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little stories. In giving the lesson, let it be end each boy should have an English diction read to thein ; let the meaning of the difficult ary, to help him over difficulties. When our words in it be explained to them: and let boys read English to us, we are apt to imathem con over by themselves before they are gine they understand what they read, because called to read to the master or usher, who is we do, and because it is their mother tongue, to take particular care, that they do not read But they often read, as parrots speak, knowtoo fast, and that they duly observe the stops ing little or nothing of the meaning. And it and pauses. A vocabulary of the most usual is impossible a reader should give the due difficult words might be formed for their use, modulation to his voice, and pronounce prowith explanations; and they might daily get perly, unless his understanding goes before a few of those words and explanations by his tongue, and makes him master of the senheart, which would a little exercise their timent. Accustoming boys to read aloud what memories; or at least they might write a they do not first understand, is the cause of number of them in a small book for the pur those even set tones so common among reapose, which would help to fix the meaning of ders, which, when they have once got a haihose words in their minds, and at the same bit of using, they find so difficult to correct: time furnish every one with a little dictionary by which means, among fifty readers we for his future use.
scarcely find a good one. For want of good The Second Class
reading, pieces published with a view to in
fluence the minds of men, for their own or To be taught reading with attention, and
the public benefit, lose half their force. Were with proper modulations of the voice, accord
there but one good reader in a neighbourhood, ing to the sentiment and the subject.
a public orator might be heard throughout a Some short pieces, not exceeding the
e nation with the same advantages, and have length of a Spectator, to be given this class in
| the same effect upon his audience, as if they for lessons (and some of the easier Spectators
stood within the reach of his voice. would be suitable for the purpose). These lessons might be given every night as tasks;
The Third Class the scholars to study them against the morn To be taught speaking proper and graceing. Let it then be required of them to give fully ; which is near akm to good reading, an account, first of the parts of speech, and and naturally follows it in the studies of youth. construction of one or two sentences. This Let the scholars of thisrlass begin with learnwill oblige them to recur frequently to their ing the elements of rhetoric from some short gramınar, and fix its principal rules in their system, so as to be able to give an account of memory. Next, of the intention of the wri- the most useful tropes and figures. Let all ter, or the scope of the piece, the meaning of their bad habits of speaking, all ofiences each sentence, and of every uncommon word. against good grammar, all corrupt or foreign This would early acquaint them with the accents, and all improper phrases, be pointed meaning and force of words, and give them out to him. Short speeches from the Roman, that most necessary habit, of reading with at- or other history, or from the legislative detention.
bates, might be got by heart, and delivered The master then to read the piece with the with the proper action, &c. Speeches and proper modulations of voice, due emphasis, scenes in our best tragedies and comedies and suitable action, where action is required: (avoiding every thing that could injure the and put the youth on imitating his manner. inorals of youth) might likewise be got by rote,
Where the author has used an expression and the boys exercised in delivering or acting not the best, let it be pointed out; and let his them; great care being taken to form their beauties be particularly remarked to the manner after the truest models. youth.
| For their farther improvement, and a little, Let the lessons for reading be varied, that to vary their studies, let them now begin to the youth may be made acquainted with read history, after having got by heart a short good styles of all kinds, in prose and verse, table of the principal epochas in chronology. and the proper manner of reading each kind | They may begin with Rollin's Ancient and
-sometimes a well told story, a piece of a Roman histories, and proceed at proper hours, serinon, a general's speech to his soldiers, a as they go through the subsequent classes, speech in a tragedy, some part of a comedy, with the best histories of our own nation and an ode, a satire, a letter, blank verse, Hudi- colonies. Let emulation be excited among brastic, heroic, &c. But let such lessons be the boys, by giving, weekly, little prizes, or chosen for reading, as contain some useful in- other small encouragements to those, who are struction, whereby the understanding or mo- able to give the best account of what they rals of the youth may at the same time be im- have read, as to time, places, names of persons, proved.
| &c. This will make them read with attenIt is required that they should first study | tion, and imprint the history well on their and understand the lessons, before they are memories. In remarking on the history, the put upon reading them properly ; to which | master will have fine opportunities of instilling instruction of various kinds, and improv- 1
The Fifth Class. ing the morals, as well as the understandings, To improve the youth in composition, they of youth.
