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forcible, and beats down the flame to that part where it finds the least resistance. Carrying the machine first to the kitchen fire for preparation is on this account, that in the beginning the fire and smoke naturally ascend, till the air in the close barrel C is made thinner by the warmth. When that vessel is heated, the air in it is rarefied, and then all the smoke and fire descends under it.
"The wood should be thoroughly dry, and cut into pieces five or six inches long, to fit it for being thrown into the funnel A.”
It appears to me, by Mr. Leutmann's explanation of the operation of this machine, that he did not understand the principles of it, whence I conclude he was not the inventor of it; and by the description of it, wherein the opening at A is made so large, and the pipe E D, so short, I am persuaded he never made nor saw the experiment, for the first ought to be much smaller, and the last much higher, or it hardly will succeed. The carrying it in the kitchen, too, every time the fire should happen to be out, must be so troublesome, that it is not likely ever to have been in practice, and probably has never been shown but as a philosophical experiment. The funnel for conveying the vapor out of the room would besides have been uncertain in its operation, as a wind blowing against its mouth would drive the vapor back.
The stove I am about to describe was also formed on the idea given by the French experiment, and completely carried into execution before I had any knowledge of the German invention; which I wonder should remain so many years in a country, where men are so ingenious in the management of fire, without receiving long since the improvements I have given it.
Description of the Parts.
A, the bottom plate which lies flat upon the hearth, with its partitions, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, (Plate, Fig. 2,) that are cast with it, and a groove Z Z, in which are to slide the bottom edges of the small plates Y, Y, figure 12; which plates meeting at X close the front.
B 1, figure 3, is the cover plate showing its under side, with the grooves 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, to receive the top edges of the partitions that are fixed to the bottom plate. It shows also the grate WW, the bars of which are cast in the plate, and a groove VV, which comes right over the groove Z Z, figure 2, receiving the upper edges of the small sliding plates Y, Y, figure 12.
B 2, figure 4, shows the upper side of the same plate, with a square impression or groove for receiving the bottom mouldings TTTT of the three-sided box C, figure 5, which is cast in one piece.
D, figure 6, its cover, showing its under side with grooves to receive the upper edges SSS of the sides of C, figure 5, also a groove RR, which, when the cover is put on, comes right over another QQ in C, figure 5, between which is to slide
E, figure 7, the front plate of the box.
P, a hole three inches diameter through the cover D, figure 6, over which hole stands the vase F, figure 8, which has a corresponding hole two inches diameter, through its bottom.
The top of the vase opens at O 0 0, figure 8, and turns back upon a hinge behind, when coals are to be put in; the vase has a grate within at NN of cast iron H, figure 9, and a hole in the top, one and a half inches diameter, to admit air, and to receive the ornamental crass gilt flame M, figure 10, which stands in that
hole, and, being itself hollow and open, suffers air to pass through it to the fire.
G, figure 11, is a drawer of plate iron, that slips in between in the partitions 2 and 3, figure 2, to receive the falling ashes. It is concealed when the small sliding plates Y, Y, figure 12, are shut together.
I III, figure 8, is a niche built of brick in the chimney, and plastered. It closes the chimney over the vase, but leaves two funnels, one in each corner, communicating with the bottom box KK, figure 2.
Dimensions of the Parts.
Front of the bottom box,
Height of its partitions,
Length of No. 1, 2, 3 and 4, each,
Breadth of the passage between No. 2
Breadth of the other passages each,
Breadth of the grate,
Bottom moulding of box C, square,
Height of the sides of ditto,
Length of the back side,
Length of the right and left sides, each,
Length of the front plate E, where longest,
Hole in ditto, diameter,
Sliding plates Y, Y, their length, each,
Drawer G, depth of its further end, only,
extremity of its knobs,
at bottom, less,
Depth of the bars at the top,
Height of the vase,
Diameter of the opening O O, in the clear, 0
Spread mortar on the hearth to bed the bottom plate A, then lay that plate level, equally distant from each jamb, and projecting out as far as you think proper. Then putting some Windsor loam in the grooves of the cover B, lay that on; trying the sliding plates Y, Y, to see if they move freely in the grooves Z Z, VV, designed for them.
Then begin to build the niche, observing to leave the square corners of the chimney unfilled; for they are to be funnels. And observe also to leave a free open communication between the passages at K, K, and the bottom of those funnels, and mind to close the chimney above the top of the niche, that no air may pass up that way. The concave back of the niche will rest on the circular iron partition 1 A 4, figure 2, then, with a little loam, put on the box C over the grate, the open side of the box in front.
Then, with loam in three of its grooves, the groove RR being left clean, and brought directly over the the box, put on the cover D, trying the front plate E, to see if it slides freely in those grooves.
groove QQ in
Lastly, set on the vase, which has small holes in the moulding of its bottom to receive two iron pins that rise out of the plate D at I, I, for the better keeping it steady.
Then putting in the grate H, which rests on its three knobs hhh against the inside of the vase, and slipping the drawer into its place; the machine is fit for use.
To use it.
Let the first fire be made after eight in the evening, or before eight in the morning, for at those times and between those hours all night, there is usually a draft up a chimney, though it has long been without fire; but between those hours in the day there is often, in a cold chimney, a draft downwards, when, if you attempt to kindle a fire, the smoke will come into the room.
But to be certain of your proper time, hold a flame over the air hole at the top. If the flame is drawn strongly down for a continuance, without whiffling, you may begin to kindle a fire.
First put in a few charcoals on the grate H.
Kindle the paper with a candle.
Then shut down the top, and the air will pass down through the air hole, blow the flame of the paper down through the sticks, kindle them, and their flame passing lower kindles the charcoal.
When the charcoal is well kindled, lay on it the seacoals, observing not to choak the fire by putting on too much at first.
The flame descending through the hole in the bottom of the vase, and that in plate D, into the box C, passes down farther through the grate W W in plate B 1,