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Senate & Ho. of Reps.

35TH CONG.... 1st Sess.

Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office.

Upon the general system of sea-coast defense, l charge of them until the 20th day of October last, | mountain region, the chains of which, so far as it is hardly necessary to say a word at this day. | when they were brought to a close. I have ex- l yet known, have, generally, a direction north and The policy of the Government seems to be fixed amined this report very carefully, and conclude south. in that respect; and wisely, too, no doubt, if the that, from the data they adopted for their guide If we draw a line nearly coinciding with the works be prosecuted with a wise economy. For ll as to the prices of stores and subsistence, and meridian of 990 west longitáde, dividing the great tifications are now very justly esteemed the cheap time of service rendered by the men, it is not plain into two nearly equal parts, we shall find est and far the most effectual means of defense probable a more just or accurate result could be ihat portion east of this line differing entirely for every important commercial point: with the attained than these gentlemen have arrived at. from that west of it. The eastern part is fertile, heavy guns of the present day no fleet can match The amount ascertained to be due is a very large the western arid and sterile. The width of the a fortification; and, when completed, these works one, and Congress will have to make provision fertile district is from four to five hundred miles; can be kept in perfect repair at a very trifling cost for its payment if it is intended they shall be liqui of the sterile, from three to four hundred miles. until needed for actual service. A fortification dated, of which I presume there can now be no The surface of this uncultivable region, along the costing not much more than double the sum neces doubt.

routes generally traveled, is sandy, gravely, and sary to build and equip a first class line-of-battle


pebbly. It supports no trees, except a few wilship, will constitute a formidable defense for a

The appropriation for the purchase of the best

lows and cotton-woods along the streams, to harbor, and will continue to do so throughout any breech-loading rifle has been nearly all expended

which mezquite is added in the southern latitudes. length of time. The value of this mode of defense for arms of different construction-some for ex

The grass is sparse; numerous varieties of cacis becoming more apparent every day. As our periment in the field, thought to be far the best

tus are abundant. Portions of the river bottoms population increases, and the facilities for intercommunication are multiplied, a military force of

(where the soils of the different strata become test, and some have been purchased for use in the

mixed, and where water can be had for irrigation) any extent can, with more and more readiness,

Army, having been already approved by trials in
the hands of troops in actual service.

are, to a limited extent, cultivable. The minor be concentrated at any given point in the shortest

I think there existed no arm of the sort at the

streams frequently disappear in the sands. possible time. Fortifications, which will naturally retard the landing of a foreign foe, must give

On the western border of the plain the mounttime the appropriation was made which has not

ains rise abruptly from it. The routes explored time to concentrate a force at any given point been materially improved since; and much of

by the Pacific railroad parties entered the mountthis improvement has taken place since the trial cqual to any emergency. A larger force could be made of this sort of arm last summer, at West

ain region through the lowest known passes, thrown into New York in two weeks, by means

whose altitudes vary from four to ten thousand of internal communication, than could be brought Point, under the direction of a board of officers

feet above the sea. appointed for the purpose. The variety of breechthere from abroad in a year by all the means

The mountain ridges and

peaks rise above these passes from one to six which any European Power could possibly comloading arms is extremely great, and the ingenu- ||

thousand feet. Nearly the entire distance to the ity exhibited in constructing them highly creditmånd. Our .ramified system of railroads, spreading able. Some of these arms are best for one sort

Pacific is occupied by mountains separated by

desert plains or basing. of service, whilst others answer best for another, throughout the whole country-those sinews of

The two great chains

forming the east and west border of the mountain and the purchases made have been determined iron which bind with indissoluble ties the commercial interests of our community-confer upon with a view to this object. Improvements are

region have the greatest elevation, inclosing, as the nation a capability for defense which obviates still going on in the construction of this particu

it were, the others.

Great aridity and sterility characterize the forever the necessity of standing armies, or of a

lar arm, and, with some further encouragement,
valuable results will no doubt be attained.

mountain region, except the Pacific slopes of its navy more numerous than is necesssary to give

Some of these arms combine, in a very high

western border, and generally the aspeci is dreary protection to our ships in the prosecution of our degree, celerity and accuracy of fire, with great

and desolate in the extreme. extended commerce. force, at long range.

To be sure, at the foot of the western slopes PENSIONS.

of the highest mountain chains and spurs, fertile The attention of Congress has been frequently


soil and the means of irrigation are often found. called to the glaring discrepancy between the en The clear and complete reports from this || And there are small mountain valleys that are actments regulating the pensions of soldiers and bureau will fully apprise you of its labors during Il cultivable, and also river bottoms; but the plains those of sailors. There is an invidious distinc the past year, and its present condition.

may be called barren, and, with rare exceptions, tion between these two arms of service which rests

the soil can only be cultivated when the means upon no principle of reason or justice. It would,

AQUEDUCT, CAPITOL, AND POST OFFICE EXTEN of irrigation are at hand. Occasionally belts of beyond doubt, conduce to the interest of the Army,


forest are found among the mountains, but the and the public service, too, if pensions in the These works are still under the direction of instances are exceptional. Army were put upon the same footing precisely the officer heretofore in charge of them, and his The great uncultivated belt, including plain with those of the Navy. The recommendation report will show the progress made in their pros and mountain region, through which all routes of the General-in-Chief I commend to your favor

ecution, as well as his estimates for money to to the Pacific must pass, has a width near our able notice and to that of Congress. carry on the work in the future.

northern boundary of eleven hundred miles; in MILITARY BANDS. QUARTERMASTER GENERAL'S BUREAU.

latitude 38°, of twelve hundred miles; and near The importance of regimental bands to the ser

the southern boundary, of one thousand miles.

