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Leipsig. Half of the inhabitants of Milan; A History of the Eruptions of Mühlhausen, in Baden, including the Vesuvius in the Years 1821, 1822, Lord of the Manor, Baron Julius and 1823, at Naples; A Bibliotheca Von Gemmingen, and the Rev. Mr. Canoviana; or, a Collection of the best Henhöfer, the Catholic clergyman, Pieces in Verse and Prose on the Life left the Catholic for the Protestant and Works of Canova, vol. first, at church.

Venice. The German Baron, Von

Stackelberg, is preparing to publish at The first volume of a new trans- Rome two important works; the first lation of the Odyssey in Verse, by is the Temple of Apollo at Phigalia, the Abbé Eustachio Fiocchi, has (to which the celebrated frieze now been published at Padua; La Strage in the British Museum belonged,) degli Innocenti, (the Murder of the which he discovered in company with Innocents,) a poem, at Leghorn; A a party of artists and amateurs ; Topographical and Historical View with numerous plates. The second of the Islands of Ischia, Ponza, &c.; work is an Essay on the Greek Sevol. first, with plates, at Naples; A pulchral Monuments; the plates (76 History of Vicenza, by Silvestro Cas- in number, in imperial folio) are altellini, in 14 vols. 8vo. at Vicenza; A ready engraved. History of the Lake of Como, at

THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE. NATIVE COUNTRY OF THE POTATO. plants cultivated in England. The

Great doubts have existed with res- roots are small and bitter, some with pect to the natural habitat of the pota- red, others with yellowish skins, and to. It was first known in its cultivated do not appear to be put to any parstate in Virginia, from which place it ticular use. Two of the tubers sent was brought by Sir W. Raleigh; it is to England to Capt. Sabine were generally

supposed, however, that the planted separately in pots, and speediplants found there had been previ- ly vegetated, from which they were ously introduced from some of the afterwards transplanted into a borSpanish territories, in the more der, at about the distance of two southern parts of that quarter of the feet from each other. The blossoms globe. From Humboldt's observa- were at first sparingly produced, but tions it seems that it does not occur as the plants were earthed up they native in the south-western part of bore flowers abundantly, which howNorth America; nor is it known as ever were not succeeded by fruit. a garden plant in any of the West The flowers and leaves were in most India islands. According to Mollini, respects similar to those of the culit grows wild in great abundance in tivated potato. In August, runners the fields of Chili, in which state it from the roots and joints of the coveris called by the natives Maglia, pro- ed stems protruded in great abunducing small and bitter tubers; and dance from the surface of the ridge, Don Jose Pavon asserts that he has and formed considerable stems, bearseen it cultivated in Peru. Early in ing leaves and blossoms. When the spring of last year, Mr. Cald- taken from the ground, the principal cleugh, Secretary to the British Mi- stems measured more than seven nister at the Court of Rio de Janeiro, feet in length. They afforded above in his journey along the west coast six hundred tubers of various sizes, of South America, observed the po- the largest not exceeding that of a tato in its native state. According pigeon's egg, which when boiled had to him, it is found in considerable the flavour of a young potato. It quantity in ravines in the immediate was observed, that so late as the neighbourhood of Valparaiso, in lat. month of August there were no tu844 S. It begins to flower in Octo- bers formed, which was supposed to ber (the spring of that climate), and be owing to the mould employed is not very prolific, the leaves and having been much loaded with maflowers being similar to those of the nure, by which an excessive luxuri

MORTAR.

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ance of the stems was occasioned. is mixed, there is evidently an ad. The tubers obtained also are not vantage in multiplying as much as fully ripe, nor have they attained the possible the surfaces of contact. size which they probably might have Thus alloys, with large grains, do done, had they been formed earlier; not afford mortars so solid as the they will however answer perfectly pulverulent ones, because there are well for the purpose of reproduction, spaces filled with pure lime, which and they are in sufficient quantity to do not present the same resistance to be subjected to the same treatment fracture as the other parts. On the as that practised for raising a com- contrary, alloys in powder, though mon crop of potatoes, so that there they present the greatest surface, yet is every reason to expect that they require a very large proportion of will yield a similar produce.

lime. To obtain then, with the smallest

possible quantity of lime, mortars M. Berthier has lately given an possessing the greatest solidity, alanalysis of the Roman cement of loys must be used containing partiParker and Wyatt, of London. Ac- cles of different sizes, avoiding alcording to him it is composed of ways the mixture of argillaceous subCarbonate Lime. ... .657

stances, which form a paste with Magnesia.

water, but have no coherence. These Iron.

