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people could reason when their wants are in question, it would be easy to prove, that the expenses which are so disagreeable to them fall in a small proportion on the public treasury; but we well know, that the multitude are incapable of entering into such details. The Revolution has rendered them jealous of every thing connected with rank and splendor; but to that, it is proper their minds should be habituated. As to the burden of taxes, I am of opinion that it is not sufficiently disguised, and that it may be augmented without being so sensibly felt. It is the opinion of financiers, that too much is levied on land. We must have recourse to indirect taxation; but that requires an extended commerce; and this war, which I could neither prevent nor delay, has deranged all my plans for the restoration of our industry and navigation. I hope, however, that with the aid of some regular tributes which we have a right to require from our neighbours, either for the benefits which they have received, or which we grant them, it will be possible to diminish the public charges; but this resource is not yet fixed, though it has already produced much. But the 'measure in the execution of which I have experienced real obstacles, and open disaffection, is my attempt to increase the army to that degree of force which is proportionate to our influence in Europe, and the expeditions i am preparing.
"We cannot support our power without a great military establishWe cannot remain formidable, unless we present to astonished Europe a gigantic army. Military glory has raised us to our present situation, and it is only by a display of military power, that we can maintain ourselves in it.
people, and their thirst of glory and conquest, which success only serves to stimulate. In this, however, I have been a good deal deceived. The conscription was at first effected with scarce any obstacle, but not without great murmurs; that institution which peculiarly belongs to France, seems about to fail completely. There is no ardour in the youth, much indisposition in the parents.....The Government ought, therefore, to direct all its attention to an inquiry into the causes which have produced this apathy, and resistance. Vigorous measures are necessary to remedy those evils, particularly, if I do not succeed in the efforts I still intend to make in my journey, for re-animating that warlike spirit which seems about to be extinguished.
"I confess, that for constructing this formidable support of our grandeur, I thought I perceived great facilities in the national character, in the warlike talents of the French
"I must next notice those scenes from which I have experienced an almost equal degree of anxiety, which fortunately, however, begin to diminish. I mean the crimes which some months ago still assailed us. ....That phrenzy of vengeance and pillage has long given me great uneasiness, and the special tribunals will never be able to protect us from its attempts. Here I must observe, that our judicial organization is bad; the Judges are too independent of the Government. Their places ought not to be for life, and we ought to possess more means of stimulating them, when they are inactive or timid, or of punishing them when they misunderstand their duty. The institution of juries, which I have preserved out of respect to those who founded it, rather than from any regard to the public opinion, is useless and never can be naturalized among us. Popular institutions will never suit France. Every thing which approximates to the people, soon becomes either the object of their contempt or indifference. We must have severe judicial forms, and inflexible judges. Such a reform would be worthy of our meditations. You ought to pave the way for it by your speeches and
your writings....Without it, there is neither repose for us, nor security for the people."
Capitulation of Hanover.
The capitulation of Hanover, was made upon condition that the English government should ratify the terms of it. The French minister appears to have lost no time in transmitting this instrument to the English court, and demanding the confirmation of it. The following reply was made by Lord Hawkesbury, in June 15, 1803.
"I have his majesty's orders to inform you, that as he has always considered the character of Elector of Hanover as distinct from his character of King of the United Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland, he cannot consent to acquiesce in any act which might sanction the idea that he is justly susceptible of being attacked in one capacity, for the conduct he may think it his duty to adopt in the other. It is not now that this principle has, for the first time, been advanced. It has been recognized by several powers of Europe, and more particularly by the French government, which, in 1796, in consequence of his majesty's accession to the Treaty of Basle, recognized his neutrality in his capacity of Elector of Hanover, at the moment when it was at war with him in his quality of King of Great Britain. This principle had besides been confirmed by the conduct of his majesty in reference to the Treaty of Luneville, and by the arrangements which have lately taken place relative to the Germanic indemnities, whose object must have been, to provide for the independence of the Empire, and which have been solemnly guaranteed by the principal Powers of Europe, but in which his Majesty took no partas King of Great Britain.
"In these circumstances, his majesty, in his character of Elector of Hanover, is resolved to appeal to the Empire, and the Powers of Europe, who have guaranteed the Germanic Constitution, and
consequently, his rights and possessions in quality of Prince of that Empire.
"In the mean time, until his majesty shall be informed of their sentiments, he has commanded me to state, in his character of Elector of Hanover, he will scrupulously abstain from every act which can be considered as contravening the stipulations contained in the Convention which was concluded on the 3d of June, between the deputies appointed by the Regency of Hanover and the French Government.
"General Mortier was then informed, that in consequence of the refusal of the ratification on the part of the King of England, the Convention of Sublingen was considered as null, as the following letter from Mortier to Walmoden was the consequence of this information.