may now, besides continuing to write letters, The natural and mechanic history, con-| begin to write little essays in prose, and sometained in the Spectacle de la Nature, might times in verse; not to make them poets, but also be begun in this class, and continued for this reason, that nothing acquaints a lad through the subsequent classes, by other books so speedily with variety of expression, as the of the same kind; for, next to the knowledge necessity of finding such words and phrases of duty, this kind of knowledge is certainly the as will suit the measure, sound and rhyme of most useful, as well as the most entertaining. verse, and at the same time well express the The merchant may thereby be enabled better sentiment. These essays should all pass under to understand many commodities in trade; the master's eye, who will point out their the handicraftsman, to improve his business faults, and put the writer on correcting them. by new instruments, mixtures and materials; Where the judgment is not ripe enough for and frequently hints are given for new manu- forming new essays, let the sentiments of a factures, or new methods of improving land, Spectator be given, and required to be clothed that may be set on foot greatly to the advan- in the scholar's own words; or the circumtage of a country.
stances of some good story, the scholar to find The Fourth Class
expression. Let them be put sometimes on To be taught composition. Writing one's abridging a paragraph of a diffuse author : own language well, is the next necessary ac
sometimes on dilating or amplifying what is complishment after good speaking. It is the
wrote more closely. And now let Dr. Johnwriting-master's business, to take care that
son's Noetica, or First Principles of Human the boys make fair characters, and place them
Knowledge, containing a logic, or art of reastraight and even in the lines: but to form
soning, &c. be read by the youth, and the diftheir style, and even to take care that the
ficulties, that may occur to them, be explained stops and capitals are properly disposed, is
by the master. The reading of history, and the part of the English master. The boys, the
e hovs. the exercises of good reading and just speakshould be taught to write letters to each other ing still continued. on any common occurrences, and on various
The Sixth Class. subjects, imaginary business, &c. containing In this class, besides continuing the studies little stories, accounts of their late reading, of the preceding in history, rhetoric, logic, what parts of authors please them, and why; moral and natural philosophy, the best English letters of congratulation, of compliment, of re- authors may be read and explained; as Tillotquest, of thanks, of recommendation, of admo- son, Milton, Locke, Addison, Pope, Swift, the nition, of consolation, of expostulation, excuse, higher papers in the Spectator and Guardian, &c. In these, they should be taught to ex- the best translations of Homer, Virgil, and press themselves clearly, concisely, and na- Horace, of Teleinachus, Travels of Cyrus, &c. turally, without affected words or high-flown Once a year, let there be public exercises phrases. All their letters to pass through the in the hall; the trustees and citizens present. master's hand, who is to point out the faults, Then let fine bound books be given as prizes advise the corrections, and commend what he to such boys, as distinguish themselves, and finds right. Some of the best letters pub- excel the others in any branch of learning, lished in our own language, as sir William making three degrees of comparison: giving Temple's, those of Pope and his friends, and the best prize to him, that perforins best ; a some others, might be set before the youth less valuable one to him, that comes up next as models, their beauties pointed out and ex- to the best, and another to the third. Complained by the master, the letters themselves mendations, encouragement, and advice to the transcribed by the scholar.
rest; keeping up their hopes, that, by indusDr. Johnson's Ethices Elementa, or First try, they may excel another time. The names Principles of Morality, may now be read by of those, that obtain the prize, to be yearly the scholar, and explained by the master, to printed in a list. lay a solid foundation of virtue and piety in The hours of each day are to be divided their minds. And as this class continues the and disposed in such a manner, as that some reading of history, let them now, at proper classes may be with the writing-master, imhours, receive some farther instruction in chro-proving their hands; others with the mathenology, and in that part of geography (from matical master, learning arithmetic, accounts, the mathematical master) which is necessary geography, use of the globes, drawing, meto understand the maps and globes. They chanics, &c. while the rest are in the Engshould also be acquainted with the modern lish school, under the English master's care. names of the places they find mentioned in Thus instructed, youth will come out of ancient writers. The exercises of good read this school. fitted for learning any business, ing, and proper speaking, still continued at calling, or profession, except such wherein suitable times.
