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LIVER. In Anatomy, a very large viscus, of a fastening doors, chests, &c., generally opened by a red color, serving for the secretion of the bile or key. The principle on which all locks depend, is gall.

the application of a lever to an interior bolt, by Its figure is irregular; the upper surface being means of a communication from without; so that, convex, smooth, and equal; the lower, hollow and by means of the latter, the lever acts upon the bolt, unequal. There is also a remarkable eminence, and moves it in such a manner as to secure the lid called the porta, where the vena porta enters it. or door from being opened by any pull or push

from without. The security of locks, in general, LIVERYMEN. (Of London.) A certain num- therefore, depends on the number of impediments ber of persons chosen from among the freemen of we can interpose belween the lever (the key) and each company in the city. Out of this body are the bolt which securts the door; and these impedchosen the common council, sheriff, and other su iments are well known by the name of wards, the perior officers of the city, and they alone have the number and intricacy of which are supposed to privilege of voting at the election of members of distinguish a good lock from a bad one. If these parliament.

wards, however, do not, in an effectual manner,

preclude the access of all other instruments besides LIZARD. An extensive tribe of animals, class- the proper key, it is still possible for a mechanic, ed by Linnæus under the genus lacesta, compre- of equal skill with the lock-maker, to open it with hending the crocodile, basilisk, chameleon, and out the key, and thus to elude the labor of the salamander. The lizard, properly so called, is a other. liule reptile of a green color, and is frequently to Various complicated and difficult locks have be met with in gardens or under dunghills, &c. been constructed by Messrs. Bramah, Taylor,

Spears, and others. In a very ingenious lock, inLLAMA. In Natural History, an animal of the vented by Mr. Perkins, twenty-four small blocks camel kind in Peru and Chili, which has a bunch of metal, of different sizes, are introduced, correson the breast, long, soft hair, and defends itself by ponding to the letters of the alphabet. Out of ejecting its saliva.

these, an indefinite number of combinations may

be made. The person locking the door selects and LOADSTONE. A sort of ore dug out of iron places the blocks necessary to spell a particular mines, on which the needle of the mariner’s com- word, known only to himself, and no other person, pass is touched, to give it a direction north or south. even if in possession of the key, can open tho It is a peculiarly rich ore of iron, found in large door, without a knowledge of the same word. masses in England, and most other places where there are mines of that metal. It is of a deep iron LOCKS. When a canal changes from one level gray, and when fresh broken, it is often tinged with to another of different elevation, the place where a brownish or reddish color.

the change of level takes place, is commanded by

a lock. Locks are tight, oblong enclosures, in the LOAM, or LOME. A particular kind of fat, bed of the canal, furnished with gates at each end, unctuous, and tenacious earth, that is used much which separate the higher from the lower parts of by gardeners in making compost.

the canal. When a boat passes up the canal, the

lower gates are opened, and the boat glides into LOAN. A sum of money confided to another, the lock, after which the lower gates are shut. A generally on the security of a promissory note or sluice, communicating with the upper part of the bond, the guarantee of a third party, or the posses- canal, is then opened, and the lock rapidly fills sion or assignment of property. Sometimes it is with water, elevating the boat on its surface. effected by governments on the pledge of certain When the lock is filled to the highest water level, taxes to pay the interest. In England this has the upper gates are opened, and the boat, being been carried lo a frightful extent, and the debt now on the level of the upper part of the canal, amounts to a larger sum than could be paid by all passes on its way. The reverse of this process is the money in existence, certain taxes, called the performed when the boat is descending the canal. consolidated fund, being appropriated to pay an Locks are made of stone or brick, sometimes of annual interest, nominally about three per centum, wood. The gates are commonly double, resemand which amounts to above thirty millions. bling folding doors. They meet each other, in

most instances, at an obtuse angle, and the presLOBBY. An opening before a room, or an en- sure of the water serves to keep them firmly in trance into a principal, where there is a consider- contact. Cast iron gates are sometimes used in able space between that and the portico or vesti- England, curved in the form of a horizontal arch, bule. "It is also a small ball or waiting room. with their convex side opposed to the water. In And in a ship an apartment close to the cabin is China, inclined planes are said to be used instead called a lobby.

of locks, along which the boats are drawn up or

Jet down. They have also been used in Europe, LOBSTER. A small crustaceous fish, having and on the Morris canal, in New Jersey, a cylindrical body, with a long tail and long anten

Lobsters are found on most of the rocky LOCKED JAW. A spasmodic affection which coasts of England, and are abundant in this prevents the motion of the jaws. country.