"I have the honour to inform your Excellency that the First Consul would have approved in its entire contents, the Convention of Sublingen, had the King of England himself consented to ratify it. It is therefore with pain I have to acquaint you that Lord Hawkesbury has informed Citizen Talleyrand that his Britannic Majesty formally refused that ratification.
"Your Excellency will recollect that in 1757, a similar Convention was concluded at Closter Seven, between M. de Richelieu and the Duke of Cumberland, and that the King of England not being disposed to adhere to it, gave orders to his army to recommence hostilities.
"It is to avoid a renewal of the scenes which then took place, that Government charges me to inform your Excellency, that the refusal of his Britannic Majesty annuls the Convention of Sublingen.
"I have empowered general Berthier, chief of the general staff, to communicate to you my propos als. I must insist that your Excellency will have the goodness to give me a categorical answer in the space of twenty-four hours. The army which I have the honour to
command is ready, and waits only for the signal to action."
The subsequent events are thus detailed by the French commander in a letter to his government.
"On the 30th ult. I wrote to Marshal de Walmoden a letter, of which a copy is hereto subjoined. Baron de Bock, colonel in the regiment of guards, waited on me, on his part, the following morning. Hetold me that the proposal of making his army lay down their arms, for the purpose of being conducted prisoners into France, was of a nature so humiliating, that all of them would rather perish with arms in their hands; that they had made a sufficient sacrifice for their country by the capitulation of Sublingen; that it was now time to do something for their own honour; that their officers and their army were reduced to despair. M. de Bock then represented to me the extreme fidelity with which the Hanoverians had scrupulously executed all the articles of the convention of Sublingen, which concerned them; that their conduct in regard to us was exempt from all reproach, and ought by no means to draw upon them the misfortunes with which I menaced them. I, on my side, recriminated on the perfidy of the King of England, who had refused to ratify the Convention of the 3d of June; that it was the Machiavelian policy of England alone that they had to accuse, and that it was manifest that Government would sacrifice them, as it had
always sacrificed its friends on the Continent.
"M. de Bock is a man full of ho
nour and generosity. He said, that if I could make admissible propositions, such as that of sending home a part of the army for six months in rotation, and keeping up a body of 5 or 6000 men in Lunenburg, that he conceived the Marshal might enter into an arrangement with me. My answer was in the negative, and we parted. I had already made every preparation for passing the river. A number of boats collected in the Elbe and the
Esmenan furnished me with abundant means. The enemy occupied a position between Steknitz and Bille.
"The general attack was to have taken place the night of the 4th. The enemy had got some artillery of a large calibre at Ratzburg, and with this they mounted all the batteries on the Elbe. 1 had, on my side, erected counter-batteries; my troops were well disposed, and every thing announced a fortunate issue, when M. de Walmoden communicated to me the following propositions.
"Citizen First Consul, the Hanoverian army were reduced to despair, they implored your clemency. I thought that, abandoned by their king, you would treat them with kindness. In the middle of the Elbe I concluded the annexed capitulation with general Walmoden. He signed it with bitterness of heart: you will there see that his army lays down their arms; that his cavalry are to be dismounted, aud to put into our hands nearly 4000 excellent horses. The soldiers returning to their homes will devote themselves to the labours of agriculture, and need give us no kind of uneasiness. They will be no longer under the orders of England.
Health and profound respect, (Signed) E. MORTIER." "P. S. It would be difficult to de
scribe to you the situation of the fine regiment of the king of England's guards, at the moment of their dismounting."
"The King of England having refused to ratify the Convention of Sublingen, the First Consul has been obliged to consider that Convention as null. In consequence thereof Lieutenant General Mortier, has agreed to the following capitulation, which shall be executed, without being submitted to the ratification of the two Governments.
Article I. The Hanoverian army shall lay down its arms; they shall be given up with all its artillery, to the French army.
II. All the horses of the Hanoverian cavalry and artillery shall be given up to the French army, by one of the members of the States. A Commissioner, appointed by the commander in chief to that effect, shall be instantly sent to take an account of their state and number.
III. The Hanoverian army shall be disbanded; the troops shall repass the Elbe, and withdraw to their respective homes....They shall previously give their parole not to carry arms against France and her allies until after having been exchanged for those of equal rank by as many French military as may be taken by the English in the course of the present war.
IV. The Hanoverian generals and officers shall retire upon their parole to the places which they may choose for their abode, provided they do not depart from the continent. They shall keep their swords and take away with them their horses, effects, and baggage.
V. There shall be given to the commander in chief of the French army with the least possible delay, a nominal list of all the individuals of whom the Hanoverian army is composed. VI. The Hanoverian soldiers sent to their respective homes shall not be allowed to wear their uniforms.
proclamations were distributed in every part of the town, calling on people to unite as before, in opposition to English oppression, &c. and at so early an hour as eight o'clock, a large party forced into the Lord mayor's, and seized all the arms and pikes, which were in the house, and about ten o'clock a general engagement took place in the neighbourhood of James-street, Thomasstreet, and in every part ofthe liberty. Lord Kilwarden (the chief justice of the king's bench) coming to town about 9 o'clock, was forced out of his carriage in Jame's-street, with his nephew, and were both killed by pikes.