languages are required : and, though unacquainted with any ancient or foreign tongue, sia, perfectly unknown as much as China, be. they will be masters of their own, which is of yond it, and India only by a little commerce more immediate and general use, and withal upon the coast, about Surat and Malabar; Afriwill have attained many other valuable accom- ca had been more unknown, but by the ruin plishments: the time usually spent in acquir- of the Carthaginians, all the western coast of it ing those languages, often without success, was sunk out of knowledge again, and forgotbeing here employed in laying such a founda- ten; the northern coast of Africa, in the Metion of knowledge and ability, as, properly diterranean, remained known, and that was improved, may qualify them to pass through all, for the Saracens overrunning the nations and execute the several offices of civil life, which were planted there, ruined conimerce. with advantage and reputation to themselves as well as religion; the Baltic Sea was not and country.
discovered, nor even the navigation of it known; for the Teutonic knights came not
thither till the 13th century. On Discoveries.-From the Pennsylvania America was not heard of, nor so much as
Gazette, No. 409, Oct. 14, 1736. a suggestion in the minds of men, that any The world but a few ages since, was in a part of the world lay that way. The coasts very poor condition, as to trade and navigation, of Greenland, or Spitsbergen, and the whale nor indeed, were they much better in other fishing, not known; the best navigators in the matters of useful knowledge. It was a green world, at that time, would have fled from a headed time, every useful improvement was whale, with much more fright and horror, hid from them, they had neither looked into than from the devil, in the most terrible heaven, nor earth, into the sea, nor land, as shapes they had been told he appeared in. has been done since. They had philosophy The coasts of Angola, Congo, the Gold and without experiments, mathematics without the Grain coasts, on the west side of Africa, instruments, geometry without scale, astro- from whence, since that time, such immense nomy without demonstration.
wealth has been drawn, not discovered, nor They made war without powder, shot, can- | the least inquiry made after them. All the non, or mortars; nay, the mob made their East India and China trade, not only undiscobonfires without squibs, or crackers. They vered, but out of the reach of expectation ! went to sea without compass, and sailed Coffee and tea, (those modern blessings of manwithout the needle. They viewed the stars, kind) had never been heard of: all the unwithout telescopes, and measured latitudes bounded ocean, we now call the South Sea, without observation. Learning had no print- was hid, and unknown: all the Atlantic ing-press, writing no paper, and paper no ink; Ocean, beyond the mouth of the Streights, the lover was forced to send his mistress a was frightful and terrible in the distant prosdeal board for a love-letter, and a billet doux pect, nor durst any one peep into it, othermight be the size of an ordinary trencher.- wise than as they might creep along the They were clothed without manufacture, and coast of Africa, towards Šallee, or Santa Cruz. their richest robes were the skins of the The North Seas was hid in a veil of impene. most formidable monsters; they carried on trable darkness; the White Sea, or Arch Antrade without books, and correspondence with-gel, was a very modern discovery; not found out posts; their merchants kept no accounts, out till sir Hugh Willoughby doubled the their shop-keepers no cash-books, they had North Cape, and paid dear for the adventure. surgery without anatomy, and physicians with- | being frozen to death with all his crew on the out the materia medica, they gave emetics coast of Lapland; while his companion's ship, without ipecacuanha, drew blisters without with the famous Mr. Chancellor, went on to cantharides, and cured agues without the bark. the Gulph of Russia, called the White Sea,
As for geographical discoveries, they had where no Christian strangers had ever been neither seen the North Cape, nor the Cape before him. of Good Hope south. All the discovered. In these narrow circumstances stood the inhabited world, which they knew and con- world's knowledge at the beginning of the versed with, was circumscribed within very 15th century, when men of genius began to narrow limits, viz. France, Britain, Spain, look abroad and about them. Now, as it was Italy, Germany, and Greece; the Lesser Asia, wonderful to see a world so full of people, and the west part of Persia, Arabia, the north people so capable of improving, yet so stupid, parts of Africa, and the islands of the Medi- and so blind, so ignorant, and so perfectly unterranean sea, and this was the whole world | improved; it was wonderful to see, with what to them; not that even these countries were a general alacrity they took the alarm, almost fully known neither, and several parts of them all together; preparing themselves as it were not inquired into at all. Germany was known on a sudden, by a general inspiration, to little farther than the banks of the Elbe; Pospread knowledge through the earth, and to land as little beyond the Vistula, or Hungary search into every thing, that it was impossible a litte beyond the Danube ; Muscovy or Rus- to uncover.