LOCOMOTION. The chief obstacles which LOCK. A well known instrument, used for opposoʻlocomotion, or change of place, are gravity

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and friction, the last of which is, in most cases, a | extend a part of their body forwards, and draw up consequence of the first. Gravity confines all ter- the rest to overtake it, some performing this morestrial bodies against the surface of the earth, tion in a direct live, others in curves. When land with a force proportionate to the quantity of matter animals swim in water, they are supported, because which composes them. Most kinds of inechanism, their whole weight, with the lungs expanded with both natural and artificial, which assist locomotion, air, is less than that of an equal bulk of water. Are arrangements for obviating the effects of gravi- The head, however, or a part of it, must be kept ty and friction. Animals that walk, obviare fric- above water, to enable the animal to breathe ; and lion by substituting points of their bodies instead to effect this, and also to make progress in the of large surfaces, and upon these points they turu, water, the limbs are exerted, in successive impulsas upon centres, for the length of each step, raising es, against the fluid. Quadrupeds and birds swim themselves wholly or partly from the ground in with less effort than man, because the weight of successive arcs, instead of drawing themselves the head, which is carried above water, is, in them, along the surface.

a smaller proportional part of the whole than it is As the feet move in separate lines, the body has in man. also a lateral, vibratory inotion. A man, in walk- All animals are provided, by nature, with orgáns inig, puts down one foot before the other is ruised, of locomotion best adapted to their structure and but not in running. Quadrupeds, in walking, have situation; and it is probable that no animal, man three feet upon the ground for most of the time; not being excepted, can exert bis strength more in trotting, only two. Animals which wulk against advantageously by any other than the natural mode, gravity, as the common fly, the tree-toad, &c., in moving himself over the common surface of the support themselves by suction, using cavities on ground. Thus walking cars, velocipedes, &c, althe under side of their feet, wbich they enlarge, at though tiey may enable a man to increase bis vepleasure, till the pressure of the atmosphere causes locity, in favorable situations, for a short time, yet them to adhere. In other respects their locomotion they actually require an increased expenditure of is effected like that of other walking animals. power, for the purpose of transporting the machine Birds perform the motion of Aying by striking the inade use of, in addition to the weight of the body. air with the broad surface of their wings in a When, however, a great additional load is to be downward and backward direction, thus propelling transported with the body, a man, or animal, may the body upward and forward. After each stroke, derive much assistance from mechanical arrangethe wings are contracted, or slightly turned, to ments. For moving weights over the common lessen their resistance to the atmosphere, then ground, with its ordinary asperities and inequalities raised, and spread anew. The downward stroke of substance and structure, no piece of inert tne. also, being more sudden than the upward, is more chanism is so favorably adapted as the wheel car. resisted by the atmosphere. The tail of birds serves riage. It was introduced into use in very early as a rudder to direct the course upward or down- ages. Wheels diminish friction, and also surmount ward. When a bird sails in the air without mov- obstacles or inequalities of the road, with more ing the wings, it is done in some cases by the ve- advantage than bodies of any other form, in their locity previously acquired, and an oblique direction place, could do. The friction is diminished by of the wings upward ; in others, by a gradual de transferring it from the surface of the ground to scent, with the wings slightly turned, in an oblique the centre of the wheel, or, rather, to the place of direction, downwards. Fishes, in swimming for contact between the axle-tree and the box of the ward, are propelled chiefly by strokes of the tail, wheel; so that it is lessened by the mechanical the extremity of which being bent into an oblique advantage of the lever, in the proportion which position, propels the body forward and laterally at the diameter of the axle-tree bears to the diameter ihe same time. The lateral motion is corrected by of the wheel. The rubbing surfaces, also, being the next stroke, in the opposite direction, while the kept polished and smeared with some unctuous forward course continues. The firis serve partly substance, are in the best possible condition to reto assist in swimming, but chiefly to balance the sist friction. body, or keep it upright; for, the centre of gravity In like manner, the common obsiacles that preheing nearest the back, a fish turns over, when it sent themselves in the public roads, are surmountis dead or disabled.