The operations of this department for the past | The length of the roads through the belt is of vice admits of no doubt in the estimation of military men.' In European armies great attention year will fully appear from the Quartermaster

course greater. is paid to the subject, and great excellence exists General's report, herewith transmitted.

Over nearly this whole region, and over disin this department. Heretofore, in our service,

The sums expended in this branch of the public tances quite as great as these, the quartermaster's the bands have been supported by contributions

service are extremely large, but the duties per department is called upon to furnish transportafrom the men in the shape of savings from the

formed are very great, and the necessities for the tion and supplies for our troops, who are keeping

payment of immense sums of money in this deration. Under the new regulations of the Army,

up a continual patrol of that vast territory, and this fund, which is certainly the property of the

partment seem unavoidable. This vast expend a great portion of the time engaged in warfare soldier, has been returned to him in the shape of

iture will cease to be a matter of surprise to any with the numerous and hardy savages who range more palatable addition to his subsistence, par

one who, with proper information, reflects fully perpetually over those boundless wilds. Heavy ticularly when complaining from indisposition.

upon the extent and character of the country over expenditures cannot be avoided in the quarterThe bands will be broken up, unless some means

which our military operations are conducted. master's department as long as we keep up a milare set apart for their maintenance. This can

We are not apt to carry along, as an element itary organization in the West. readily be done by appropriating a sufficient sum

of reflection in drawing a contrast between the I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your for the purpose out of the fines and forfeitures of

present and former expenditures, the enormous obedient servant, the Army. This fund could not be devoted to a increase of distances to be traversed, and the dif

JOHN B. FLOYD, more desirable object. ficulties which multiply themselves from trans

Secretary of IVar. portation over a wild, barren, sterile, uninhabited OREGON AND WASHINGTON CLAIMS.

To the PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED States. waste. By a law passed the 18th day of August, 1856, Our territory lying between the Mississippi a commission was directed to be appointed for the river and the Pacific ocean is about twelve hun. | Report of the Commissioner of the General purpose of ascertaining the sum of money fairly dred miles in length from north to south; its

Land Office. due to the volunteers of Oregon and Washington breadth from east to west, in latitude 490, is fifTerritories for their services in the Indian wars teen hundred miles; in latitude 38°, eighteen hunwhich threatened to lay waste those Territories. dred miles; and in latitude 320, fifteen hundred

GENERAL LAND OFFICE, In compliance with this law, Captain Smith, of the miles; the area being about two million square

November 30, 1857. first dragoons, Captain Rufus Ingalls, of the quar miles.

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following termaster's department, and Lafayette Grover, The meridian of 1050 west longitude divides report of the operations of this office for the fiscal Esq., of Salem, Oregon, were appointed to exam this territory into two nearly equal parts. The year ending June 30, 1857, and for the quarter ine the accounts and claims, and to make a report eastern half is a great plain rising gradually from ending September 30, 1857. in conformity with the law and upon the facts as the Mississippi river to the foot of the mountains The quantity of land surveyed and ready for they existed, so far, at least, as it was possible to || along the meridian of 1050, where its elevation, || market, and not advertised, on the 30th of Sepascertain them.

near the northern boundary, is two thousand five || tember, 1857, exclusive of lands withdrawn on These officers entered upon their duties on the | hundred feet; in the middle latitude, six thousand account of railroad grants, embraces an area of 10th day of October, 1856, and seem to have la- || feet; and near the southern boundary, four thou- | 57,442,876 acres. Or this quantity, there was bored with great assiduity and patience in dis- li sand feet above the sea. The western half is a ll surveyed and returned to this office during the five

35TH CONG.... 1 st Sess.

Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office,



quarters ending September 30, 1857, 22,889,461|| The particulars are presented in the following l grants, during the fiscal year ending June 30, acres. U tabular exhibit:

1857, and the quarter ending September 30, 1857: Exhibit of the quantities of Public Lands, exclusive of school lands, prepared for market and not advertised

for sale, on June 30, 1857; the quantity advertised for sale during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1857; also, the quantities prepared for market during the quarter ending September 30, 1857; the quantities advertised for sale during the same period; and the quantities of unoffered surveyed Public Land on hand September 30, 1857; and an estimate of the probable quantities which will be prepared during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1858.

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Acres. Acr


Acres. Acres.

Number of acres Mlinois

sold at graduaMissouri ... 443,591


ted prices.


90,530 Mississippi.. Louisiana.. 2,555,132 17,047


2,572,179 150,000 Michigan ...




