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might be easily induced, for proper considera-, tablished for sixteen years, the merchants tions, to take that difficulty out of their hands: trading to the eastern colonies of America, ani, as to military service, under all English took occasion to complain to the house of tenures whatsoever, no man could be compel commons, of the inconveniences and discouled to serve in person, who made it his choice ragements brought on the commerce of Great to serve by proxy.

Britain in those parts, by the excessive quanAdd to all this; that William Penn him-tities of paper money there issued, and the deself does not appear to have been under the preciated condition thereof, for want of proper dominion of these scruples; he having taken funds to support its credit. The house, by care in his charter from the crown (sect. 10.) way of palliative, addressed the throne to put a to be invested with all the powers ever be temporary stop to the evil, by instructing the stowed on a captain-general (which were al- several governors, not to give their assent to so to descend to his heirs and assigns) “to any farther laws of that nature, without an exlevy, muster, and train all sorts of men, of press proviso, that they should not take effect what condition soever, or wheresoever born, till his majesty's approbation had been first and to make war and to pursue such enemies obtained. as should make incursions into the province, Such instructions were accordingly sent; as well by sea as land, even without the li- and those to the governor of Pennsylvania mits of the said province, and, by God's assist- were dated August 21, 1740. Notwithstandance, to vanquish and take them," &c. ling all which, the lords of trade and planta

And, lastly, if ever involved in the quarrels tions (having already in their hands a full of the mother-country, and obliged to take and clear account of the currency, as estatheir share of the common duty and the com- blished by the eighty thousand pounds act, as mon danger, they might reasonably hope for also of the rates of gold and silver, from the all the protection from thence they might year 1700 to the year 1739; and having been stand in need of, on the condition of contribut. moreover convinced, by the merchants trading ing all that was in their power, consistent to that province, that such a sum was not onwith their principles,

| ly reasonable but necessary for carrying on This they have occasionally done from colo. the commerce of the country) thought fit to nel Fletcher's time downwards, and they recommend the said act, to the royal acceptwould have done more, if the proprietary calls ance and ratification; and ten days afterand those of their deputies had not put it out wards the lords justices passed it into a law. of their power.

Here the affair slept for several years, exAllowing, therefore, that this unresisting cept that the assembly, in conformity to an orprinciple would have been a solecism in the der, which accompanied the instructions just construction of an independent state, it was mentioned, caused a second state of their curnot, provincially speaking, destitute of proper rency to be transmitted the following year to palliatives.

the lords of trade : and before it was again reAt least, scruple of conscience is at all sured in parliament, the several incidents, times, and in all cases, less blaineable than next to be recited, took place. the wanton experiments tried upon the pro- When the attempt upon Carthagena was vince, even by the proprietary's own agents: under consideration, the northern colonies first to scatter terrors among the peaceable in- were called upon to furnish soldiers for that habitants, and then to plead the necessity of service, and Pennsylvania among the rest. a military force from the effects of their own The assembly was at that time composed, as wicked devices.

it had hitherto generally been; consequently Of this nature was the false alarm raised in this demand could not but be productive of t'ie queen's time by Evans and Logan: a fact scruples and difficulties in point of conscience; which stands charged against them, in the that, however, they might discharge all obli·records of the assembly, at this very day; and gations at once, they voted four thousand which, as often as recollected, will ever sug- pounds for the king's use, and the governor gest a fear, that a measure, so unwarrantably took upon himself to raise the soldiers. contended for, would, if obtained, be as un This was a duty of office; and, if he had warrantably made use of.

| discharged it properly, what would have given We have now such a summary of the state universal satisfaction. The labour of the of Pennsylvania, from its origin, before us, as plantations is performed chiefly by indented may render every branch of the controversy servants, brought from Great Britain, Ireland, still depending, familiar to us: and, as facts and Germany; nor, because of the high price are best seen and understood in order of time it bears, can it be performed any other way. as they occurred, we shall do our best to fol- | These servants are purchased of the captains low the thread as it lies.