ed by a wheel with peculiar facility. As soon as Some other aquatic animals, as leeches, swim the wheel strikes against a stone or similar hard with a sinuous or undulating motion of the body, body, it is converted into a lever for lifting the load in which several parts at once are made to act ob- over the resisting object. If an obstacle eight or liquely against the water. Serpents, in like man- ten inches in height were presented to the body of ver, advance by means of the winding or serpen- a carriage unprovided with wheels, it would stop line direction which they give to their bodies, and its progrese, or subject it to such violence as would boy which a succession of oblique forces are brought endanger its safety. But hy the action of a wheel, to act against the ground. Sir Everard Home is the load is lifted, and its centre of gravity passes of opinion that serpents use their ribs in the man- over in the direction of an easy arc, the obstacle fier of legs, and propel the body forwards by furnishing the fulcrum on which the lever acts. bringing the plates on the under surface of the Rollers placed under a heavy body diminish the body to act, successively, like feet against the friction in a greater degree than wheels, provided ground. This he deduces, from the anatomy of they are true spheres or cylinders, without any the unimal, and from the movernents wiiich be axis on which they are constrained to move; but perceived in suffering a large coluber to crawl over a cylindrical roller occasions friction, whenever its his hand. Sonse words and larvæ of slow inotion, Ipath deviates in the least from a straight line.

The mechanical advantages of a wheel are pro- | length, by knots or pieces of knotted twine, uits portionate to its size, and the larger it is, the more reeved between the strands of the line, which show, effectually does it diminish the ordinary resistances. by ineans of a half-minute glass, how many of A large wheel will surmount stones and similar these spaces or knots are run out in half a minute, obstacles better than a small one, since the art and as the distance of the knots bears the same of the lever on which the force acts is longer, and proportion to a mile that half a minute does to an the curve described by the centre of the load is the hour, whatever number of knots the ship runs in arc of a larger circle, and, of course, the ascent is half a minute, the same number of miles she runs more gradual and easy. In passing over holes, in an hour. ruts or excavations, also, a large wheel sinks less than a small one, and consequently occasion less LOGOGRAPHY. A method of printing in jolting and expenditure of power. The wear also which the types form whole words instead of letof large wheels is less than that of small ones, for ters. By this method the memory of the composif we suppose a wheel to be three feet in diameter, itor is less burdened, and the business proceeds it will turn round twice, while one of six feet in with more expedition and less liability to err. It diameter turns round once ; so that its tire will is also said that the logographic method is not come twice as often in contact with the ground, more expensive than the cominon method. and its spokes will twice as often have to support the weight of the load. In practice, however, it is LOGWOOD. Logwood is used in great quanfound necessary to confine the size of wheels with tities for dyeing purple, and more especially black. in certain limits, partly because the materials used all the colors, however, which can be prepared would make wheels of great size beavy and cum- from it, are of u fading nature, and cannot, by any bersome, since the separate parts would necessari- art, be made equally durable with those prepared ly be of large proportions to have the requisite from some other materials. Of all the colors prestrength, and partly because they would be dispro- pared from logwood, the black is the most durable. portioned to the size of the animals einployed in Dr. Lewis recommends it as an ingredient in makdraught, and compel them to pull obliquely down-ing ink. Logwood is also found to have a considwards, and therefore to expend a part of their force erable astringent virtue as a medicine, and an exin acting against the ground.