Amount received Florida .... 3,329,195 70,225

3,399,420 1,000,000

for the same. Iowa ..... 4,584,531 749 118 1,328,156 4,005,493 85,780

4,091,273 830,000 Wisconsin 2,880,279 1,085,432

3,965,711 175,388

4,141,099 874,000 California..... 10,365,561 10,690,046


2,235,624 18,819,983 2,500,000 Minnesota Territory 7,690,116 1,513,148

9,203,264 300,346

9,503,610 1,452,000
2,713,233 506,152

3,219,385 21,828
3,241,213 1,738,000

Number of acres Washington 678,477 122 270

800,747 17,954
818,701 600,000

located with milKansas 1,510,214 2,253,636

3,763,850 1,107,322
4,871,172 2,574,000

itary warrants. Nebraska 168,899 1,723,402 1,892,301 1562,671

2,454,972 3,520,000 Utah 208,049 1,779,531 1,987,580

1,987,580 New Mexico

'107,928 100,000

Number of acres

approved under 38,560,786 20,618,172 1,328,156 57,850,802 2,271,289 2,679,215 57,442,876 15,438,000

Swamp Tand

grant. This statement shows an activity in our sur- | Congress, and also to the sale of large quantities veying operations, during the time mentioned in | of land at the reduced prices fixed by the graduathis report, beyond that of any preceding period; tion act of 4th August, 1854, and to the fact that

Total amount re

ceived for lands and that the quantity of new lands now liable to the demand for new lands has been, in part, satis

sold for cash at be disposed of exceeds, by many million acres, fied by the States having lands for disposal under

all prices. the surveyed lands of any former period.

the swamp, internal improvement, and other During the fiscal year ending 30th June, 1857, there were grants. sold for eash...................... 4,142,744.48 acres. The following table exhibits at one view the

Total number of Located with military bounty land

quantity of public land sold at and above the orwarrants..... 6,283,920.00 «

acres sold for dinary minimum, and at the graduated prices, the

cash and other10,426,664.48 amounts received thereon, the quantity located

wise disposed of Reported under swamp land grant...

with military warrants, and selected under swamp Estimated quantity covered by railroad grants of March, 1857......... 5,116,000.00 Condition of the Bounty Land business, under acts of 1847, 1850, 1852 ,and 1855, on 30th September, 1857. Making an aggregate of .......... 18,505,073.44 "

ACT OF 1847.
For the quarter ending 30th Septem-

Grade of warrant.

Acres embraced Number Acres embraced Number ber, 1857, there were

Acres embraced

issued. thereby. located. thereby. outstanding. sold for cash.......... 1,157,805.83

thereby Located with military bounty land warrants, 1,097,090.00

160 acre....
80,181 12,828,960 73,966 11.834,560 6,215

994,400 Reported under swamp

40 acre....

301,360 6,033
241,320 1,501

60,040 land grants........... 400,067.00


87,715 13,130,320 79,999 12,075,880 7,716 1,054,440 Being for the quarter ............ 2,654,962.83 €

ACT OF 1850. Making an aggregate for the five quarters ending September 30, 1857, of.. 21,160,036.27 1

160 acre...

4,384,320 25,822 4,131,520

1,580 1

252,800 80 acre...

4,614,720 50,626



564,640 40 acre...... 103,908 4,156,320 87,878 3,515,120 16,030

641,200 It is estimated that three fourths of the sold and located lands were taken for actual settlement.


188,994 13,155,360 164,326 11,696,720 24,668 | 1,458,640 The estimated quantities covered by railroad

ACT OF 1852.
grants, by the acts of May, June and August,
1856, and other internal improvements, as stated 160 acre...




50,400 in last annual report, amount to 15,680,875 acres. 80 acre...



28,080 40 acre.....

362,480 7,368
294,720 1,694


Total. For the fiscal year ending 30th June, 1857, the receipts

11,979 693,520 9,619 547,280 2,360 146,240 from the sales of the public lands amount 10, $3,471,522 99 The receipts for the quarter ending Septem

ACT OF 1855. ber 30, 1857, amount to .................... 754,385 19

160 acre.........

73,078 11,692,480 32,430 5,188,800 40,648 6,503,680 Making a total, for the five quarters, of..$4,225,908 18

120 acre..
93,447 11,213,640


6,820,320 36,611 4,393,320 100 acre....


200 80 acre.

47,076 3,766,080 28,019 2,241,520 19,057 1,524,560 Upon comparison of the foregoing with the

60 acre...


10,560 40 acre... statistics of the last annual report, it is found


8,520 10 acre...


30 that the lands sold and located, during the five quarters ending September 30, 1857, fall short of

Total............... 214,394 26,710,670 117,685 14,269,810 | 96,709 12,440,860 the quantity sold and located during the period embraced in the last report by more than six

SUMMARY million acres, and that the cash receipts have

Act of 1847..
87,715 13,130,320 79,999 12,075,880


1,054,440 fallen off in a still larger proportion. This dim

Act of 1850..

188,994 13,155,360 164,326 11,696,720 24,568 1,458,640 inution is attributable to the withdrawal of the Act of 1852....


146,240 extensive bodies of public lands along the lines Act of 1855...

214,394 26,710,670 0

1 117,685 14,269,810 96,709 12,440,860 of the railroads, in the States and Territory to


503,082 1 53,689,870 371,629 38,589,690 131,453 15,100,180 which grants of land were made during the last ll _

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3d quarter

Year ending

June 30th,

Total since date of grants.





During the year ending September 30, 1857, scrip has been recommended that the time be extended to enable 1 Prior to the passage of the act of 3d March, issued upon Virginia military warrants, pursuant to the

parties to perfect their entries by survey, and ob- 1857, the adjustment of the swamp grant was act of August 31, 1852, amounting to.......52,476 acres.

iain patenis. Also that authority of law be given I greatly retarded by applications filed on the part During the same time warrants have been filed

for perfecting certain Virginia military records as of individuals, to contest the right of the State .30,479

mentioned in last report; and further legislation Il to the lands selected. That act, by confirming Upon which scrip has issued for...