How surprising is it to look back, so little is useful for all sorts and degrees of men, from a way behind us, and see, that even in less the highest to the lowest. than two hundred years, all this (now so self- As to the usefulness of geometry, it is as wise) part of the world did not so much as certain, that no curious art or mechanic work, know, whether there was any such place, as a can either be invented, improved, or performRussia, a China, a Guinea, a Greenland, or a ed, without its assisting principles. North Cape? That as to America, it was ne. It is owing to this, that astronomers are ver supposed, there was any such place, nei- put into a way of making their observations, ther had the world, though they stood upon coming at the knowledge of the extent of the the shoulders of four thousand years' experi- heavens, the duration of time, the motions, ence, the least thought, so much as that there magnitudes, and distances of the heavenly was any land that way!
bodies, their situations, positions, risings, setAs they were ignorant of places, so of tings, aspects, and eclipses; also the measure things also; so vast are the improvements of of seasons, of years, and of ages. science, that all our knowledge of mathema- It is by the assistance of this science, that tics, of nature, of the brightest part of human geographers present to our view at once, the wisdom, had their admission among us with magnitude and form of the whole earth, the in these two last centuries.
vast extent of the seas, the divisions of emWhat was the world then, before? And to pires, kingdoms, and provinces. what were the heads and hands of mankind It is by the help of geometry, the ingenious applied ? The rich had no commerce, the poor mariner is instructed how to guide a ship no employment; war and the sword was the through the vast ocean, from one part of the great field of honour, the stage of preferment, earth to another, the nearest and safest way, and you have scarce a man eminent in the and in the shortest time. world, for any thing before that time, but for By help of this science the architects take a furious outrageous falling upon his fellow- their just measures for the structure of buildcreatures, like Nimrod, and his successors of ings, as private houses, churches, palaces, modern memory.
ships, fortifications, &c. The world is now daily increasing in ex. By its help engineers conduct all their perimental knowledge; and let no man flat- works, take the situation and plan of towns, ter the age, with pretending we have arrived forts and castles, measure their distances from to a perfection of discoveries.
one another, and carry their measure into What's now discovered, only serves to show,
places that are only accessible to the eye. That nothing's known, to what is yet to know.
From hence also is deduced that admirable art of drawing sun-dials on any plane how
soever situate, and for any part of world, to On the Usefulness of the Mathematics.
point out the exact time of the day, sun's deFrom the Pennsylvania Gazette, No. 360,
clination, altitude, amplitude, azimuth, and Oct. 30, 1735.
other astronomical matters.
By geometry, the surveyor is directed how MATHEMATICS originally signifies any kind to draw a map of any country, to divide his of discipline or learning, but now it is taken lands, and to lay down and plot any piece of for that science, which teaches or contem- ground, and thereby discover the area in plates whatever is capable of being numbered acres, rods, and perches. The gauger is inor measured. That part of the mathematics structed how to find the capacities or solid which relates to numbers only, is called contents of all kinds of vessels, in barrels, arithmetic; and that which is concerned gallons, bushels, &c. And the measurer is about measure in general, whether length, furnished with rules for finding the areas and breadth, motion, force, &c. is called geometry. contents of superfices and solids, and casting
As to the usefulness of arithmetic, it is well up all manner of workmanship. All these known that no business, commerce, trade, or and many more useful arts, too many to be employment whatsoever, even from the mer- enumerated here, wholly depend upon the chant to the shopkeeper, &c. can be managed aforesaid sciences, viz. arithmetic and geoand carried on, without the assistance of num- metry. bers; for by these the trader computes the This science is descended from the infancy value of all sorts of goods that he dealeth in, of the world, the inventors of which were the does his business with ease and certainty, and first propagators of human kind, as Adam, informs himself how matters stand at any time Noah, Abraham, Moses, and divers others. with respect to men, money, or merchandise, There has not been any science so much to profit and loss, whether he goes forward or esteemed and honoured as this of the mathebackward, grows richer or poorer. Neither matics, nor with so much industry and vigiis this science only useful to the merchant, lance become the care of great men, and labut is reckoned the primum mobile (or first boured in by the potentates of the world, viz. mover) of all mundane affairs in general, and emperors, kings, princes, &c.