"Col. Brown of the 21st, and a few more officers, and several of the soldiery and yeomen have unfortunately been killed, together with a great number who appear of the very lowest order. But what is the most alarming, is that their plots have been carried on with such secrecy that they are not yet discovered, notwithstanding several per sons were taken. Mr. Clark, of Palmerston, cotton manufacturer, was shot on Arran quay, at 8 o'clock in the evening: and it appears there were several parties collecting, in different parts of the town, at a very early hour. The privy council has been sitting at the castle these two hours past, and it is expected martial law will be proclaimed immediately. There are several gallows's erected in different parts of the town, and the executions it is supposed will be innumerable, as there are about one hundred prisoners taken. They do not seem to have any leaders of consequence; the only one taken is a man of the name of M'Cabe, a publican, at whose house about one thousand pikes and six hundred rounds of ball cartridge were found. We have not yet heard of any disthe country, and all the turbance coaches have arrived this morning. "The situation of the city is most awful. The drums beat to arms at
VII. They shall be provided with subsistence until their return home, and forage shall also be granted to the horses of the officers.
VIII. The 16th and 17th articles of the Convention of Sublingen shall be applicable to the Hanoveri
IX. The French troops shall immediately occupy that part of the Electorate of Hanover situated in the county of Lauenburg.
The Insurrection in Ireland.
The only particulars, of this important event are contained in the following letters from Ireland. July 24.
"At an early hour yesterday evening, a variety of inflammatory
ten o'clock at night and continued to twelve, when almost every citi
zen was under arms. The engagement continued until four o'clock, and within these two hours two of the 62d regiment have been killed in the neighbourhood of the royal hospital." July 25.
"On Saturday evening last, government having had intimation that a depot of pikes and other engines of destruction, had been made by a newly organized horde of insurgents in the vicinity of Bridgefoot-street, a detachment of cavalry had been ordered by Gen. Dunn from the barracks, which were joined by a company of ycomen infantry, part of the Liberty Rangers, now under the command of the earl of Meath, arrived at the spot where their instructions directed them, after a skirmish of a few minutes with the populace, in which a few lives were lost, a great number of pikes were found, also several combustibles, parcels of nails, fragments of iron, glass, compost clay, oakum, and other materials.
"With these were discovered a number of deal balk, in pieces of various lengths, from seven to fifteen feet in length, with a circular cavity in each of about three inches diameter, filled with gun-powder, to each aperture was applied a wooden plug, with a handle and vent hole, or receptacle for a fuze appear on the upper surface of the timber about the middle: This machine was supposed to have been intended to aid the projected operations of setting fire to Dublin Barracks.....Several kegs of powder were discovered, with parcels made off our musket balls in each, and a tin tube of about two inches long, through which fire was to have been communicated to whatever vehicle was constructed to discharge them.
the melancholy disasters of the night, might be reckoned the murder of Lord Kilwarden, chief justice of the court of king's bench, and the Rev. Arthur Wolfe, his nephew, who accompanied him with the ladies of his lordship's family, in a carriage to town. The wound he received was a large lacerated one in the side, having the appearance of being inflicted by a shot from a blunderbuss.
A suit of green uniform, with gold epaulets and a splendid embroidery was also found, and several papers, by which the train of operations fixed by these deluded people was discovered and will doubtless be prevented. Among
A privy council have been sitting yesterday at the castle, and did not break up until a late hour last night; a proclamation offering a reward of one hundred pounds for the discovery of the murderers of Lord Kilwarden, and the Rev. Arthur Wolfe, had been issued, upwards of one hundred prisoners had been lodged yesterday, in the new prison, in the barracks. A printed notice from the Lord Mayor and board of magistrates, was yesterday handing about, apprizing all the citizens of Dublin, that from the recent disturbances, they feel it incumbent on them to reinforce the insurrection act, pursuant to which it became penal, during the last rebellion, for any citizen not on military duty, to be out later than eight o'clock in the evening." August 1.
"We understand that the whole of the plan for insurrection, of which the affair of Saturday night was the commencement, has been developed. A general levy of ten men from every parish in Ireland had been agreed upon by the rebels; these were to form a body of thirty-eight thousand men, who were to make their way to Dublin, as privately as possible, in small bodies, where they were to be supplied with arms, and then to rise en masse.
"Lord Kilwarden had been sent for from his country-house, and was on his way to the castle to attend a privy council, when he was murdered.
"An Englishman and his wife, by the name of Cater, coming into town from Naas, the former was