...18,500 6

is desired, extending the act of 8th February, 1854, || the selections with exceptions, put an end to the Leaving suspended ......................11,979 “

for the issue and location of warrants for services | individual contests, and the adjustment is now

in the war of 1812, and for United States revolu rapidly progressing. The character and extent In addition to the quantity mentioned above as tionary or continental services,

of the contests then pending appear in the last suspended, warrants amounting to 112,000 acres The time limited by act of 7th January, 1853, annual report. are on file, which are also suspended for defects for exchanging bounty lands for services in the The recommendation of the last report is re- . in the chain of title, and other causes.

war of 1812, where found unfit for cultivation, newed, that a limit be fixed to the time within The recommendation of the last annual report, expires 30th June, 1858. An extension of time which swamp sclections must be made. in reference to the mode of disposal of the vacant is recommended, and an enlargement of the stat During and since the year 1850, grants of land lands in the Virginia military district, in Ohio, ute, to embrace the heirs of the deceased soldier. have been made to ten States and one Territory, is renewed.

Under the acts of 1849 and 1850, granting the to aid them in the construction of fifty railroads, During the year ending September 30, 1857, swamp and overflowed lands to the States within of an extent (part estimated) of 8,647 miles, seventeen patents have been issued for lands in which they lie, there have been selected and re amounting (part estimated) to 24,247,335 acres. that district, embracing 2,144 acres; and twenty turned to this office 54,174,281.76 acres; of which The grants to the States of I!linois, Missouri, and eight patents have been issued on warrants for there have been approved 40,133,564.51 acres, Arkansas, for eight roads, have been adjusted. services of soldiers of the war of 1812, pursuant and patented to the States 24,060,396.07 acres. The grantees have accepted the grants of 1856 to the act of May 6, 1812, for 4,480 acres. Scrip The selections reported during the year ending and 1857, except the States of Alabama and Loufor 200 acres, pursuant to the act of May 30, 1830, June 30, 1857, amount to 2,962,408.96 acres. The isiana. The Legislature of Alabama has not been has been issued in satisfaction of United States quantity approved during the same period amounts in session since the date of her grant. The State military warrants issued under act of September to 1,141,090 acres, and the quantity patented, of

of Louisiana has accepted the grant made to her 16, 1776.

old selections, during the same period, amounts in part; the residue is rejected. The attention of - The time limited by the act of 30 March, 1855, l1 to 11,186,147.53 acres.

this office has been given to the adjustment of for the survey of entries, in the Virginia mititary / The particulars are presented in the following these grants, so far as the prerequisites have been * district, expired on the 3d March, 1857. It is ll tables:

furnished by the authorities of the grantees. The No. 1-Swamp LAND.-Exhibiting the quantity of Land selected for the several States under the acts of

adjustment of these railroad grants involves an Congress approved March 2, 1849, and September 28, 1850, up to and ending 30th September, 1857.

amount of official labor at least equal to the sale of
that quantity of land, the surface to be operated

on being a sirip of thirty miles broad, along the
4th quarter, Ist quarter,
2d quarter,

route of each road, within which previous sales,


locations, and preëmptions, have to be carefully

examined and adjudicated under new rules peculiar 21,999.99

54.438.14 to these grants, with a view to equal justice to the Indiana.....


19,532.68 1,334,732.30

grantees, the settlers, and purchasers. Winois .....


40.00 3,233.273.48 Missouri..... 77,011.39 492,527.64 121,044.78 119,893.85 *711,335.73 4,184.682.79

The mode of proceeding in this branch of busiAlabama.....

2.595.51 ness is as follows : The lands falling withir the Mississippi ......

6,587.79 43,613.29 30,015.99 2,293.00 80,217.07 2,836,383.76 probable limits of the railroad grant are, upon Iowa ......


12,791.14 639,789.35 1,752.296 29 Louisiana, act of 1849.... 21,510.74

application, withdrawn from sale or location ;
107,332.64 94,329.31 87,329.24 314,376.95 10,473,258.49
* 1850...
1,387.63 815.63 15,739.19 523,678.72

the act of Congress is communicated to the Gov

7,273,724.72 ernor of the Surte; plats of the road are called f193,919.29 28,662.47

1154,790.79 341,843.80 for; and the general practice has been for the Florida..............

153.35 839,534.1911,630,424.86 Wisconsin...

Statc to accept the grant, and transfer the same

2,350,000.00 California....

to incorporated railroad companies. Then the

maps of the road, duly certified by the Governor 299,029.21 1,316,822.06 246,817.71 400,067.01 2,062,408.96 54,174,281.76 | under seal, and by the company, are returned to

this office, generally on a scale of an inch to a * Lists received since 3d March, 1857, embracing 258,715.92 acres of this amount, returned to surveyor general for mile, indicating the connections with the sectional examination. | Previously reported in surveyor general's lists “ C," and einbraced in former aggregates.

lines of the surveys; showing, also, the exact

dates of the survey, and staking off the road on No. 2-Swamp LAND.—Exhibiting the quantity of Land approved to the several Slates under the acts of the ground; because, from these dates, which must Congress approved March 2, 1849, and September 28, 1850.

be established by the affidavit of the engineer of

the road, the title to the State has legal inception,

Year ending
4th quarter,

Ist quarter,
2d quarter,

according to the late Attorney General's opinion.
3d quarter,

Total since

If there is a material deflection in the route of

the road, an explanation is required; and unless Ohjo......


it satisfactorily appears that the line taken is the Indiana.....


1,230,937.51 most practicable route between the termini, it is Illinois


1,863.22 115,403.32 1,369.140.72 rejected. If the route does not deflect too much Missouri... 373,316.50 231,498.38

604,814.89 3,613.966.57

between the termini, the map is accepted as the Alabama...........