Mathematical demonstrations, are a logic, a mind worth cultivating, ought to apply of as much or more use, than that commonly themselves to this study." learned at schools, serving to a just formation of the mind, enlarging its capacity, and strengthening it so, as to render the same ca- Causes of Earthquakes.-From the Pennsyl. pable of exact reasoning, and discerning truth vania Gazette, No. 470, Dec. 15, 1737. from falsehood in all occurrences, even sub- The late earthquake felt here, and probajects not mathematical. For which reason it bly in all the neighbouring provinces, have is said, the Egyptians, Persians, and Lacede-made many people desirous to know what monians, seldom elected any new kings, but may be the natural cause of such violent consuch as had some knowledge in the mathe- cussions; we shall endeavour to gratify their matics, imagining those who had not, men of curiosity by giving them the various opinions imperfect judgments, and unfit to rule and of the learned on that head. govern.
Here naturalists are divided. Some ascribe Though Plato's censure, that those who did them to water, others to fire, and others to not understand the 117th proposition of the air: and all of them with some appearance of 13th book of Euclid's Elements, ought not to reason. To conceive which, it is to be ob be ranked amongst rational creatures, was un served, that the earth every where abounds in reasonable and unjust; yet to give a man the huge subterraneous caverns, veins and canals, character of universal learning, who is des particularly about the roots of mountains : titute of a competent knowlege in the mathe- that of these cavities, veins, &c. some are matics, is no less so.
| full of water, whence are composed gulphs, The usefulness of some particular parts of abysses, springs, rivulets; and others full of the mathematics in the common affairs of hu- exhalations; and that some parts of the earth man life, has rendered some knowledge of them are replete with nitre, sulphur, bitumen, vivery necessary to a great part of mankind, triol, &c. and very convenient to all the rest that are This premised, 1. The earth itself may any way conversant beyond the limits of their sometimes be the cause of its own shaking ; own particular callings.
when the roots or basis of some large mass Those whom necessity has obliged to get being dissolved, or worn away by a fuid untheir bread by manual industry, where some derneath, it sinks into the same; and with its degree of art is required to go along with it, weight, occasions a tremor of the adjacent and who have had some insight into these stu- parts; produces a noise, and frequently an indies, have very often found advantages from undation of water. them sufficient to reward the pains they were 2. The subterraneous waters may occasion at in acquiring them. And whatever may earthquakes, by their overflowing, cutting out have been imputed to some other studies, new courses, &c. Add, that the water being under the notion of insignificancy and loss of heated and rarefied by the subterraneous fires, time, yet these, I believe, never caused re- may emit fumes, blasts, &c. which by their pentance in any, except it was for their re- action, either on the water or immediately on missness in the prosecution of them.
the earth itself, may occasion great succusPhilosophers do generally affirm, that hu- sions. man knowledge to be most excellent, which is 3. The air may be the cause of earthconversant amongst the most excellent things. I quakes: for the air being a collection of fumes What science then can there be, more noble, and vapours raised froin the earth and water; more excellent, more useful for men, more if it be pent up in too narrow viscera of the admirably high and demonstrative, than this earth, the subterraneous, or its own native of the mathematics.
heat, rarefying and expanding it, the force I shall conclude with what Plato says, lib. wherewith it endeavours to escape, may shake 7. of his Rebublic, with regard to the excel- the earth : hence there arise divers species lence and usefulness of geometry, being to of earthquakes, according to the different pothis purpose :
sition, quantity, &c. of the imprisoned aura. “ Dear Friend-You see then that mathe- ! Lastly, fire is a principal cause of earthmatics are necessary, because by the exact- quakes; both as it produces the aforesaid subness of the method, we get a habit of using terraneous aura or vapours; and as this aura, our minds to the best advantage: and it is re- or spirit, from the different matter and commarkable, that all men being capable by na- position whereof arise sulphur, bitumen, and ture to reason and understand the sciences; other inflammable matters, takes fire, either the less acute, by studying this, though use- from some other fire it meets withal, or from less to them in every other respect, will gain its collision against hard bodies, or its interthis advantage, that their minds will be im- mixture with other fluids; by which means, proved in reasoning aright; for no study ein- bursting out into a greater compass, the place ploys it more, nor makes it susceptible of at- becomes too narrow for it; so that pressing tention so much; and these who we find have against it on all sides, the adjoining parts are