of done so at the risk of their lives, Cork. At his lordship’s sugges- and some, who had only made tion, and at the desire of the ma- statements respecting property de gistrates, a large additional force stroyed, had been speedily punishof police was stationed in that , ed by the destruction of their own neighbourhood, and the military houses. In the county of Cork, force was distributed in the man- two soldiers and a policeman were ner best calculated to aid the res- attacked on the road while returns toration of order.
ing home from duty. One of the In Limerick, which in January soldiers died next day from the had been restored to tranquillity, in- brutal treatment he suffered, and stances of similar crimes appeared the policeman had his ears and during the spring; and parts of the one of his cheeks cut off! The county of Clare were so much agi- spirit of depredation approached tated as to require the application of even within two miles of Dublin. the Insurrection act to two of the A Mr. Loughnan, of Prospectbaronies which adjoined to thecoun, place, was forced to deliver up a ty of Limerick. An increased spirit large quantity of arms, which the of outrage was at the same time ruffians demanded from him as manifested in parts of the county loan.” Several cabins were attack of Westmeath, and Queen's ed and levelled with the ground County. In April, the Irish in the same county, and the inhanewspapers were every day filled bitants barbarously ill-treated. In with the particulars of many fero- June, it was found necessary to cious outrages in Cork, Limerick, place the neighbouring district of Clare, Galway, Meath, and Dublin. Kildare under the Insurrection The two grand juries of the county act. and city of Cork addressed the Under these circumstances, lord lord-lieutenant upon the state of Wellesley called for, and the mithe country.
They affirmed in nisters here proposed, the continuthese addresses, that the spirit ance of the Insurrection act. That
measure was carried without much vestrymen ; that is, of persons who discussion. The opponents of it in the preceding year were assessed argued, not so much against the to an amount exceeding 20 shil. specific provisions of that law, as lings, in respect of lands within in favour of a general inquiry into the parish not tithe free. the state of Ireland, with a view If the incumbent and the vestry to find and apply a permanent did not agree in the propriety of remedy to her evils.
making a composition, no further The collection of tithes had proceeding could then be had upon always been, either in reality or the subject; and it only remained in pretext, one of the principal for the incumbent to certify such causes of disturbance in Ireland. result to the office of the chief To alleviate this source of mis- secretary. But if the vestry andina chief, a bill was introduced by Mr. cumbent agreed that a composition Goulburn, the object of which was desirable, it was necessary that was, to authorise compositions for a memorandum of that
agreement tithes. It was much discussed in should be made at the time, and its progress through parliament. signed by both parties ; upon which In the form in which it received the incumbent on his own behalf, the royal assent," the following and the vestry on behalf of the were the most important of its parish, were each to proceed to provisions :
nominate a commissioner (quali In order to bring the act into fied as required in the 14th secoperation in any parish, it was tion), to fix the amount of the annecessary that an application should nual composition. Then the inbe made to the lord-lieutenant, cumbent was required, within seven either by the incumbent, or some days after the appointment by him five owners or occupiers of land in of a commissioner, to give notice the parish to the annual value of to the bishop of the diocess, to the 201. ; upon which application the churchwardens of the parish, and lord-lieutenant was to have it in to the office of the chief secretary, his power to direct the assembly of of the name, and place of abode, a special vestry, the business of of the person so appointed by him; which was, in the first instance, and, in case any other persons beto discuss with the incumbent sides himself were entitled to any the propriety of compounding, for portion of tithe within the parish, 21 years, for the tithes of the it was necessary that a similar whole parish. If the lord-lieu- notice should also be transmitted tenant directed the vestry to as- by him to each of those persons.* semble, it was the duty of the The duty of the commissioners, incumbent, or of the five owners when appointed, was, to ascertain or occupiers of land (according as and fix the amount of annual comthe application for the vestry had pensation, in the manner and ao been made by the one or by the cording to the rules laid down in other), to require the high consta- the 16th section. ble, or other collector of grand- This might, under particular jury rates or county cess within circumstances, be an operation of the parish, to deliver lists of some difficulty and delay; a provision for sanctioning a previous will. This proposed enactment agreement between the incumbent was so keenly opposed, at different and his parishioners was there- stages of the measure, as a viofore introduced in the 27th section; lation of the rights of church which enacted, that, if the incum- property, that it was at length bent should have been able to abandoned. When this stumblingmake an agreement with the block was removed out of the way, vestry, for the payment of a the other clauses, to which objecspecific sum, and such agreement tions of less importance were should have been sanctioned by the made, were modified so as to meet, bishop of the diócess, and the as far as possible, the views of all patron of the living, the duty of parties: and, at last, the bill was the commissioners, should, in that transmitted to the House of Lords. case, be limited to an approval of There an attempt was made to the agreement so made, provided restore it in some degree to its prithey were satisfied that the sum mitive form: for, in going into agreed on was not less than the a committee on the measure, average annual receipt on account Lord Clifden moved, that it be of the tithes during seven years an instruction to the committee, preceding 1821.
• 4 Geo. IV. c. 99.
* Section 13
to introduce a clause to empower The commissioners, within four the lord-lieutenant to appoint a calendar months from the 1st of commission for the purpose of November next, after they had settling the amount of composition signed their certificate of the for tithes, such amount to be amount of the composition, were determined with reference to the to assess or applot that amount $ums paid for tithes for a specified upon all lands within the parish, number of years previously to the not being tithe-free, according to valuation being made. their true annual value. If no The Earl of Liverpool, although such applotment was made, the he believed that ultimately it incumbent might require from the would be necessary to add a comcollector of the parish-cess a copy pulsory clause to the bill, was of of the last applotment, according opinion, that more advantage to which the composition was then would reşult from trying it as a to be levied.:
voluntary measure in the first inIf the commissioners could not stance. The plan now proposed, agree in fixing the amount of the he admitted, was an imperfect composition, they were to appoint one; but it would at least alleviate an umpire.
the evil, and would, by its operSuch were the provisions of the ation, cause the true nature and exlaw that was passed : but the bill, tent of the difficulties, that were to as introduced by Mr. Goulburn, be struggled with, to be better unwas very different both in its de derstood. The motion was rejected tails and in its general principle. by a majority of 34 to 11; and In particular, it originally contain the measure was passed in the ed a clause; by which the incum. form which it had received in the bent might be compelled to accept House of Commons. of a composition even against his There had long been a practice
in Ireland, by which parcels of • Sec. 34 and 40.
land, from ten to five hundred