2.595.51 Mississippi.......... 99,273.39 369.92 129,563.94 99,643.31

basis of adjustment. The line of the road is then 2,834,796.11

laid down upon our official township plats, with Louisiana, Act of 1849....

7,379,994.23 the six and fifteen-mile limits of the grant. Then 6 1850.


proper diagrams are prepared for office use in the Michigan ...

5,465.232.41 Arkansas ...


adjudication of preemptions sales, bounty-land Florida ......


494,143.02 321,229.30 / 10,396,982.47 locations, swamp selections. Wisconsin...

1,650,712.10 These diversified interests falling within the railCalifornia.....

road belt are required to be cxamined, and their

validity or invalidity tested in connection with 99,273.39 694,915.72 346,901.70 648,002.07 | 1,141,090.81 40,133,564.51

the Siate title under ihe State grant. The ledgers,

or tract books, where all these interests are reNo. 3-SWAMP LAND.-Exhibiting the quanlity of Land patented to the several States under the act of quired to appear, must be posted up to date, and Congress approved September 28, 1850.

then we begin the preparation of the lists descrip

tive of the lands which inure to, and are to be cer

Year ending 4th quarter, 1st quarter, 2d quarter, 3d quarter,

Total since

tified to, the State-the indemnity sclections be-



ing, under the decision of this office, limited to the

State to which the railroad grant is made. When

25,640.71 Ohio.....

the granted lands for railroad purposes are ascer

191,130.54 Indiana.

1,211,042.91 tained and reported, then the residue remaining

601,111.08 6011111.08

to the Government are to be brought into market; Missouri ..

98,112.77 *406,953,41

1,622,059.60 1,915,021.86

| and this it is the purpose of the Department to Mississippi..

133.517.10 199,125.73

837.966.96 4,985.588.47

effect with all practicable speed.

1,000,767.77 2.368,370.59 Arkansas.....

The particulars touching these grants are more Florida 1,780,539.33

764,534.94 6,054,193.83 / 9,583,107.13

fully presented in the following table:* Wisconsin..... 726,780,01 +34,910,75 878,897.75 1,674,585.29

The following is an exhibit of the grants of

lands for railroads by Congress, from the year 2,858,163.48 449,356.24 2,073, 120.96 799,445.69 11,186,147.53 24,060,396.07

1850, showing the States to which the grants * Two hundred and forty acres of this amount relinquished by State. Special patent No. 1, issued under second section of act of March 2, 1855.

*See table at the foot of next column.


June 30th, date of grants.


June 30th, date of grants.




35TH CONG....1st Sess.

Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office.


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were made, dates of laws, miles of road, quan The question as to the extent of this grant, under owing to the limited time within which operatity granted, if vacant within fifteen miles, and the decision of your predecessor, has been fully tions have been prosecuted from 230 May last, quantity inuring under each grant; the quanti considered in the Attorney General's opinion of when the opening of the office of surveyor genties of those made by acts of 1856 and 1857, not 29th May, 1856, (Opinions, vol. 7, p. 63;) and the eral took place, no returns of surveys have yet yel adjusted, being estimated:

conclusion at which he arrived, as sanctioned by been received at this office from this new surveyThe acts of 8th August, 1846, 24 March, 1849, 3d August, your immediate predecessor, is to this effect: ing district. 2854, and joint resolution of 30 March, 1855, granted lands That a proposition be made to the State of Wisconsin and Iowa.--The summary of field to the State of Wisconsin, for the improvement of the Fox

Iowa and its assigns, to acquiesce in and accept and Wisconsin rivers, under which the State became en.

work presented by the surveyor general for the utled to....... ............684,269.00 acres.

the decision of Secretary Stuart as final, which surveying district of Wisconsin and Iowa, of which Of which there have been actually certi

gives to the State the lands along the course of the the Territory of Minnesota formed a part prior fied and approved......................589,387.84

Des Moines up to the northern boundary of the to the act of 3d March, 1857, has been very satLeaving a balance to be adjusted of.. 94,881.16 «

State; provided the State, or its assigns, agree to isfactory, embracing the establishment of guide On account of this balance there have been

acquiesce in and accept that decision as final. meridians and standard parallels, township and selected, first ...........60,832.00 acres

The Attorney General further holds, that if the subdivision lines, to the extent of seven thousand which are rejected as being

Slate declines the propositions, the Secretary is upon unoffered lands and

and twenty miles. Such portion of the archives within the limits of the ori

discharged from any obligation to act on the de of this district appertaining to the Minnesota surginal reserve for this grant.

cision of Mr. Walker and Mr. Stuart, and must veys have been duly turned over to the surveyor Second, selections on our

fall back on the first decision of the Government, general at St. Paul. files, made at Meyasha,

and refuse to approve any more selections above in May and December,

Arkansas. The resurveys ordered in this State 1856, of................ 14,299.60 «

Raccoon Fork. No final action on the part of the are now nearly completed, and the surveyor gen75,131.60 € State authorities in the matter has yet been filed eral is engaged in preparing the land records, in this office.

with a view to the transfer of them to the State Leaving a balance of................ 19,749.56 " The lands above the Raccoon Fork are inter- | authorities upon the closing of this office, which to be approved, exclusive of the illegal 60,832- | sected by three of the railroad grants under may take place during the fiscal year ending June acre selection, mentioned under the first head. of 15th May, 1856.