..070

opinions have been put to the test of Manganese.. -..019 experiment on a large scale, the sand Clay Silica...

. 180 usually employed at Paris affording Alumina.

.066 a better mortar when merely washed, Water...

than when the fine particles are re

moved by a sieve. 1.000

VOLCANO OF BARREN ISLANDS. Berthier thinks, that with one part This volcano was visited by Capof common plastic clay, and two and gain Webster in March Jast. When a half of chalk by weight, a very entering the bay they were assailed good hydraulic lime could be made, at the distance of 100 yards from the which would set as speedily as the shore, with puffs of warm wind, and English one; but it is not probable, on dipping their fingers into the he allows, that we can obtain by water it was found to be quite hot. mixtures hydraulic lime, which will The stones on shore were also warm, acquire as great hardness and solidi- and the water bubbling all round ty as the natural mortar, because these them. Having landed, he ascendqualities depend not only on the com- ed the precipice towards the cone, position, but also on the state of which appeared to be about a quarcompactness. The greater density ter of a mile distant. The diameter the material possesses, and if it slake of the base of the volcano is about without changing its volume, the 300 yards, and about 30 at the top, greater facility will its particles have and there issued from it continually in becoming aggregated, and the less a white thin smoke. In order to shrinking will there be during its examine the crater, Captain Webster consolidation. Berthier has drawn ascended 30 or 40 yards, sinking the following conclusions from a nu- ankle deep in ashes at each step, but merous set of experiments. A lime- he found it impossible to reach the stone which contains 6 per cent. of mouth. clay affords a lime already percepti- MATRIX OF THE BRAZILIAN DIAbly hydraulic. When the lime amounts to from 15 to 20 per cent. it In Mr. Heuland's collection there is very hydraulic, and when from is a Brazilian diamond imbedded in 25 to 30, it sets almost instantly, and brown iron ore. Another in the same may therefore be considered as Ro- matter is in the possession of M. man cement. He conceives that the Schuch, librarian to the Crown iron and manganese have no effect Princess of Portugal. Eschwege whatever in occasioning the harden- has in his cabinet a mass of brown ing.

iron ore, in which there is a diaIn a mortar, which owes its solidi- mond in a cavity of a green mineral, ty to the adhesion of the lime to the supposed to be arseniate of iron. alloys, or substances with which it from these facts he infers that the

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a

MOND.

matrix, or original repository of the Though thus broken, the barrier has diamond of Brazil, is brown iron ore again, by the accumulation of ice, which occurs in beds of blaty quartz- become almost as complete as before, ose micaceous iron ore, or in beds and has given rise to the apprehencomposed of iron glance and magnetic sion of the same dreadful conseiron ore named by him Itabirite. quences; it has been therefore an

ACTION OF FLOWERS ON AIR. important object to prevent a repe

Some interesting experiments have tition of them, by diminishing, or at been lately performed on this subject least putting a stop to the increase of by Saussure. The flowers even of the barrier. The method adopted aquatic vegetables do not develope by M. Venetz promises the greatest themselves in media deprived of success. He had observed that the oxygen gas; they require for their glacier could not support itself, where support a greater proportion of this the river is of a certain width, but than the other parts of the plant. fell into it and was soon dissolved. Some flowers, as roses, preserve their He formed and executed the design oorolla for a shorter time in air than of bringing the water of the streanis in vacuo, or in azote ; but when re

from the neighbouring mountains, moved, their petals exhale an offen- by a canal to Mauvoisin, opposite sive odour, so that though apparent- the highest part of the glacier, from ly in full vigour, they have actually whence it is conducted in two streams, undergone decay. When a flower is by wooden troughs, on to the glacier placed under a receiver full of air in a direction parallel to the valley, confined by mercury, the volume of and being warmed by the sun in its air is very little if at all altered. course, it soon cuts very deep chanOxygen is however absorbed, which nels in the ice. By varying the diis replaced by its own volume of rection of the current, different parts carbonic acid. Saussure has not are thus cut, so that the ice is conbeen able to detect any hydrogen in stantly falling into the river, where it the air in which the plants were con- is dissolved. When the weather is fined, nor does there seem to be any fine, these streams, which are about alteration in the volume of nitrogen. five inches in diameter, act with exThe following are a few of the results traordinary power, piercing a hole of his experiments with respect to 200 feet deep, and six feet broad, in the difference in the quantity of 24 hours. They are calculated to reoxygen consumed by the flowers and move 100,000 cubic feet of ice from by the leaves. The experiments the barrier daily, by which it is exwere performed in summer and pected that, should the weather conin the shade, and only when the tinue favourable, the whole will be flowers were fully developed. taken away in three years.

