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The most southern partof the shoalsof Nan- practice of whaling on the edges of it, from tucket lie in about 40° 45'. The northern their island quite down to the Bahamas, this part of the current, directly to the south of draft of that stream was obtained from one of Nantucket, is felt in about latitude 38° 30' them, captain Folger, and caused to be en
By observing these directions, and keeping graved on the old chart in London, for the bebetween the stream and the shoals, the pas- nefit of navigators, by B. FRANKLIN. sage from the Banks of Newfoundland to New York, Delaware, or Virginia, may be consi Note. The Nantucket captains who are acderably shortened ; for so you will have the quainted with this stream, make their voyages advantage of the eddy current, which moves from England to Boston in as short a time gecontrary to the Gulph Stream. Whereas if nerally as others take in going from Boston to to avoid the shoals you keep too far to the England, viz. from twenty to thirty days. southward, and get into that stream, you will A stranger may know when he is in the be retarded by it at the rate of 60 or 70 miles Gulph Stream, by the warmth of the water, a day.
which is much greater than that of the water The Nantucket whale-men being extremely on each side of it. If then he is bound to the well acquainted with the Gulph Stream, its westward, he should cross the stream to get course, strength, and extent, by their constant out of it as soon as possible. B. F.
Observations of the Warmth of the Sea-water, &c., by Fahrenheit's Thermometer, in
crossing the Gulph Stream; with other remarks made on board the Pennsylvania Packet, captain Osborne, bound from London to Philadelphia, in April and May, 1775.
6 P.M. 67 60
5 P.M. 65 72 NE
11 dit. 66 66 NWN WbS 308 A.M. 64 70 NE WbN 12 62 70
EbS 6 P.M. 64 72 ESE WbN
10 dit. 65 65 S May 17 A.M. 68 63
12 65 56 SSW WNW
12 60 53 WSW NW
10 65 55 NEW WbN
Observations of the warmth of the Sea-Water, &c., by Fahrenheit’s Thermometer; with
other remarks made on board the Reprisal, captain Wycks, bound from Philadelphia to France, in October and November, 1776.
A Journal of a Voyage from the Channel between France and England towards America.
West. 220 0
These are taken on an
August 10. Moonlight, which prevents the luminous appearance of the water.
11. A strong southerly current. - 12. Ditto. From this date the temperature 16. Northerly current. 19. First saw gulph weed. - 21. Southerly current. 22. Again saw gulph weed.
24. The water appeared luminous in a small - 2. The temperature of the water is taken at of the air and water was taken at noon, as well
degree before the moon rose. July 31. Atone P. M. the Start bore W NW.
August 1. The water appears luminous in the eight in the morning and at eight in the evening. as morning and evening.
6. The water appears less luminous. -7. Formegas SW. dist. 324 deg. St. Mary's
- 8. From this date the temperature of the water is taking at eight in the morning and at distant six leagues. ship's wake. SW, S. 33 leagues. six in the evening.
Septem. 1 34 20
N. B. Longitude is reckoned from London, and the thermometer is according to Fahrenheit.
August 29. No moon, yet very little light in tion that by the valves being both open wben the water.
going down, and both shut when coming up, it - 30. Much gulph weed to-day.
would keep within it the water received at bottom. 31. Ditto.
The upper valve performed its office well, but the September 1. Ditto.
under one did not shut quite close, so that much - 2. A little more light in the water.
of the water was lost in hauling it up the ship's -4. No gulph weed to-day. More light in side. As the water in the keg's passage upwards the water.
could not enter at the top, it was concluded that 5. Some gulph weed again,
what water remained in it was of that near the 6. Little light in the water. A very hard ground, and on trying this by the thermometer, it thunder-gust in the night.
was found to be at 58, which was twelve degrees - 7. Little gulph weed.
colder than at the surface. 8. More light in the water. Little gulph This last Journal was obligingly kept for me weed.
by Mr. J. Williams, my fellow-passenger in the –9. Little gulph weed. Little light in the London Packet, who made all the experiments water last evening.
with great exactness. [The late colonel Williams . 10. Saw some beds of rock-weed; and we of the U. S. Engineers.] were surprised to observe the water six degrees colder by the thermometer than the preceding noon.
The chart in this edition, was constructed with a This day (10th) the thermometer still kept de- view to a more comprehensive idea of the course of the scending, and at five in the morning of the 11th, sited by the gulph stream 3. E. of Newfoundland, has it was in ter as low as 70, when we struck formed the great banks; and that the accumulation soundings. The same evening the pilot came on there, has given the stream a new or more eastwardly board, and we found our ship about five degrees direction. The chart also serves to illustrate the long of longitude ahead of the reckoning, which our May not the glutinous matter seen on the water, and captain accounted for by supposing our course to which all persons who have been across the line must have been near the edge of the gulph stream, and have noticed to be luminous at night, be another cause thus an eddy current always in our favour.' By of the phenomena of fish shoals. "May they not come the distance we ran from Sept. 9, in the evening, in search of the food, which the maiter seen on the till we struck soundings, we must have been at
note has observed, that on entering the trade winds, the western edge of the gulph stream, and the the seamen have judged of the change of wind apchange in the temperature of the water was pro- proaching, by the direction of the bonetia and other bably owing to our suddenly passing from that fish, which pass in shoals in the South Atlantic and
South-eastern seas, in a direct opposition to the wind; current, into the waters of our own climate.
