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[JOHN LILLY or Lyly, probably the earliest regular dramatist after Lord Buckhurst, was born in Kent about 1553. He became a student of Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1569 ; took his degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1573, and his Master's degree in 1575. According to Anthony á Wood, he appears not to have been a very hard student, “but always averse to the crabbed studies of logic and philosophy. There is extant among the Lansdowne manuscripts a letter, in very good Latin, dated 1574, written by Lilly to Lord Burghley, desiring his Lordship’s patronage and assistance ; with what result is not known. Burghley, however, seems afterwards to have conferred upon him some office connected with his own household. From two letters extant, written by Lilly to Queen Elizabeth, it is inferred that he was a candidate for the office of Master of the Revels, probably with no success. After leaving college, he appears to have spent most of his time in London, supporting himself by his pen. When he died is unknown, probably somewhere about the beginning of the seventeenth century. Mr. Fairholt, editor of Lilly's dramatic works, infers from certain allusions in a work of Nash's, that our author 'was a little man, was married, and fond of tobacco.' The works by which Lilly is now best known are his two prose works, entitled Euphues ; or, the Anatomy of Wit, and Euphues and his England, which gave rise to the term and the affected style of writing known as Euphuism. However tedious and trifling these works may appear to modern readers, there can be no doubt that Lilly's contemporaries admired and imitated them to an incredible extent. Euphuism became the rage, even Shakspeare being smitten by the fever. Blount, the editor of an edition of his plays published in 1632, says that beauty in court which could not parley Euphuisme, was as little regarded as she which now there speaks not French ;' and Anthony á Wood tells us that in these books of Euphues, 'tis said that our nation is indebted for a new English in them, which the flower of the youth thereof learned.' By most of his contemporaries he seems to have been held in great estimation. The chief characteristic of his style,' says Mr. Collier, besides its smoothness, is the employment of a species of fabulous or unnatural natural philosophy, in which the existence of certain animals, vegetables, and minerals with peculiar properties is presumed, in order to afford similes and illustrations.' As far as the dramatic style allows, Lilly's dramas are to a great extent disfigured by this painfully unnatural fine writing, although there is comparatively little of it in the work we have selected. Campaspe, or Alexander and Campaspe, as it is sometimes entitled, has some claim to be considered a historical play, in that the dramatis personæ are mostly historical characters. The incident on which the play is founded is mentioned by Pliny; and the plot, though slight, is, on the whole, well wrought out by the author. Although the scene is laid in Athens, in the time of Alexander the Great, the persons of the drama are, in character and manners, Englishmen of Lilly's own time. It is one of the best and most interesting of the author's plays, some of the characters, such as Diogenes and his servant Manes, being drawn with considerable force and distinctness; and the wit is sometimes clever, amusing, and original. Hazlitt says of it: “This play is a very pleasing transcript of old manners and sentiment. It is full of sweetness, and point, of Attic salt and the honey of Hymettus.' Although, when compared with many of his contemporaries, Lilly cannot be ranked very high as a dramatist, still he affords a not unpalatable foretaste of the rich feast of wit and wisdom which immediately followed. As we learn from the pro

logues and epilogues, this play was written in haste, for representation at court, after which it made its appearance at Blackfriars theatre.

Besides Campaspe, first printed in 1584, Lilly wrote the following dramas :- Sapho and Phao (1584); Endymion (1591); Galathea (1592); Midas (1592); Mother Bombie (1594); The Maid's Metamorphosis (1600); Love's Metamorphosis (1601). It is doubtful whether Lilly was the author of the last two.]




Imprinted at London for Thomas Cadman, 1584.

THE PROLOGUE AT THE BLACK delight, thinking it not amiss in the same garden FRIARS.

to sow pot-herbs that we set flowers. But we THEY that fear the stinging of wasps make fans hope, as harts that cast their horns, snakes their of peacocks' tails, whose spots are like eyes; and skins, eagles their bills, become more fresh for Lepidus, which could not sleep for the chattering any other labour; so our charge being shaken of birds, set up a beast, whose head was like a off, we shall be fit for greater matters. But lest, dragon; and we, which stand in awe of report, like the Myndians, we make our gates greater are compelled to set before our owl Pallas's than our towns, and that our play runs out at shield, thinking by her virtue to cover the the preface, we here conclude, wishing that other's deformity. It was a sign of famine to although there be in your precise judgments an Egypt when Nylus flowed less than twelve

universal mislike, yet we may enjoy by your cubits, or more than eighteen; and it may

wonted courtesies a general silence. threaten despair unto us, if we be less courteous than you look for, or more cumbersome. But as Theseus, being promised to be brought to an

