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hidden in the earth, but of which the good and faithful servant will make a tenfold increase.

1793, Nov.

LXXXIX. Cold Water recommended for a Scald


Truro, Cornwall, Nov. 4, THOUGH the following communication has already appeared in a periodical work, as the tendency of it must be admitted to be generally useful, I am sure I need not apologize for requesting that it may be inserted in the Gentleman's Magazine. Its utility alone must be its recommendation, for, it lias little or nothing of novelty to plead in its favour; though it may appear odd that the late Mr. Hunter, a man of unquestionable reputation, and little accustomed to bestow praise where it was not due, should have given great credit to a well-meaning brewer of Edinburgh, whose name, I think, is Cleghom, for the communication of the peculiar virtues of cold vinegar applied to recent burns or scalds ; as if he had been entitled to the merit of making a discovery on the subject. The history of cold applications in the treatment of inflammations is too well known to make any disquisition on the subject necessary here. There are few persons unacquainted with their efficacy. The most material inquiry is, what is the best application for the purpose of obviating the bad effects of the more common accidents of this kind, produced by fire, boiling water, and other hot liquid substances ? The following case may afford a conclusion on the subject, which is much in favour of a remedy that is always near at hand, and the application of which is attended with less inconvenience than almost any other with which I am acquainted. In saying this, I do not mean to assert its superior efficacy to every other lotion; on the contrary, I think that some articles of the Materia Medica might, possibly, in some cases, give it additional virtue; but it has this grand advantage over the ordinary medical or chirurgical aids, that it is always near at hand; and, in the cases to which it is applicable, the least delay precludes the possibility of obtaining effectual assistance. lo support then of the usefulness of cold water in the cure of recent scalds, I beg leave to relate the following fact. In the winter of 1788, I was sitting near a fire on which was

placed a large tea-kettle filled with water, that was then of à boiling heat. The vessel slipped froni off the fire, and the whole, or the greater part, of its contents was thrown over one of my legs. To lessen the extreme heat and pain which were instantly produced, the first thing that struck me was the affusion of cold water out of a large decanter which fortunately stood at the time on the table, and which I made, without waiting to take off my stocking, over the affected parts. In the mean time, feeling some relief from the application of cold, I ordered a pail of water to be procured, in which I immersed the leg repeatedly; and this I continued to do for nearly two hours (as well as I can now recollect,) getting a fresh pail of water as soon as any sensible degree of warmth was communicated by the scalded limb to that which I had been using. Having by these repeated immersions almost, if not entirely, got rid of the heat and smarting, I proceeded to draw off my stocking with some caution, and not without suspicion that a part of the cuticle would have been removed along with it. But I was agreeably surprised to find that the skin had suffered little or no injury, except that it was a little shrivelled, and stiff in some places, which was as likely to have been occasioned by the cold as the hot water. No vesication succeeded; and, except a little peeling of the skin, and some partial stiffness, which was soon removed by rubbing the surface with oil, Í never felt any subsequent inconvenience. To those who may chance to suffer a similar accident, I may venture from this fact, independantly of any theory in its favour, to recommend the like mode of treating it. Oil, which is no unfrequent application, is a bad one, as it is a bad conductor of heat, and as it tends therefore to increase the heat of the surface to which it may be applied. Vinegar, though it has been considered to possess a sedative quality, and therefore to be useful in such cases, as it will irritate much more than water, is, on that account, less proper: and the same may be said of all acids. Even lead dissolved in vinegar, which makes the famous extract of Mr. Goulard, is liable, in my opinion, to the same objection.

It is hardly requisite to add, that there is a necessity of making the application of cold water as speedily as possible after the accident; for, if it be delayed till blistering has taken place, which will happen in a very short space of time, any application made, with a view to effect a coinplete cure, must prove ineffectual.