M. Oxygen Oxygen

Venetz estimates the quantity reFlowers. consumed consumed moved in the year 1822, between 11

by flowers. by leaves. and 12 millions of cubic feet. Single gilliflower...........11 .........4

THENARD'S BLUE. Passiflora serratifolia......18.5.........8-5 Thenard has given the following White lily ..........

formula for the preparation of this Carrot (umbels of)......... 8.8.........706 beautiful substance. Make a soluSingle tuberose............ 9 .........3 tion of nitrate of cobalt, by roasting

the cobalt ore, digesting it in diluted Our readers must remember that nitric acid, evaporating the solution in 1805 and some of the subsequent to dryness, and dissolving the resiyears, immense masses of ice having due in water. To this, phosphate fallen into the river Drause, in the of soda is added, and the powder valley of Bagne, they became conso- thrown down well washed with walidated by the cold, and thus proved ter, and, when still moist, intimately a barrier to the passage of the water, mixed with eight times its weight of by which a lake of great extent was alumina, prepared by the addition of förmed. Owing, however, to the ammonia to a solution of alum, the pressure of the accumulated fluid, alumina being used also before it iş the ice gave way and occasioned pro- dried. The mixture is then spread digious destruction, from the escape on thin plates, dried in a stove, and of the water into the lands beneath. when dry reduced to fine powder, Oct. 1823.

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BAGNE LAKE AND GLACIER.

which is afterwards exposed to a red crystals, not much triclined to each : heat in a covered crucible for half other; the second, which is more an hour.

coloured, with the blue rays outARTIFICIAL HALOES.

wards, is formed by a pair of faces The following experiment, describ- more inclined; and the third, which ed by Dr. Brewster, illustrates in a is large, and highly coloured, by. beautiful manner the actual forma- still more inclined faces. Each setion of haloes. Put a few drops of a parate crystal forms three images of saturated solution of alum on a plate the luminous object, placed at points of glass, and in a little time it will 120° distant from each other, in all crystallise in minute octohedrons. the haloes; and as the faces are When this is held between the obser- turned in every possible direction, ver and the sun, or a candle, with the the whole circumference is.completeeye close to the smooth side, three ly filled up. The same may be probeautiful haloes are observed, at dif- duced by other crystals, and the efferent distances from the luminous fects may be curiously varied by body. The innermost, which is the crystallising together salts of differwhitest, is produced by the images ent colours. refracted by a pair of faces of the

VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.

ALTHOUGH nothing actually deci- be scrupulously respected.” By the sive of the fate of Spain has occurred 4th article also it is further guaransince our last summary, still events teed, that“ the national militia, who are now in progress which promise a do not belong to Corunna, shall have speedy termination, at least of the passports for their homes, or other military affairs of the Peninsula, but places convenient for them, the nereally, its political settlement is likely cessary assistance being afforded to be left as distant as ever. The them; and in no manner shall they defection of Morillo has ended, we be molested or prosecuted for the are sorry to say, in the premature ca- opinions which they have manifested, pitulation of Corunna. The first di- nor for the political conduct which vision of the French army entered they have observed, either as indithe town on the 21st of August, viduals or as a national militia."* where they report themselves as find. These terms are certainly conciliaing 4,000 troops, a great quantity of tory, and not counteracted by any warlike stores and provisions in subsequent stipulation in the treaty, abundance, so that had it not been if we except the imposition of the for the unparalleled defection of the odious presence of the traitor Mochieftains, a protracted resistance rillo. might have been reasonably calcu- In our last, we mentioned the delated on.