who bring them; the purchaser, by a positive In April, 1740, when the paper currency of law, has a legal property in them during the the province had been just increased, as above term they are bound for; can sell or bequeath specified, to eighty thousand pounds, and es-them; and, like other chattels, they are lia. ble to be seized for debts. Out of these, ne-, which they cheerfully concurred in doing, vertheless, did the governor make his levies. seduced by their interests and their inclinaA ferment ensued: the owners were tena- tions into a belief, that the whole line of onr cious of their rights: the governor stood upon colonies would not be thus agitated, nor their prerogative as paramount to all: the dispute Indian allies induced to take up the hatchet was brought into the courts; and such was in conjunction with them, merely by way of the terror of power, that the aggrieved was feint to facilitate a peace. forced to repair to New York for advocates. Forces were every where raised by the

The assembly, seeing no other remedy, several governors, and the assembly of Pennthought themselves bound to defend the rights sylvania voted five thousand pounds for the of their constituents; and did defend them ac- king's use, or, in other words, as their concordingly, by refusing to part with their sup- tingent for this pretended national service. ply, unless these servants so unjustly taken The money so voted being more than their from their masters were restored. The go- revenue could furnish, they proposed to raise vernor was obstinate, and so the money was, it by an addition of the like suin to their paat last, applied, as it ought, to indemnify them per currency; in which case the king would for the injury they had sustained.

be served, the provincial capital would be so That, however, they might not be misre- far enlarged, and the interest arising from it presented or misunderstood at home, as defi- would, in a due proportion of time, discharge cient in zeal for the public, or backward to the principal. contribute to the service, they came the next And here began the first dispute between year to the following vote, to wit: The the governor and the assembly on this topic: house, taking into consideration the many the governor pleaded the instruction of 1740 taxes their fellow-subjects in Great Britain as a reason, why he could not bring himself are obliged to pay towards supporting the dig- to such a pitch of boldness as he apprehended nity of the crown, and defraying the necessa- was necessary to the contravention of it; and ry and contingent charges of government, therefore urged them to find out some method and willing to demonstrate the fidelity, loyal- less exceptionable for raising the said sum: ty, and affection of the inhabitants of this pro- and they, willing to comply as far as possible vince to our gracious sovereign, by bearing with his scruples, so far receded from their a share of the burden of our fellow-subjects, point to that time as to issue it out of the proportionably to our circumstances, do there- money dormant in the loan-office for exchangfore, cheerfully and unanimously resolve, ing torn and illegible bills, and to replace it that three thousand pounds be paid for the by a new emission of bills to the same amount, use of the king, his heirs and successors, to be to be sunk out of the product of the excise in applied to such uses as he in his royal wisdom ten years. Upon which the governor waved shill think fit to direct and appoint." And the instruction, and passed the bill; five hunthe said three thousand pounds were after-dred men were raised and supported by it, for wards paid into his majesty's exchequer by near eighteen months, employed chiefly in dethe agent of the province accordingly. A free fending the frontiers of New York, when the gift, if ever there was one, from subject to expedition at length was dropped and the sovereign; and, however small, a sufficient troops disbanded. voucher for the good intentions of those who A formal bill to restrain the northern colomade it.

nies in general, from issuing paper bills of In the beginning of the year 1745, the pro- credit, it must be observed had been brought ject against Louisburgh, having been carried into parliament, but not perfected ; and in in the assembly of New England by a single the year 1748 again : upon which occasion rote only, was imparted to the assembly of the next governor of Pennsylvania, James Pennsylvania by governor Shirley, with a de- Hamilton, Esq.; in a message to the assembly sire, that they would contribute thereto : but in October 1749, made use of the following though they could not be prevailed upon to remarkable expressions: “I take it for granttuke any part in an enterprise which to them ed, we are all sensible of the mischievous appeared so desperate, they voted four thou- tendency of the bill that was brought into para sand pounds in provisions, for the refresh- liament the last year, to regulate and restrain ment and support of the brave troops who had paper bills of credit in the plantations in taken the place, as soon as it was known which there was a clause to enforce the orthey were in possession of it, and that such ders of the crown in his majesty's American supplies were wanting..