tract of it is sometimes given with great success in

diarrhæas. LOCUST. A voracious insect, like the grashopper, which in some parts, particularly in Africa LOMBARDS, (or rather LANGOBARDS, and Asia Minor, fall like a cloud upon the country, which was their original name, deduced from the and lay waste all before them. They are no less peculiar length and fashion of their beards: lang, terrible dead than alive, for their putrified carcass- signifying long, and bært, beard ; whereas the cores cause a pestilence where they happen to alight. rupt appellation of Lombards was diffused in the

thirteenth century by the merchants and bankers, LOG. In Navigation, a machine for measuring who were the Italian posterity of the savnge warthe rate of a ship's velocity through the water. riors to whom the name originally belonged.) DeThe common log is a piece of board, forming the note a tribe of people who arose from an obscure quadrant of a circle of about six inches radius, and small beginning to occupy the most considerbalanced by a small plate of lead pailed on the able rank in Europe. The Scandinavian origin of circular part, so as to swim perpendicularly. these people is maintained by Paul the deacon,

contested by Claverius and defended by Grotius. LOGARITHMS. The indices of the ratios of It would be tedious, and also unsatisfactory to the numbers to one another; being a series of numbers reader, if we were to make an attempt at pursuing in arithmetical progression, corresponding to others the migrations of the Lombards through unknown in geometrical progression ; by ineans of which, regions and marvellous adventures. About the arithmetical calculations can be made with much time of Augustus and Trajan these fierce people more ease and expedition, than otherwise. This were discovered between the Elbe and the Oder. was an invention of Baron Napier, of Scotland, in They were fierce beyond the example of the Ger1618.

mans, and they took pleasure in propagating the

tremendous belief, that their heads were formed LOGBOOK. The book in which the account like the heads of dogs, and that they drank the of the log is transcribed.

blood of their enemies whom they vanquished in

battle. From the north they gradually descended LOGIC. The art of thinking justly. Or it may towards the south and the Danube ; and after an be defined, the science or history of the human interval of four hundred years, they again appear mind, as it traces the progress of our knowledge with their ancient valor and renown. Their manfrom our first conceptions through their different ners were not less ferocious. The assassination combinations, and the numerous deductions that of a royal guest was executed in the presence, and result from comparing them with one another. by the command, of the king's daughter, who had Correct reasoning inplies legitimate inferences been provoked by some words of insult, and disfrom premises, which are principles assumed or appointed by his diminutive stature. admitted to be just.

LONGEVITY. It is a law of nature, though LOG LINE. The line fastened to the log, a melancholy one, that all organized bodies should which is divided into certain spaces fifty feet in be dissolved. The periods of dissolution, however,

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are as various as the species, and the intentions of Parre, who was a native of Shropshire, and died nature in producing them.

on the sixteenth day of November, 1635, at the In the human kind, the brevity of life is regard- age of one hundred and fifty-two. ed as an object of regret. One half of mavkind Francis Consist, a native of Yorkshire, aged one die before they arrive at eight years of age. Fron hundred and fifty, died in January, 1768. that early period to eighty, beside the destruction Margaret Foster, aged one hundred and thirty. of war, and other accidents, nature kills them an- six, and her daughter, aged one hundred and four

, pually in millions. Some instances may be given were natives of Cumberland, and both alive in the of men whose lives were prolonged beyond the year 1771. usual period of human existence. Such men are William Evans, aged one hundred and forty-five, not to be envied ; nor should they be considered lived in Caernarvon, and still existed in the year as favorites of nature. With respect to maturity 1782. of judgment, and a knowledge of the world, no Dumiter Radaloy, aged one hundred and forty, man can be said to exist till he passes thirty years lived in Harmenstead, and died on the sixteenth of age. Give him thirty or thirty-five more, and, day of January, 1782. in general, both mind and body are visibly declin- James Bowels, aged one hundred and fifty-two, ed. Those people, therefore, who arrive at an ex- lived in Killingworth, and died on the fifteenth day traordinary age, may be said to exist, but they do of August, 1656. not live. All intellectual enjoyments and exertions, The Countess of Desmond, in Ireland, saw her which constitute the chiet' dignity and happiness one hundred and fortieth year. of man, are gone. There are exceptions; but Mr. Ecleston, a native of Ireland, lived to the these exceptions are confirmations of what we age of one hundred and forty-three, and died in have advanced. Mankind, in the early ages of the the year 1691. world, have been said to live for several centuries. John Mount, a native of Scotland, saw his one We mean not to contradict the assertion. But we hundred and thirty-sixth year, and died on the must remark, that, if ever men lived so long, they twenty-seventh day of February, 1776. must have been very different, both in the structure William Ellis, of Liverpool, died on the sixteenth of their bodies, and in their manners, from those day of August, 1780, at the age of one hundred who now exist. From infancy to manhood, there and thirty. is a gradual growth or extension of our organs. Colonel Thomas Winsloe, a native of Ireland, After this period, and when we advance in years, aged one hundred and forty-six, died on the twenthe bones harden, the muscles become stiff