Indeed this appears to parture of the Duke d’Angoulême have been the opinion of General from Madrid ; we have now to reBourcke himself, if we may infer late his arrival before Cadiz, and the any thing from the very favourable events consequent thereon. His first conditions attached to the surrender, step was the mission of a flag of Of course, the inhabitants have been truce to Ferdinand, proposing to required to acknowledge the Regency, make peace on certain terms with and to permit the occupation of the the Spanish nation. The answer was town by such French and Spanish no doubt drawn up by the Constitroops as the invaders may select; tutional ministry, but was written however, the very second article in by Ferdinand's own hand; it certhe treaty stipulates, “that no house- tainly, considering all things, is a holder or present inhabitant of Co- very curious autograph. The letter runna shall be molested or prose- is addressed to, Monseigneur le cuted for the opinions he may have Duc et mon Cousin,” and begins by held, or for the political conduct stating, that he is " free, and that if which he may have hitherto ob- he has suffered any curtailment of served. Persons and property shall his liberty, it has only occurred

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since an invading force entered his may therefore reasonably conchide dominions for the purpose of deliver- has been considerable. That the ing him from bondage. His Royal Spaniards fought bravely the French Highness, continues Ferdinand, la- themselves do not pretend to deny, ments the existence of disorders, as the following extract from their which he attributes to the work of dispatch will testify: “the Spaniards faction, and professes a desire to in vain kept up a vigorous fire of save the further effusion of blood. musketry upon our soldiers, who had His Royal Highness, his Majesty no other arms than their bayonets, the king of France, and the French the locks of their muskets and their government, who are alone the au- cartridges having been wetted in crossthors of the war, are alone reó ing the moat. Nothing could resist sponsible for the blood which has this first column; whoever attempted been already shed, and which may to oppose it was immediately put to yet be 'shed.” The writer goes the bayonet. Under these circumon substantially to state that if any stances, the Constitutionalists suscalamity should happen to himself or tained a severe loss in their best arthe royal family from the accidents tillerymen, all of whom were killed at of the threatened attack, or if the their guns." Though this proves that « faithful people of Cadiz,” so worthy the brave men who

defended the Troof his royal regards and interest, cadero deserved well of their country, suffer those disasters which are the still it cannot be denied that this usual concomitants of a protracted position is a most important acquisisiege, the King of France and his tion to the besiegers, and may much Royal Highness the Duke would facilitate the fall of Cadiz. The have to answer to the world and to French cannot conceal their delight, posterity for those calamities and dise and the Gascon dispatch which reasters! This letter is allowed univer- cords it is much more exulting than sally to be a genuine autograph of that which announced the victories Ferdinand; and as he has shown of Austerlitz or Jena. “ Those,” says himself obstinate enough in resisting the Etoile, a first-rate ultra paper, what he does not choose to perform, « who were present in Buonaparte's we must either suppose that he has wars, say they never found in any geat length awakened to the miseries neral the intrepidity they have observed he has brought upon his country, or in the Duke D'Angoulême!. This is is meditating some fresh master-touch well ; it is no doubt intended as of hypocrisy. The latter supposition compliment to old Moncey, who, of is indeed more in keeping than the course, will testify, after he captures, former, though so weathercock a Mina, what mere poltroons Ney and mind as his may be easily supposed Massena and Murat were, in comcapable of continual vacillation. After parison with the “ Son of France," the receipt of this letter, some ineffec- and worthy descendant of Henri tual attempts at negociation seem to Quatre! We suspect, however, that have been made; during the progress of “ those who were present in Buoof which the French were preparing naparte's wars," there were but few for an attack on the Trocadero, a concerned in the fall of the Trocastrong position, and one of the most dero. Prince Hilt was much too wise important outworks of Cadiz. In in his selection to suffer the compathis, we regret to say, they were rison-he is too generous to hurt quite successful. The attack, ac- the fame even of a dead enemy: eording to the French accounts, which After the capture of the Trocadero; alone we have received, was made a mutual tendency to negociate maon the 31st of August, and was, to nifested itself, both on the part of them, attended with the most bril- the besieged and the besiegers ; seliant results, giving them possession of veral flags of truce passed, but it the forts Matagorda and St. Louis, the was at last understood to be a sine command of the inner roads, and a qua non on the part of the French vast quantity of ammunition and ar- General, that previous to any treaty tillery. The loss of the Spaniards is the Spanish King and his family estimated at 500 killed and 1200 pri- should be set at liberty. The Duke soners; but the accounts are silent de Guiche was the bearer of a letter as to that of the French, which we to Ferdinand, which he personally

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