dominions) and it is not improbable, that someIn the beginning of the year 1746, the mi- thing of the same kind may be offered in the nisters affected to entertain a project for the ensuing session. I persuade myself you will reduction of Canada. By letters from the give your agent full instructions upon this secretary's office, dated April 6, the northern subject, in case it should become necessary colonies were severally called upon to con- for him to oppose it: the honourable proprietribute their respective quotas towards it;taries at that time laboured and with success to avert the mischiefs that threatened this fairs; that they had been at considerable exprovince from the passing of the said bill; pense for the service of the province both in and I have it in command from them to assure England and there : that they pay the Indiyou of their assistance upon all future occa- ans for the land they purchase : and that they sions, wherein the welfare and happiness of are no more obliged to contribute to the pubthe people of this province may be concerned." lic charges than any other chief governor of

This had a favourable appearance towards any other colony." the province, and from hence it might well! In answer to this, the assembly, May 1751, rebe supposed, that the issues from this source spectfully represented, “ that the preserving a would never be productive of any deep or good understanding with the Indians was more lasting strife.

for the interest of the proprietary estate than But though the springs had not as yet broke that of any other estate in the province, as it out with any violence, they were working gave the proprietaries an opportunity of purtheir way under ground. The growing chasing lands on the frontiers at a low price, and charge of Indian affairs, which lay wholly on selling them at a high one, which would otherthe province, and which, on the head of pur- wise be impracticable: that, therefore, the obchases, as before explained, was productive ligations of justice and equity being stronger of great advantages to the proprietaries, began than those of law, they were certainly bound to be the subject of public complaint: and by them to contribute to the expense of those by these suggestions of the importance of the Indian treaties and presents by which the good proprietaries at home, the people were to be understanding so beneficial to them was maintaught the danger of disobliging them. . tained ; that though taxes in form, for the im

But if this was their view, it did not an-mediate support of the proprietaries' substiswer: the assembly had too much discernment tute, and for defraying the charges of these to be diverted from the object before them by Indian treaties, had not of late years been imthe interposition of another, how dextrously posed on the province, the charge of all (by soever the trick was performed, and therefore ihe interest of the paper-money, which was a proceeded, notwithstanding, to take this affair virtual tax, the excise, which was a real one into consideration.

producing about 30001. per annum, and the It is scarce necessary to intimate, that the tax arising from licenses of various kinds, governor, and the creatures of the govern- amounting yearly to a sum not inconsiderament, did all they could, not only to discour-ble, and appropriated wholly to the governor's age them in it, but also to convince them, in support,) was paid by the province: that the effect, that, according to the usual current of assembly had always paid the Indian interthe world, all advantages are the prerogative preter for his public services to his full saof those above, and all burdens the inheritance tisfaction: that they believed future assemof those below.-This may indeed be agreea- blies would not fail to do whatever could be ble to the usual current of the world: but reasonably expected from them in regard to then as such doctrines are not over palatable his son, when he should be qualified to sucanywhere, so in a free government like Penn- ceed him; as also to discharge all just debts sylvania, it was not to be thought they would | for expenses properly chargeable to the probe swallowed at all. They were neither to vince, whether incurred there or in England, be convinced nor discouraged it seems : on whenever the accounts should be exhibited : the contrary, they persevered; they examin | that by the act forbidding all but the proprieed; they reported; they resolved; and at last taries to purchase lands of the Indians, they applied to the proprietaries, to do what equity had obtained a monopoly of the soil, conserequired, by taking a share of the charge upon quently ought to bear the whole charge of themselves.

every treaty for such purchases, as the profit The proprietaries, on the other hand, an- was to be wholly theirs: that their paying nounced in their reply, “that they did not for land (bought as was conceived much cheapconceive themselves to be under any such ob- er on account of the provincial presents acligation, even though the people had been companying those treaties) was not a satisfactaxed for the charges of government : that as tory reason, why they should not bear a part not one shilling had been levied on the peo- of the charge of such other treaties as tended ple for that service, it was so much less rea- to the common welfare and peace of the prosonable in the people to ask any thing of them : vince: and that upon the whole, as the intethat they had, notwithstanding, charged them- rests of the proprietaries were so constantly selves with paying their interpreter even intermixed, more or less, with those of the much more than could be due to him on their province, in all Indian treaties, and as it apaccount, and were also then at the expense peared the proprietaries thought they paid of maintaining his son with a tutor in the In- more than their share, while the people dian country, to learn their language and thought they paid abundantly too much, they customs for the service of the country; as apprehended the surest way to prevent dissawell as of sundry other charges on Indian af-'tisfaction on all sides, would be to fix a certain proportion of the charge of all future provin- seem to act too precipitately in an affair of cial treaties with the Indians, to be paid by such importance, they chose to make a short the proprietaries and province respectively: adjournment before they took his objection inwhich, not only as a proposal equitable in it- to consideration." self, but conducive also to preserve that union Adjourn they did accordingly; and at their and harmony between the proprietaries and next meeting, which was towards the end of people, so evidently advantageous to both, May the same year, found themselves earthey hoped, would, on further consideration, nestly pressed by a message from the gobe agreed to."