30, 1859, should no further resurveys be found A proposition was made in September last, in


indispensable. behalf of the State, to select other lands in lieu Michigan. The original surveys of the islands Louisiana.--The surveying operations of this of the aforesaid 60,832-acre selection. The pro in the western part of the lower peninsula have State are nearly complete. The work now consists posal was favorably considered, and the purpose been made-four thousand and ninety-five miles principally of resurveys, of surveys of private entertained to recommend the introduction into of resurveys have been reported during the past claims, and of lands which have been supposed to market, by the President's proclamation, of the year; and, in obedience to the act of March 3, be overflowed, but now found to be agricultural. rejected selections.

1857, the office at Detroit has been transferred to Florida.-In consequence of the Indian hostilOn the 16th October, the party appearing for the St. Paul, Minnesota, and the greater portion of ities, no surveys have been carried on. Should State filed a communication, withdrawing his pre the archives relating to the public surveys in the Indians be removed to the West, the suspendvious proposal, on the ground of want of author Michigan have been handed over to the author ed contracts could be completed by the expiration ily, and asking a suspension of action

ities of that State; the remainder, not being in a of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1859. It is now recommended that the rejected selec condition for transfer, were removed to the sur New Mexico.--The surveys have been executed tions be held in suspense until after ihe close of veyor general's office at St. Paul, and are now to a very limited extent, owing to the Indian hosthe next session, to afford time to Congress to in course of preparation for delivery to the Mich ulities, and have been confined chiefly to the legislate in the premises, with the understanding igan authorities.

region known as the “Valles” lying northwest that if no further act of legislation is had before Illinois.--The archives of the surveyor gen of Santa Fé, and west of the Rio Grande. the expiration of that time, the rejected selections eral's office are now ready for transfer to the No surveys have been made of "private land be introduced into market.

State authorities. This, as the Governor has claims" in New Mexico, none having been yet DES MOINES RIVER GRANT IN 10WA.

advised, will be done as soon as suitable provis confirmed by Congress. The surveyor general Under act of Congress approved 8th of August,

ion is made by the Legislature of that Siate for recommends that a board of commissioners be 1846, the account under this law stands as fol

their reception, in conformity with the act of appointed for the adjudication of titles, and that lows: Congress approved January 22, 1853.

the period be limited for the presentation of claims. Quantity approved by the State as per exhibit in last annual

Missouri, The field work has been confined A summary, prompt, and final adjudication of ........725,283.92 acres. chiefly to the overflowed lands in the southeastern Spanish and Mexican claims in the Territory is To this add list approved March 10, 1832...143,908.37 € part of the State, pursuant to an arrangement by of great importance; not only to settle titles, but Making total approved for the grant of ....869,192.29

which the United States are to pay for the survey «

enable the Department to separate private property of such portions of these lands as may be arable from the public lands, so that the latter may be

and fit for agricultural purposes; and the counties disposed of without danger of conflict. Table referred to in the preceding column.

representing the swamp grant to the State are to Forty-eight“ donationclaims, under the pro-
pay for the survey of such of the lands as may. visions of the act of 220 July, 1854, have been
fall within the swamp grant. Under this arrange filed in the surveyor general's office since his last
ment 46,000 acres have been returned during the annual repori, eleven of which are recommended
past year, all of which proved to be swamp land, for recognition, the period of four years'settlement
and the expense of the survey of the same has having expired.
been paid by the counties in which the lands are Twenty-six “private land claims" have been

filed since his last annual report, making fifty-
The surveying operations in this State are so seven since the opening of his office at Santa Fé,
nearly completed, that it is anticipated the archives New Mexico, of which sixteen are recommended
will be in readiness for transfer, and the office of by the surveyor general.
the surveyor general closed by the end of ihe The extensive discoveries of the precious metals
year 1859.

in New Mexico suggests the propriety, in legis.
Wisconsin. - Surveys have progressed with | lating for the disposal of the public lands in that
great rapidity; three hundred' and sixty-eight || Territory, of excluding what may be found to be
miles of township lines, and four thousand iwo strictly mineral lands from general sales or loca.
hundred and thirty-nine miles of subdivisions and tions.
meanders, have been reported, embracing the dif- }} Kansas --The surveys have been prosecuted

ficult surveys of the Apostle Islands, in Lake Su-| with energy, returns having been made to the
perior, the correction of the fourih correction extent of seventeen thousand miles...

Nebraska._Owing to the late period at which
parallel, east of the fourth principal meridian to ll
the Michigan State line, thus affording the basis l the sixth principal meridian was established, the

extent of ihe surveys are not so great as was ex-
for all the surveys north of it. All surveys south
of the third correction parallel, except two town-l pected; yet seven thousand miles of field-work
ships, have been completed.

have been returned, and the work is now being
rapidly prosecuted, and it is expected that the

Iowa.-Owing to the severity of the surveying
season, and depredations on the part of the In- I surveys east of the sixth principal meridian w
dians, but little has been done in the north west-ll be closed by the 30th June, 1859.
ern part of the State. But nine hundred and
eighteen miles of subdivisions and meanders have ll rapidly progressed before the surveyor gene
been reported.
Minnesota. The new surveying district of Min-| tilities on the part of the Mormon author

Salt Lake City..
Field operations for the establishment of the

principal lines and subdivisions of the public sur-| time we are advised of the vor
veys have been commenced in the northeast dis- ll the clerks in the surveyor gen
trict on Lake Superior, and in the country south | uninformed

of the northwesi district, north of Iowa, to the
Hexlent of four thousand and fourteen miles; but,'

report ......