THE PROLOGUE AT THE COURT. eagle's nest, and travelling all the day, found We are ashamed that our bird, which fluttereth but a wren in a hedge, yet said, This is a bird; by twilight, seeming a swan, should be proved so we hope, if the shower of our swelling moun a bat set against the sun. But as Jupiter placed tain seem to bring forth some elephant, perform Silenus's ass among the stars, and Alcibiades but a mouse, you will gently say, This is a covered his pictures, being owls and apes, with beast! Basil softly touched yieldeth a sweet a curtain embroidered with lions and eagles, so scent, but chafed in the hand, a rank savour. are we enforced upon a rough discourse to draw We fear, even so, that our labours, slily' glanced on a smooth excuse, resembling lapidaries, who on, will breed some content, but examined to the think to hide the crack in a stone by setting it proof, small commendation. The haste in per deep in gold. The gods supped once with poor forming shall be our excuse. There went two | Baucis, the Persian kings sometimes shaved nights to the begetting of Hercules. Feathers sticks: our hope your Highness will at this appear not on the Phoenix under seven months, time lend an ear to an idle pastime. Appion, and the mulberry is twelve in budding; but our raising Homer from hell, demanded only who travails are like the hare's, who at one time was his father; and we, calling Alexander from bringeth forth, nourisheth, and engendereth his grave, seek only who was his love. Whatagain; or like the brood of Trochilus, whose soever we present, we wish it may be thought - eggs in the same moment that they are laid be

the dancing of Agrippa his shadows, who, in the come birds. But howsoever we finish our work, moment they were seen, were of any shape one we crave pardon if we offend in matter, and would conceive; or Lynces, who having a quick patience if we transgress in manners. We have sight to discern, have a short memory to forget. mixed mirth with counsel, and discipline with With us it is like to fare as with these torches

which, giving light to others, consume them1 Sli'y glanced on--read superficially. 2 It was, as we have said, written in haste for per

selves; and we, showing delight to others, shamo formance at court.


Dramatis Persoux.
ALEXANDER, King of Macedon.

APELLES, a Painter.
HEPHESTION, his General.



Citizens of Athens.


Milo, Sons to Sylvius.

MELIPPUS, Chamberlain to Alexander.

GRANICHUS, Servant to Plato.

MANES, Servant to Diogenes.

PsyLLUS, Servant to Apelles.

Page to Alexander.
CRATES, Philosophers.

Citizens of Athens.


Theban Captives.


LAIS, a Courtezan.


Epaminondas' walked about the walls; and yet

might the Thebans have been merry in their CLYTUS, PARMENIO, TIMOCLEA, CAMPASPE, streets, if he had been to watch their towers. ALEXANDER, HEPHESTION.

But destiny is seldom foreseen, never prevented.

We are here now captives, whose necks are Clytus. Parmenio, I cannot tell whether I yoked by force, but whose hearts cannot yield should more commend in Alexander's victories by death. Come, Campaspe and the rest, let us courage or courtesy ; in the one being a resolu not be ashamed to cast our eyes on him, on tion without fear, in the other a liberality above whom we feared not to cast our darts. custom : Thebes is razed, the people not racked, Par. Madam, you need not doubt; it is Alextowers thrown down, bodies not thrust aside, a ander that is the conqueror. conquest without conflict, and a cruel war in a Timo. Alexander hath overcome, not conmild peace.

quered. Par. Clytus, it becometh the son of Philip to Par. To bring all under his subjection is to be none other than Alexander is ; therefore see conquer. ing in the father a full perfection, who could Timo. He cannot subdue that which is divine. have doubted in the son an excellency? For as

Par. Thebes was not. the moon can borrow nothing else of the sun Timo. Virtue is. but light; so of a sire, in whom nothing but Clytus. Alexander, as he tendreth virtue, so virtue was, what could the child receive but he will you; he drinketh not blood, but thirsteth singular ?' It is for turkies? to stain each other, after honour; he is greedy of victory, but never not for diamonds; in the one to be made a dif satisfied with mercy; in fight terrible, as beference in goodness, in the other no comparison. cometh a captain ; in conquest mild, as beseemeth

Clytus. You mistake me, Parmenio, if, whilst a king. In all things, than which nothing can I commend Alexander, you imagine I call Philip be greater, he is Alexander. into question; unless happily3 you conjecture Camp. Then, if it be such a thing to be Alex(which none of judgment will conceive) that, ander, I hope it shall be no miserable thing to because I like the fruit, therefore I heave at the be a virgin ; for if he save our honours, it is tree; or coveting to kiss the child, I therefore more than to restore our goods. And rather do go about to poison the teat.