vernor; on one hand concerning Indian affairs, How this was received we shall see in its and on the other by petitions froin a considerрlасе.

able number of inhabitants, for a further addiThe assembly proceeded soon after, to take tion to their paper-money, supported by a vainto consideration the growth of the province, riety of allegations of the most interesting and and the state of their commerce; and finding affecting nature. • both to be such as required an extension of The governor's message, whether prematheir paper-currency, on the same grounds and ture or not will best appear from the sequel, for the same ends as at first gave rise to it, prepared the house to expect, “ that the coununanimously resolved to strike an additional try of Alleghany situate on the waters of the sum of twenty thousand pounds, in order to Ohio, partly within the limits of Pennsylvareplace defective bills, and increase the pro- nia, partly within those of Virginia, already vincial capital, in proportion to the increase was or soon would be invaded by an army of of inhabitants; as also to re-emit and continue French and Indians from Canada :- in which the sums already in circulation,

case the Indians inhabiting there, who were A bill was accordingly prepared in Janu- a mixture of the Six Nations, Shawnese, Deary, 1753, and sent up to the governor (Ha- lawares, and Twigtwees, lately recommended milton) for his concurrence; but though that as allies to the province by the said Six Nagentleman was a native of the province, with tions, would be obliged to leave the country, rather better qualifications for his post, and, and his majesty's subjects trading with them as may be supposed, more affection for the would be cut off, &c. unless timely warned people than is common with governors, he by the messengers sent to them by himself hud his reasons for not seeing this provincial for that purpose : that Montour, an interpoint in the same light that the province did, preter, had heard the French declaration deand therefore returned the bill in a day or livered, and the reply of the Indians, which two, with his negative upon it: qualified in- was firm and resolute, but not to be relied deed with expressions of concern for his so upon as they were in want of all things.”_ differing in opinion with them, but founded So far was matter of intelligence. The rest in the dislike raised in Britain by the late was a pathetic representation of dangers and too general and undistinguishing complaints mischiefs to be apprehended on their own against the plantation bills of credit, which frontiers, and exhortations to enable him to rendered the time very unseasonable for any give the Indians assistance answerable to their application to the crown concerning the ex-exingencies. tension or re-emission of theirs : and fortified And upon the heels of this message, the by a caveat, which sounded so much the more governor also communicated to them the anplausible, as it seemed to be drawn from their swer of the proprietaries to the representation own premises, namely, that the many advan- of the assembly above exhibited; and which tages they derived from the use of paper-mo- if purposely calculated to divide the province ney ought to make them extremely careful, and inflame the animosities already kindled, how they took any step which might possibly could not have been better framed or better endanger it. .

timed for those fatal purposes. The assembly, on the other hand, gladly Professions of attachment to the true and fastened on an acknowledgment so express real interest of the province, of sparing no in favour of the thing; and, from the same cost or pains whenever it should appear to sense of it, declared themselves to be equally them necessary to advance it, and acting such careful with the governor in the conduct and a part in considering the matter of the repredirection of it: but having so done, they went sentation as all disinterested persons should on to say, “ that as they did not think the dis- think just, they set out with : and, having like raised in Britain of the plantation bills, made this ground for themselves, they prowas so general and undistinguishing, or still ceed to charge the assembly with being acso warmly subsisted as the governor seemed tuated by ill will to them on one hand, and to apprehend, so neither did they conceive a desire to ingratiate themselves with the the time to be unseasonable for an application weaker part of the electors on the other. In to the crown about theirs : that they were the next paragraph they say, after we had equally concerned with the governor for their “ordered our governor to give you the answer difference of opinion, and that they might not which he did, to your former application, we