1793, Dee


XC. Sir Ashton Lever's Directions for preserving Birds, &c.

MR. URBAN, IN reply to the request of A Constant Reader, I send you the following extracts from a paper, which was, I believe, put into my hands by the late Sir Ashton Lever, at Alkrington, near twenty years ago ; in which, after explaining to his friends what are " the subjects he is desirous to obtain," he “lays down a method for their preservation and safe cons veyance, calculated to give as litile trouble as possible.”“ Large beasts should be carefully skinned, with the horns, scull, jaws, tail, and feet, left entire: the skin may then either be put into a vessel of spirit, or else rubbed well on the inside with the mixture of salt, alum, and pepper, hereafter men, tioned, and hung to dry. Small beasts may be put into a cask of rum, or any other spirits. Large birds may be treated as large beasts, but must not be put in spirits. Small birds may be preserved in the following manner: take out the entrails, open a passage to the brain, which should be scooped out through the mouth; introduce into the cavities of the scull and the whole body some of the mixture of salt, alum, and pepper, putting some through the gullet and whole length of the neck, then hang the bird in a cool airy place, tirst by the feet, that the body may be impregnated by the salts, and afterward by a thread through the under mandible of the bill, till it appears to be sweet, then hang it in the sun, or near a fire: after it is well dried, clear out what remains loose of the mixture, and fill the cavity of the body with wool, oakum, or any soft substance, and pack it smooth in paper. Large fishes should be opened in the belly, the entrails taken out, and the inside well rubbed with the preparation of salt, alum, and pepper, and stuffed with oakum. Small fishes put in spirits, as well as reptiles and insects, except butterflies and moths, and any insects of fine colours, which should be pinned down in a box

prepared for that purpose, with their wings expanded. With regard to birds shot in this kingdom, I wish to have them sent fresh killed; only observe to put tow into the mouth, and upon any wound the bird may have received, to prevent the feathers being soiled, and then wrap it smooth at full length in paper, and pack it close in a box. And if it be sent from a great distance, the entrails should be extracted, and the cavity filled with tow dipt in rum or other

spirits. The following mixture is proper for the preservation of animals : one pound of salt, four ounces of alum, two ounces of pepper, powdered together.

“I should be particularly obliged to such captains of ships as would set apart a small cask of spirits, into which they may put every uncommon sea production which they meet with during their voyage, wrapping every article separate in a rag, or a little oakum.” 1793, Suppl.


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XCI. A Royal Hawk.--King James's Hawking. Sir Anthony

Weldon.-Weldon's Court of King James.

Feb. 15.

MR. URBAN, IN the beginning of September last, a paragraph appeared in several newspapers, mentioning, that a hawk had been found at the Cape of Good Hope, and brought from thence by one of the India ships, having on its neck a gold collar, on which was engraven the following words:

“This goodlie hawk doth belong to his Most Excellent Majestie, James Kinge of England. A.D. 1610."

On seeing this account, an anecdote immediately occurred to me, which I had lately met with in a curious old manuscript, containing some remarks and observations on the migration of birds, and their flying to far distant regions ; and which, if you think it may throw any light on the subject, now much attended to by naturalists, or confirm the opinion of some, respecting the longevity of birds of prey, is much at your service. The words from my author are as follow: “And here I call to mind a story of our Anthony Weldon, in his · Court and Character of King James;' The King,' saith he, being at Newmarket, delighted much to fly his goshawk at herons; and the manner of the conflict was this; the heron would mount, and the goshawk would get much above it; then, when the hawk stooped at the game, the heron would turn up its belly, to receive him with his claws and sharp bill; which the hawk perceiving, would dodge and pass by, rather than endanger itself. This pastime being over, both the hawk and heron would mount again, to the utmost of their power, till the hawk would be at another attempt; and, after divers such assaults, usually, by some lucky hit or other, the hawk would bring her

down; but one day, a most excellent hawk being at the game, in the king's presence, mounted so high with his game, that both hawk and heron got out of sight, and were never seen more; inquiry was made, not only all over England, but in all the foreign princes' courts in Europe, the hawk having the king's jesses, and marks sufficient, whereby it might be known; but all their inquiries proved ineffectual."

Hoping, Mr. Urban, that the above communication may prove acceptable to some of your readers, either as a matter of amusement, or occasioning some farther inquiry to be made after the hawk lately brought over from the Cape, I remain, Yours, &c.

T. S.

1793, Feb.


March 3, 1793, MENTION is made in your last Magazine, of the hawk found at the Cape of Good Hope with an inscription on his collar, indicating his having belonged to James I. of England. Your correspondent infers, with great probability, the authenticity of the inscription, from an anecdote (which, he says, he lately met with in an old manuscript) alluding to Sir Anthony Weldon's Court of King James. Having lately read that curious book, I recollected the circumstance, and turned to the passage alluded to, which indeed, as to the chief circumstance of the hawk's disappearing, is faithfully quoted, but in Weldon no mention is made of the manner of conflict, &c. As it may probably be not unpleasing to many of your readers, I have sent you the passage in question faithfully transcribed from Sir A. Weldon's history

The French* sending over his Falconers to shew that sport, his master Falconer lay long here, but could not kill one kite, ours being more magnanimous than the French kite, Sir Thomas NIonson desired to have that fight in all exquisiteness, and to that end was at 100l. charge in GosFaulcons for that fight; in all that charge, he never had but one cast would perform it, and those had killed nine kites, never missed one. The Earle of Pembroke, with all

The word King, I suppose, is here by mistake omitted.

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