I wish he preserve our fame than our lives; Par. Ay, but Clytus, I perceive you are born which, if he do, we will confess there can be no in the east, and never laugh but at the sun rising; | greater thing than to be Alexander. which argueth though a duty where you ought, Alex. Clytus, are these prisoners? of whence yet no great devotion where you might.

these spoils ? Clytus. We will make no controversy of that of Clytus. Likes your Majesty, they are prisoners, which there ought to be no question; only this and of Thebes. shall be the opinion of us both, that none was Alex. Of what calling or reputation ? worthy to be the father of Alexander but Philip, Clytus. I know not, but they seem to be ladies nor any meet to be the son of Philip but Alex of honour. ander.

Alex. I will know.-Madam, of whence you Par. Soft, Clytus, behold the spoils and pri are I know, but who, I cannot tell. soners !-a pleasant sight to us, because profit is Timo. Alexander, I am the sister of Theagines, joined with honour; not much painful to them, who fought a battle with thy father before the because their captivity is eased by mercy. city of Chieronte, where he died, I say, which

Timo. Fortune, thou didst never yet deceive none can gainsay, valiantly. virtue, because virtue never yet did trust fortune. Alex. Lady, there seem in your words sparks Sword and fire will never get spoil, where wis of your brother's deeds, but worser fortune in dom and fortitude bear sway. 0 Thebes, thy your life than his death. But fear not, for you walls were raised by the sweetness of the harp, shall live without violence, enemies, or necessity.S but razed by the shrillness of the trumpet. Alexander had never come so near the walls, had

1 One of the greatest Greeks. He raised Thebes to the supremacy of Greece, which she lost almost as

soon as he died, B.C. 362. 1 singular--what is singular, rare, or excellent. 2 tendreth-has a tender regard for, loveth. 2 Turquoises.

3 Like your Majesty-may it please your Majesty. & happiy-haply, perhaps; from hap-chance.

reputation-repute or rank. *5 want or poverty,


-But what are you, fair lady-another sister to Psyllus. And thou art named Manes, à ManenTheagines?

do, because thou runnest away. Camp. No sister to Theagines, but an humble Manes. Passing' reasons! I did not run away, handmaid to Alexander, born of a mean parent- but retire. age, but to extreme fortune.

Psyllus. To a prison, because thou wouldst have Alex. Well, ladies (for so your virtues show leisure to contemplate. you), whatsoever your births be, you shall be Manes. I will prove that my body was immorhonourably entreated. Athens shall be your tal, because it was in prison. Thebes, and you shall not be as abjects? of war, Gran. As how? but as subjects to Alexander. Parmenio, con Manes. Did your masters never teach you that duct these honourable ladies into the city, charge the soul is immortal ? the soldiers not so much as in words to offer Gran. Yes, them any offence, and let all wants be supplied Manes. And the body is the prison of the soul? so far forth as shall be necessary for such persons Gran. True. and my prisoners. [Exeunt Parmenio and cap Manes. Why then, thus to make my body imtives.] Hephestion, it resteth now that we have mortal, I put it in prison. as great care to govern in peace as conquer in Gran. Oh bad! war; that, whilst arms cease, arts may flourish, Psyllus. Excellent ill! and, joining letters with lances, we endeavour to Manes. You may see how dull a fasting wit be as good philosophers as soldiers, knowing it is; therefore, Psyllus, let us go to supper with no less praise to be wise than commendable to Granichus: Plato is the best fellow of all philobe valiant.

sophers. Give me him that reads in the morning Hep. Your Majesty therein showeth that you in the school, and at noon in the kitchen. have as great desire to rule as to subdue; and Psyllus. And me. needs must that commonwealth be fortunate Gran. Ah! sirs, my master is a king in his whose captain is a philosopher, and whose phi parlour for the body, and a god in his study for losopher à captain. *[Exeunt.]

the soul. Among all his nen, he commendeth one that is an excellent musician; then stand I

by, and clap another on the shoulder, and say, ACT I.-SCENE II.

this is a passing good cook.