VOL. II. ...E

had no reason to expect a repetition of the ap- | arising from the excise and the provincial plication directly to ourselves, as you might bills : again assert, that the annual expense well suppose we had considered the matter of government for a series of years, including before we had returned our first answer, and Indian charges, amounts to little more than the repeating the request could only produce half that sum: and that of all this revenue, the repeating the answer, the occasion for about four hundred pounds a year only has, which does not appear to us. It is possible, on an average, for twenty years past (and that one purpose may be in order to show great part of that time during war) been exmore publicly this difference in opinion be- pended in presents to the Indians and charges tween us and yourselves; and if that was ever on that account, which they could not conintended, it will be convenient we should set ceive to be a large sum, compared with that this matter in a clear light (although it may revenue, the manner of its being raised, and make our answer longer than we could wish) so important a service as that of keeping the that the true state of the matter may appear.” united nations of Indians in the interest of

They then urge the authority of the board Great Britain. of trade, in justification of their former asser- They then talk of the taxes paid by their tion, that they were no more obliged to con- family here at home, as an equivalent to the tribute to the public charges, than the chief Indian article; and then proceed in the folgovernor of any other colony: they will not lowing remarkable terms." And at the same allow that their honoured father had any as- time that we show you that we do pay all sistance from the people in making his pur- other taxes here, that on land only excepted, chases, or that there is the least colour for we must advise you to be very careful not to pressing them so unseasonably to contribute put people here in mind of that signal exempto the public charge, seeing that the said tion. Several proposals have been made for charge did not much exceed one half of the laying taxes on North America, and it is most revenue :---and they not only return to their easy to foresee, that the self-same act of parliafirst charge, that the assembly by so doing, ment that shall lay them on our, will also lay could only mean to captivate the weakest of them on your estates, and on those of your conthe people, and so by their assistance continue stituents.” to hold their seats in the assembly, but farther, In the next article, having denied that the cite as so many proofs, the time of making assembly had always paid the interpreter to their first representation, which was just be- his satisfaction, and insisted that they themfore an election : their printing the report selves had gratified bim when the assembly and most extraordinary resolutions on which had refused to pay him what he thought his the said representation was founded, which services deserved; they add, in a higher tone: seemed to argue it was rather intended as an “however, with respect to any expense of address to them the said populace, than to the that sort, and many others here, we entered proprietaries, and the solemn repetition of the into them without any expectation of being same request as if it was a matter of great repaid, and should think it far beneath us to value and importance.

send the accounts of them to the house of reTake the next article in their own words. presentatives, as your agents employed by “Wherefore, on this occasion, it is necessary yourselves might do, for the expenses incurred that we should inform the people, through by them.” yourselves their representatives, that, as by the Proceeding in the same style, they say in constitution, our consent is necessary to their the next article, “we do not conceive that laws, at the same time that they have an in- any act of assembly does, or can establish doubtel right to such as are necessary for the what you call a monopoly in us for the pur defence and real service of the country; so, chase of lands: we derive no right or properit will tend the better to facilitate the several |ty from any such law: it is under the king's matters which must be transacted with us, for royal charter that we have the sole right to their representatives to show a regard to us make such purchases,” &c. * and our interest : for, considering the rank It is fit the last five articles should be inwhich the crown has been pleased to give us serted entire; and they are verbatim as folin Pengsylvania, we shall expect from the lows, viz. people's representatives on all occasions, a “ 12. Your assertion, that treaties for land treatment suitable thereto; and that whilst are made at a less expense to us, on account we desire to govern the province according to of provincial presents being given at the same law only, they should be as careful to support time, does not appear to us to be founded on our interests, as we shall always be to sup- fact: the last purchase was made on no other port theirs."

account, but purely to save the province the Recurring again to the revenue, they af- expense of making another present to some fected to be truly concerned for being oblig- Indians, who come down after the time that ed to acquaint the public with a state of it, the principle deputation had received the presettle that state at six thousand pounds a year, sents intended for the whole, and were on

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