and when not opposite to the prevailing wind, they On the 14th of August the following experi- conclude a change to be at hand from the direction toment was made. The weather being perfectly wards which the fish go. The appearance of luminous calm, an empty bottle, corked very tight, was floating matter at night is often followed by shoals of sent down twenty fathoms, and it was drawn up taken up in a buckei, has been often found as large as
fish; the spawn or gluten, which the writer has had still empty. It was then sent down thirty-five two inches diameter, and frequently induced an opinion fathoms, when the weight of the water having that it was a species of maritime cocoon or egg of an forced in the cork, it was drawn up full; the wa
animal. An inquiry into the periodical appearance of ter it contained was immediately tried by the ward, and remarks on the usual direction of the shoals
these luminous substances on voyages to the souththermometer, and found to be 70, which was six of bonella and other fish, might perhaps lead to interdegrees colder than at the surface: the lead and esting discoveries ; it might be assumed as a ques. bottle were visible, but not very distinctly so, at tion worthy of examination, whether the direction
of the depth of twelve fathoms, but when only seven
shoals of fish is not towards those points from which
periodical winds or currents move the waters; and fathoms deep they were perfectly seen from the that the shoals of fish which move from the north ship. This experiment was thus repeated Sept. poles, by the British isles across the Atlantic, are led 11, when we were in soundings of eighteen fa- by their instincts in search of these periodical supplies thoms. A keg was previously prepared with a
of food; and if the deposits so made by the gulph
stream on the banks of Newfoundland is not the true valve at each end, one opening inward, the other cause of the great abundance of fish found there. outward; this was sent to the bottom in expecta
To Oliver Neale.
satisfied you that your body is lighter than waOn the Art of Swimming.
ter, and that you might float in it a long time
with your mouth free for breathing, if you I CANNOT be of opinion with you that it is would put yourself in a proper posture, and too late in life for you to learn to swim. The would be still and forbear struggling ; yet till river near the bottom of your garden affords you have obtained this experimental confia most convenient place for the purpose. And dence in the water, I cannot depend on your as your new employment requires your being having the necessary presence of mind to reoften on the water, of which you have such a collect that posture and directions I gave you dread, I think you would do well to make the relating to it
. The surprise may put all out trial; nothing being so likely to remove those of your mind. For though we value ourselves apprehensions as the consciousness of an abi- on being reasonable knowing creatures, reality to swim to the shore, in case of an acci. son and knowledge seem on such occasions dent, or of supporting yourself in the water till to be of little use to us; and the brutes to a boat could come to take you up.
whom we allow scarce a glimmering of either, I do not know how far corks or bladders appear to have the advantage of us. may be useful in learning to swim, having I will, however, take this opportunity of renever seen much trial of them. Possibly they peating those particulars to you, which I menmay be of service in supporting the body tioned in our last conversation, as, by peruswhile you are learning what is called the ing them at your leisure, you may possibly stroke, or that manner of drawing in and imprint them so in your memory as on occastriking out the hands and feet that is necession to be of some use to you. sary to produce progressive motion. But you 1. That though the legs, arms, and head will be no swimmer till you can place some of a human body, being solid parts, are speciconfidence in the power of the water to sup- fically something heavier than fresh water, port you; I would therefore advise the ac- yet the trunk, particularly the upper part, from quiring that confidence in the first place; es- its hollowness, is so much lighter than water, pecially as I have known several who, by a as that the whole of the body taken together little of the practice necessary for that pur- is too light to sink wholly under water, but pose, have insensibly acquired the stroke, some part will remain above, until the lungs taught as it were by nature.
become filled with water, which happens from The practice I mean is this. Choosing a drawing water into them instead of air, when place where the water deepens gradually, a person in the fright attempts breathing walk coolly into it till it is up to your breast, while the mouth and nostrils are under water. then turn round, your face to the shore, and 2. That the legs and arms are specifically throw an egg into the water between you and lighter than salt water, and will be supported the shore. It will sink to the bottom, and be by it, so that a human body would not sink in easily seen there, as your water is clear. It salt water, though the lungs were filled as must lie in water so deep as that you cannot above, but from the greater specific gravity of reach it to take it up but by diving for it. To 'the head. encourage yourself in order to do this, reflect | 3. That therefore a person throwing himthat your progress will be from deeper to shal- self on his back in salt water, and extending lower water, and that at any time you may, his arms, may easily lie so as to keep his by bringing your legs under you, and standing mouth and nostrils free for breathing; and by on the bottom, raise your head far above the a small motion of his hands may prevent turnwater. Then plunge under it with your eyes ing, if he should perceive any tendency to it. open, throwing yourself towards the egg, and 4. That in fresh water, if a man throws endeavouring by the action of your hands and himself on his back, near the surface, he canfeet against the water to get forward till not long continue in that situation but by prowithin reach of it. In this attempt you will per action of his hands on the water. If he find, that the water buoys you up against uses no such action, the legs and lower part your inclination ; that it is not so easy a of the body will gradually sink till he comes thing to sink as you imagined ; that you can- into an upright position, in which he will connot but by active force get down to the egg. tinue suspended, the hollow of the breast keepThus you feel the power of the water to sup- ing the head uppermost. port you,
and learn to confide in that power ; 5. But if, in this erect position, the head is while
your endeavours to overcome it, and to kept upright above the shoulders, as when reach the egg, teach you the manner of acting we stand on the ground, the immersion will, on the water with your feet and hands, which by the weight of that part of the head that is action is afterwards used in swimming to sup- out of water, reach above the mouth and nosport your head higher above water, or to go trils, perhaps a lit:le above the eyes, so that a forward through it.
man cannot long remain suspended in water I would the more earnestly press you to the with bis head in that position. trial of this method, because, though I think I 6. The body continuing suspended as be