Florida ...........
Minnesota Territory...
Iowa ............
Michigan ......
Arkansas .....

March 3, 1857
March 3, 1857

17, 1856
(Aug. 11, 1856)
Aug. 11, 1856

17, 1856 )


11, 1856
Sept. 20, 1850

3, 1856
15, 1856
3, 1856
3, 1856
9, 1853
9, 1853
10, 1832 |

States and Territory. | Dates of laws.

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1,150 1923

75 630

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No. of

of road. Arca of grant.

33,192,473 /


Utah..The surveys of the public lands had

abandoned his position, owing to reported hos.





or quantity
vacant land

isnment of the l} This happened carly last spring, since which or the public sur-] time we are advised of the forcible disbanding of


OTE.Eight roads adjusted in Minois, Missouri, and Arkansas, Forty-two roads to be adjusted.

e superior, and in the country south | uninformed as to the safety of the archives of thal

Representations have been made unfavorable

" thousand and fourteen miles; but, II

35TH CONG....1st Sess.

Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office.



to the surveys which have been executed in that | This table shows the aggregrate from 30th | been discovered; also, marbles, other limestones, Territory, but we have no means of judging of || September, 1856, to 30th September, 1857. The land valuable rocks for building purposes. The the correctness of these statements without actual statement in the first part of this report is for || analysis of the coals, limestones, and minerals, examination on the ground. the fiscal year ending 30th June, 1857.'

is completed; also, of many of the soils." The extent of the surveys, since the beginning 1 At the last session of Congress the following 1 One hundred and five illustrations, and two of the operations in Utah, exhibits a sphere of new land districts were created :

I hundred and seventy-seven pages of manuscript field-work embracing 2,000,000 acres, and the In Kansas, the “ Delaware," "Osage," and are completed, ready for the engraver and printer. work executed at a cost of $90,000. 1 “ Western" districts.

“ All the illustrations and analyses are in sufficient California.-The surveying operations have | In Nebraska, the “ Nemaha," "South Platte," progress to keep the engraver constantly em. been pushed forward during the last year to a and " Dakotah

ployed until the completion of the report." degree beyond the anticipation of this office, the In Wisconsin, the “Chippewa" district. * The illustrations and manuscript referred to, he liabilities incurred by the late surveyor general || There were also the « northeastern” and has filed in this office; but the complete report, on that score having reached an indebtedness of

nor westerno

which antecedent instructions required at his upwards of $220,000 to the United States deputy | tory, established by act of July 8, 1856.

hands, has not yet been made. He further states surveyors, over and above the appropriations. For all these offices the tract books have been that “the report will be about two thirds the size These accounts for surveys under contracts with prepared and opened here, all the necessary in of Dr. Owen's report, and will cost, if published the surveyor general, have been certified by the structions written out, and the blank forms of in the same style, $26,526, including the cost of latter, and could not be paid for the want of funds various kinds transmitted, by mail and express, Il preparing all the maps and other illustrations." applicable to that service. With a view to pro to the respective offices for the above districts, This sum, together with his claimed balance on vide means as early as possible to liquidate that the registers and receivers for which have entered account of his expenditure over and above the indebtedness, I have, by your direction, ascer upon the performance of their duties.

last appropriation, he states, “ will amount to tained the amount, and submitted a deficiency GEOLOGICAL RECONNOISSANCE IN OREGON AND

$30,000.” estimate, so that speedy appropriation may be


"The facts in regard to the origin of this service, obtained.

In March, 1851, it was determined by the Sec and the appropriation for its completion at differThe summary of the field operations in Cali retary of the Interior, under the third section of ent times, with the progress in it, as reported by fornia since the commencement of the service in the act of 27th September, 1850, pointing out the | the geologist, are respectfully submitted for the 1851 to the present time, consists of 82,000 miles manner of making surveys in Oregon, to connect, consideration of Congress. . of lineal surveys, embracing an area of upwards with the land surveys in Oregon, a geological LANDS ON THE ALABAMA AND FLORIDA LINE. of 20,000,000 acres, at the aggregate expense of reconnoissance and exploration. With this in Plats have been prepared of the strip of lands more than $1,000,000; of which there were sur view, a transfer from a fund for similar service || in Alabama between the Florida line and Coffee's veyed during the last fiscal year, ending 30th June, in the northwest was ordered, of $3,500; and line. These to be certified by the Commissioner, 1857, 20,000 miles-equal to 9,000,000 acres. Dr. John Evans was directed, on the 22d March, as ex officio Surveyor General, will be furnished to

Oregon. --The progress of the surveys of the 1851, to proceed overland to ascertain the general the authorities of the State of Alabama, and simpublic lands and donation claims have been to geology of the country west of the Missouri ilar plats to the register and receiver at Sparta, such an extent that it is expected the portion of river, toward the Rocky Mountains; to recon within whose district the lands are situated; and the Territory between the Cascade Mountains and noiter for practicable wagon routes leading to hereafter a considerable body of lands which has the Pacific ocean will be completed by the oper Oregon, over the Rocky Mountains; and, when been held in suspense on the southern boundary ations of another year. The extension by law there, to aid the surveyor general in obtaining of Alabama will be restored to market. of the surveying system east of the Cascades is the elevations of the country along the principal In the northeastern or Columbus district, Misrecommended.

base and meridian lines, with the latitude and sissippi, there are about 32,000 acres of land, the Washington Territory.-Owing to hostilities longitude at the intersection of those lines, and title to which has been held in suspense for more of the Indians, the remoteness of the surveying to keep his expenditures within the limits of the than twenty years, because of the indebtedness region, sparseness of settlements, and the ardu means placed by the Department under his con of the late Gordon D. Boyd, as receiver. ous and perilous nature of the service in that trol.