, the ty-second day of August, 1766. cartilages are converted into bones, the membranes An account is given by Professor Silliman, in into cartilages, the stomach and bowels lose their his Journal of a Tour to Quebec, of a visit which tone, and the whole fabric, instead of being soft, he paid near Whitehall, in the state of New York, flexible, and obedient to the inclinations, or even to a man who had reached the extreme age of one the commands, of the mind, becomes rigid, inac- hundred and thirty-four years. His name was tive, and feeble. These are the general and pro- Henry Francisco, and he was a native of France. gressive causes of death, and they are common to “ He believes himself to be one hundred and all aniinals. There are modes of living more fa- thirty-four years old, and the country around believe vorable to health, than others. But examples are him to be of this great age. When we arrived at not wanting of men who have arrived at an ex- his residence, (a plain farmer's house, not painted, treme old age, without observing either temper- rather out of repair, and much open to the wind) ance, or any of the other modes of living which he was up stairs, at his daily work, of spooling and are generally supposed to be favorable to longevity. winding yarn. This occupation is auxiliary to that Some men, who lived temperately, and even ab- of his wife, who is a weaver, and although more steriously, reached to great ages; others, who than eighty years old, she weaves six yards a day, observed the very opposite conduct, who lived and the old man can supply her with more yarn freely and often intemperately, have had their ex- than she can weave. Supposing he must be very istence equally prolonged. But, in general, not feeble, we offered to go up stairs to him, but he withstanding a few exceptions, temperance, a placid soon came down, walking somewhat stooping, and and cheerful disposition, moderate exercise, and supported by a staff

, but with less apparent inconproper exertions of mind, contribute, in nó un- venience, than most persons exhibit at eighty-fivo common degree, to the prolongation of life. or ninety. His stature is of the middle size, and

A few examples of longevity in the human although his person is rather delicate and slender, species, though no general conclusions can be he stoops but little, even when unsupported. His drawn from them, may not be incurious to the complexion is very fair and delicate, and his exreader

. We shall not go back to a remote and pression bright, cheerful, and intelligent ; his feaobscure antiquity, but confine ourselves to more tures are handsome, and considering that they have modern times, when the modes of living were endured through one third part of a second cennearly the same as they are at present.

tury, they are regular, comely, and wonderfully The most extraordinary instance of longevity in undisfigured by the hand of time ; his eyes are of Great Britain, was exhibited in the person of Hen- a lively blue; his profile is Grecian and very fine; ry Jenkins. He was a native of Yorkshire, lived his head is completely covered with the most to the amazing age of one hundred and sixty-nine beautiful and delicate white locks imaginable; they years, and died on the eighth day of December, are so long and abundant as to fall gracefully from 1670.

the crown of his head, parting regularly from a Next to Jenkins, we have the famous Thomas central point, and reaching down to his shoulders;

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his hair is perfectly snow white, except where it is count of a number of instances of longevity which thick in his neck; when parted there, it shows have been known to occur in New Hampshire. some few dark shades, the remnants of a former Within the ten years from 1810 to 1820, eighty century. He still retains the front teeth of his persons are recorded who died above the age of upper jaw; bis mouth is not fallen in, like that of ninety, twenty-nine of whom reached or exceeded old people generally, and his lips particularly, are the age of one hundred. Besides these there have like those of middle life ; his voice is strong and died in the state within the last century-one persweet-toned, although a little tremulous; his hear, son of one hundred and twenty, one of one buning very little impaired, so that a voice of usual dred and sixteen, one of one hundred and fifteen, strength, with distinct articulation, enables him to one of one hundred and ten, one of one hundred understand ; his eyesight is sufficient for his work, and eight, one of one hundred and seven, one of and he distinguishes large print, such as the title one hundred and six, several of one hundred and page of the Bible, without glasses ; his health is five; and there were living, in 1822, at Chesterfield, good, and bas always been so, except that he has a woman of one hundred and five, and, at Row, a now a cough and expectoration.”