Manes. It is well done, Granichus; for, give me MANES, GRANICHUS, PSYLLUS.

pleasure that goes in at the mouth, not the ear;

I had rather fill my guts than my brains. Manes. I serve instead of a master, a mouse, Psyllus. I serve Apelles, who feedeth me, as whose house is a tub, whose dinner is a crust, and Diogenes doth Manes; for at dinner, the one whose bed is a board.

preacheth abstinence, the other commendeth Psyllus. Then art thou in a state of life which counterfeiting? When I would eat meat, he philosophers commend. A crumb for thy supper, paints a spit; and when I thirst, “Oh,' saith' he, an hand for thy cup, and thy clothes for thy is not this a fair pot?' and points to a table which sheets. For natura paucis contenta.

contains the banquet of the gods, where are Gran. Manes, it is pity so proper a man should be many dishes to feed the eye, but not to fill the cast away upon a philosopher: but that Diogenes, gute that dog, should have Manes, that dog-bolt, it Gran. What doest thou then? grieveth nature and spiteth art: the one having Psyllus. This doth he then, bring in many found thee so dissolute, absolute, I would say, examples that some have lived by savours, and in body, the other so single, singular in mind. proveth that much easier it is to sat by colours,

Manes. Are you merry? It is a sign by the trip and tells of birds that have been fatted by painted of your tongue, and the toss of your head, that grapes in winter; and how many have so fed you have done that to-day which I have not done their eyes with their mistress's picture, that they these three days.

never desired to take food, being glutted with Psyllus. What's that?

the delight in their favours.3 Then doth he show Manes. Dined.

me counterfeits, such as have surfeited with their Gran. I think Diogenes keeps but cold cheer. filthy and loathsome vomits, and with the riotous

Manes. I would it were so, but he keepeth bacchanals of the god Bacchus, and his disorderly neither hot nor cold.

crew, which are painted all to the life in his shop. Gran. What then, lukewarm ? That made To conclude, I fare hardly, though I go richly, Hanes run from his master the last day.

which maketh me, when I should begin to shaPsyllus. Manes had reason; for his name fore- dow' a lady's face, to draw a lamb's head, and told as much.

sometime to set to the body of a maid a shoulder Manes. My name? how so, sir boy?

of mutton; for semper animus meus est in paPsyllus. You know that it is called Mons à tinis. Movendo,' because it stands still.

Manes. Thou art a god to me; for, could I see Manes. Good.

but a cook's shop painted, I would make mine

eyes fat as butter. For I have nought but senI entreated-treated.

? captives or slaves. tences to fill my maw: as, plures occidit crapula 3 It is a curious inconsistency that Diogenes, the cynic and despiser of luxury, should here be made to pletion killeth delicately; and an old saw of

quam gladius;* musa jejunantibus amica ;8 rekeep a servant in his tub.

1 Nature is content with a few things.'

5 dog-bolt-evidently a term of reproach, nearly syno Passing reasons-fine reasoning indeed. nymous with dog, only perhaps more contemptuous. 2 counterfeiting-painting. Butler uses it as an adj., in the sense of base.-NARES. 3 farours--graces; beauties. 6 Dodsley reads what here.

* Counterfeits-pictures or portraits. 7 Mountain from moving,' on the lucus a non lucendo 5 Shadorooutline. principle. Lilly here, in jest or earnest, makes Psyllus 6 ‘My mind is always among the stew-pans,' or 'my derive mons (mountain) from Lat. moreo, to move. belly is always crying cupboard.' –From Terence. Following out the principle, Psyllus tries to make a ;* Surfeit (or intemperance) slayeth more than tho wretched joke, and raise the laugh against Manes, by sword.' deriving his name from Lat. maneo, to remain.

8 The Muse is a friend to the fasting.'

abstinence by Socrates, The belly is the head's under a tub. But I must be gone, the philosograve. Thus with sayings, not with meat, he phers are coming. [Exit.] maketh a gallimafray.1

Plato. It is a difficult controversy, Aristotle, Gran. But how dost thou then live?

and rather to be wondered at than believed, how Manes. With fine jests, sweet air, and the dogs' natural causes should work supernatural effects. alms.

Aris. I do not so much stand upon the appariGran. Well, for this time I will stanch thy tion' is seen in the moon, neither the Demonium gut, and, among pots and platters, thou shalt see of Socrates, as that I cannot by natural reason wbat it is to serve Plato.

give any reason of the ebbing and flowing of the Psyllus. For joy of it, Granichus, let's sing. sea; which makes me, in the depth of my studies,

Manes. My voice is as clear in the evening as to cry out, 'O ens entium miserere mei.'? in the morning.

Plate. Cleanthes, and you attribute so much Gran. Another commodityof emptiness. to nature, by searching for things which are not

to be found, that, whilst you study a cause of Soxg.

your own, you omit the occasion itself. There Gran. O for a bowl of fat canary,

is no man so savage, in whom resteth not this Rich Palermo, sparkling sherry,

divine particle, that there is an omnipotent, Some nectar else, from Juno's dairy,

eternal, and divine mover, which may be called O these draughts would make us merry.