The mode of proceeding determined upon in district, but limited progress in surveying has On the 3d March, 1853, Congress made two this class of cases is to cancel the sales and rebeen made during the past year; yet the duties separate appropriations-one of $11,984 25 for store to market about one half of the quantity devolved upon the surveyor general at Olympia expenses incurred in a geological reconnoissance above mentioned, on which no money was paid; have required all his attention.

in Oregon, undertaken in 1851, and another of and as the purchasers of the residue at marshal's That officer renews the recommendation of $5,000 for completing that geological reconnois sale shall pay up for the same, to issue the patincrease in mileage to deputy surveyors to indem sance; whereupon on the 19th April, 1853, the ents. nify them for the obstacles encountered in the geologist was instructed to complete the service

INDIAN RESERVES-TRUST LANDS. density of timber, high wages, and cost of trans | under the latter appropriation, and make his final The necessary instructions having been issued, portation of supplies.

report thereon; both of which appropriations and steps taken for the location within the Half These facts considered, and in view of the re amounted to $16,984 25; and on 30 March, 1855, Breed, Dakotah or Sioux reserve, of 320,819.48 moteness of this surveying district from commer Congress appropriated for this purpose the addi acres in Minnesota, of the scrip authorized by the cial communities, his recommendation is con tional sum of $23,560; making an aggregate of act of 17th July, 1854, and a sufficient time, in curred in, with the suggestion of increase also in $44,044 25.

the judgment of this office, having elapsed for his compensation.

* One item of the last appropriation was $5,69225, satisfying claims in the reserve, a proclamation,

on account of excess of his expenditures over and pursuant to the third section of said act, was Statement of the surveying operations of the Public

| above the $5,000, per act of the 3d March, 1853; 1l issued, bearing date the 16th September, 1857, for Lands during the year ending 30th September,

another item of $13,000 25, for the completion of public sales to take place in March next of the 1857.

the geological explorations in Oregon and Wash unlocated tracis within the limits of said reserva.

ington Territories. In placing the latter item tion. Quantities, the plats of sur

under the control of the geologist, on March 20, Under the preliminary management of the Inveys of which have been returned to the General

1855, he was instructed to complete the work, dian office, the township embraced in the eastern Land Office.

make final report, and not to exceed it in his dis portion of the Delaware trust lands in Kansas, bursements.

certain town lots and blocks in Jacksonville, DelStates or

The estimates on which the appropriation of aware, Hard ville, Lattaville, and Leavenworth Territories.


$23,560 was based included a third item of City, were offered for sale in November last under $4,867 50, which had been expended by Dr. Ev proclamation by the President.

ans in coöperating with the expedition, under the The initiative having been taken also at the Acres.

authority of the War Department, for making same office in regard to the lands within the

the extréme northern railroad exploration from reserves of the loways, the western part of the Ohio.

the Missouri to Washington Territory, thereby Delaware and the Peorias, Kaskaskias, PiankeIndiana.....

reducing to this extent the amount which has shaws and Weas, these lands were offered under Michigan...... 4,095 12 79


been appropriated for geological service in Oregon proclamation for sale in June and July last. Ilinois...... 132 61 57

240.15 Wisconsin.....

1,106,058.08 874,000
and Washington to $39,776 75.

The Office of Indian Affairs having requested Iowa.

334,882.67 830,000 In the adjustment of Dr. Evans's accounts to the aid of the General Land Office in selling the Minnesota.....

1,753, 192.93 1,452,000 the 4th March last, it is found that he has again Indian trust lands, instructions, prepared with Missouri..... . 190 41 69 46,698.00 100,000

exceeded the amount appropriated for the com great care, dated 29th September, 1856, in regard Arkansas...... 1,726 67 96 Louisiana... 3,029 45 89 17,047.00 150,000

pletion of the work, and incurred an additional to the first sale, were transmitted to the register Mississippi....

fiability of $3,574 70, to the liquidation of which and receiver at Lecompton, directing them to Alabama....

there are no means applicable under existing coöperate with the special commissioner on the Florida...

70,225.00 1,000,000 9,134,098.00

laws. California... 2,500,000

pari of the Indian Office in selling the lands in Oregon T.

278,580.30 1,700,000

The geologist, in a communication of the 13th question. Washington

137,083.29 600,000 November, 1857, states as follows : that "rich * At the second sale, the land officers at Doni. Kansas T.

3,645,690.11 2.574,000 deposits of semi-bituminous coal have been dis phan and Lecompton were, on the 10th May, Nebraska T.

2,420,062.83 3,520,000

114,329.73 N. Mexico T


covered cropping out at various points from the particularly instructed as to the manner in which Ulah T......


British possessions to near the boundary of Cal- | ihe sales were to be conducted jointly by them

ifornia, and are almost inexhaustible in quantity, || selves and the special commissioner on ihe part | 3,104 69 90 | 20,316,864.00 | 15,400,000 ll and accessible to sail and steam navigation." of the Indian Office; and those sales were held

I ll "Ores of iron, lead, platinum, and copper, have ll and duly closed accordingly.

Resurveys, Original sur

Estimated quantities, the
plats of survey of which
were expected to be re-
turned in 1858.



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