man of one hundred and twelve. It appeared from his account of hiinself, which The general causes of death have already been was consistent and intelligible, and confirmed by mentioned. But in women, the operation of these collateral historical facts, that his father was a causes is frequently retarded. In the female sex, French protestant who fled from France, in the the bones, the cartilages, the muscles, as well as latter part of the reign of Louis XIV, in conse- every other part of the body, are softer and less quence of the persecutions arising from the revo- solid than those of men ; peither are they generally cation of the edict of Nantz, that he took refuge so much subjected to bodily exertions. Their in Holland, and afterwards in England ; that Fran. constituent parts, accordingly, require more time cisco himself was born in the year 1680; that he in hardening to that degree which occasions death. recollects his emigration from France in 1691, and Women, of course, ought to live longer than men. the coronation of Queen Anne in 1702, at which This reasoning is confirmed by the bills of mortaltime he says he was sixteen years old. He fought ity; for, upon consulting them, it appears, that, in all Queen Anne's wars, and exhibits the scars atter woinen have passed a certain time, they live of many wounds, but only recollects the name of much ger than men who have reached the the Duke of Marlborough, among the commanders same period. The duration of the lives of animals under whom he served. He came out with his may, in some measure, be estimated by the time father to New York early in the last century, occupied in their growth. An animal, or even a though he cannot remember the date, and was plant, as we learn from experience, which acquires engaged in most of the wars which occurred until maturity in a short time, perishes much sooner that of the revolution. “ He has had two wives than those which are longer in arriving at that and twenty-one children; the youngest child is the period. In the human species, when individuals daughter in whose house he lives, and she is fifty- grow with uncommon rapidity, they generally die two years old ; of course he was eighty-two when young. This circumstance seems to have given she was born." "He has been all his life, a very rise to the common proverbial expression, soon active and energetic, although not a stout framed ripe, soon rotten.' Man grows in stature till he is man. He was formerly fond of spirits, and did, sixteen or eighteen years of age; but the thickness for a certain period, drink more than was proper, of his body is not completely unfolded before that but that babit appears to have been long abandon- of thirty. Dogs acquire their full length in one ed. In other respects he has been remarkably ab- year ; but their growth in thickness is not finished stemious, eating but little, and particularly abstain- till the end of the second. A man, who continues ing, almost entirely, from animal food ; his favorite to grow for thirty years, may live ninety or a bunarticles being tea, bread and butter, and baked ap- dred; but a dog, whose growth terminates in two ples. His wife said that after such a breakfast, he or three years, lives only ten or twelve years. The would go out and work till noon; then dine upon same observation is applicable to most animals. the same if he could get it, and then take the same Fishes continue to grow for a great number of at night; and particularly, that he always drank years. Some of them, accordingly, live during tea, whenever he could obtain it, three cups at a several centuries; because their bones and cartiltime, three times a day.” “ The oldest people in ages seldom acquire the density of those of other the vicinity, remember Francisco, as being always, avimals. It may, therefore, be considered as a. from their earliest recollection, much older than general fact, that large animals live longer than themselves; and a Mr. Fuller, wlio recently died sinall ones, because the former require more time here, between eighty and ninety years of age, to complete their growth. Thus the causes of our thought Francisco was one hundred and forty." dissolution are inevitable; and it is equally impos“He is really a most remarkable and interesting sible to retard that fatal period, as to change the old man; there is nothing, either in his person or established laws of nature. When the constitution dress, of the negligence and squalidness of extreme is sound, life may, perhaps, by moderating the pasage, especially when vot in elevated circumstances; sions, and by temperance, be prolonged for a few on the contrary, he is agreeable and attractive, and years. But the varieties of climate, and of the were be dressed in a superior manner, and placed modes of living, make no material differences with in a handsome, well furnished apartment, he would regard to the period of our existence, which is be a most beautiful old man."

nearly the same in the European, the Negro, the In the tenth Volume, second Series of the Mas-Asiatic, the American, the civilized man and the sachusetts Historical Collections, there is an ac- savage, the rich and the poor, the citizen and the

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