Psyllus. O for a wench (I deal in faces,

Cleant. I am of this mind, that that first mover,
And in other daintier things) ;

which you term God, is the instrument of all Tickled am I with her embraces,

the movings which we attribute to nature. The Fine dancing in such fairy rings.

earth, which is mass, swimmeth on the sea, Mfanes. O for a plump fat leg of mutton,

seasons divided in themselves, fruits growing in Veal, lamb, capon, pig, and coney ;'

themselves, the majesty of the sky, the whole None is happy but a glutton,

firmament of the world, and whatsoever else None an ass but who wants money.

appeareth miraculous, what man, almost of mean Chor. Wines (indeed) and girls are good,

capacity, but can prove it natural ? But brave victuals feast the blood;

Anax. These causes shall be debated at our For wenches, wine, and lusty cheer,

philosophers' feast, in which controversy I will Jove would leap down to surfeit here.

take part with Aristotle, that there is Natura naturans, 3 and yet not God.

Cra, And I with Plato, that there is Deus ACT I.-SCENE III.

optimus maximus, and not nature.


Alex. I see, Hephestion, that these philosophers CLEANTHES, 'ANAXARCHUS, ALEXANDER, HE

are here attending for us. PHESTION, PARMENIO, CLYTUS, DIOGENES.

Hep. They are not philosophers if they know

not their duties. Melip. I had never such ado to warn scholars

Alex. But I much marvel Diogenes should be to come before a king. First, I came to Crisippus,

so dogged. a tall, lean, old mad man, willing him presently

Hep. I do not think but his excuse will be to appear before Alexander. He stood staring better than Melippus' message. on my face, neither moving his eyes nor his

Alex. I will go see him, Hephestion, because I body. I urging him to give some answer, he long to see him that would command Alexander took up a book, sat down, and said nothing to come, to whom all the world is like to come. Melissa, his maid, told me it was his manner, and Aristotle and the rest, sithences my coming from that oftentimes she was fain to thrust meat into

Thebes to Athens, from a place of conquest to his mouth, for that he would rather starve than

a palace of quiet, I have resolved with myself in cease study. Well, thought I, seeing bookish men are so blockish, and great clerks such simple my court to have as many philosophers

as I had

in my camp soldiers. My court shall be a school, courtiers, I will neither be partaker of their wherein I will have used as great doctrine in commons nor their commendations. From thence I came to Plato and to Aristotle, and to divers peace as I did in war discipline.

Aris. We are all here ready to be commanded, other; none refusing to come, saving an old ob- and glad we are that we are commanded, for scure fellow, who, sitting in a tub turned towards

that nothing better becometh kings than literathe sun, read Greek to a young boy. Him, when

ture, which maketh them come as near to the I willed to appear before Alexander, he answered, gods in wisdom as they do in dignity. * If Alexander would fain see me, let him come to

Alex. It is so, Aristotle ; but yet there is me; if learn of me, let him come to me; whatsoever it be, let him come to me.' "Why,' said I, sought to destroy Alexander : Calistenes, Aris

among you, yea, and of your bringing up, that he is a king.' He answered, Why, I am a philo- totle, whose treasons against his prince shall not sopher.! Why, but he is Alexander.' 'Ay, but

be borne out with the reasons of his philosophy. I am Diogenes.' I was half angry to see one so Aris. If ever mischief entered into the heart crooked in his shape, to be so crabbed in his

of Calistenes, let Calistenes suffer for it; but sayings. So, going my way, I said, “Thou shalt

that Aristotle ever imagined any such thing of repent it, if thou comest not to Alexander.' 'Nay,' Calistenes, Aristotle doth deny. smiling, answered he, Alexander may repent it if he come not to Diogenes: virtue must be sought, not offered.' And so, turning himself to

1 Probably which should be inserted before is.

2.0 Being of beings, pity me.' his cell, he grunted I know not what, like a pig

3 Somewhat equivalent to the Force of certain modern philosophers.

4 God, the Best and Greatest.' 1 gallimafray-hash, or hodge-podge, a mixture of 5 sithence-since. many ingredients; used also metaphorically.

6 Callisthenes was a pupil and relation of Aristotle, ? commodity-advantage, or convenience.

and rendered himself so obnoxious to Alexander by his & coney--rabbit; pronounced here kun'e.

arrogance and independence, that he was accused of 1 spilling-desiring.

being privy to a plot to assassinate the king.

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