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central location. But we are persuaded that the report of the engineer will put an end to the northern project, and force the northern influence upon the central line. In support of the opinion that the northern route will be abandoned we quote from the Nebraska Palladium what Col. Lander is reported to have said in his public address at Council Bluffs. Col. Lander went out with Gov. Stevens on the northern route, and re turned up the valley of the Columbia. He says:

"I cannot think there are ten men in Oregon, who believe that the line adopted for the great national thoroughfare will be that surveyed during the last season, under the direction of Gov. Stevens, generally termed the Northern Route, and passing from St. Paul, Minnesota, north of the Missouri river, and along the British frontier, to Puget's Sound. Having examined that line in my professional capacity, I am fully prepared to speak of its character. In the vicinity of the Mississippi river it possesses advantages over all other Pacific routes by traversing a rich timber country; regarding the scarcity of timber in the interior, this is a desideratum and gives a nigh character to the line. Beyond this advantage, the Northern line, (which to the first range of mountains is of so favorable a character, as to justify any encomium,) does not compare as a Railroad route with that I have recently examined. I believe the route up the Platte river valley to be peculiarly favorable for cheap construction. From a point thirty miles west of the Missouri river, a single plane of surface extends for 500 miles without a break or declivity. The soil is of such a character, that by skirting the Sand Bluffs on the north. side of the river, all necessity for ballasting or dressing the road bed is avoided. Brooks of clear water, having their sources in these bluffs, and at such an elevation above the level proposed for the Rail, as to afford every facility for the use of locomotives. · I have no doubt that the perfect drainage, afforded by a soil of such a character would allow the use of the Rail for long distances, without grading. I believe that nowhere on the American Continent, occur such facilities for cheap and speedy construction for the immediate completion of a road, or at least the earliest possible opening of a line of transportation to the interior. This is a fact of the greatest importance. One of the chief obstacles to the construction of a Railroad within a reasonable period of time will be the difficulty of transporting supplies and the necessary appliances for grading, to the several mountain sections of the interior. The line up the Platte offers every advantage for overcoming this obstacle by affording such facilities for an immediate use of the Rail in a preliminary track. I have already stated that the citizens of Washington and Oregon Territories have manifested a lively interest in the Pacific Railway question that they believe the adoption of the Platte Valley route will exert an important influence upon the future, and that they have no hopes of the con.

struction of an extreme northern line. I left Olimpea, or Puget's Sound, in March carrying (by unanimous vote,) a full indorsement of both branches of the Legislature of Washington. I have been deeply interested in the success of this reconnoisance, and am abundantly repaid for some months of severe labor by this full and successful result. I have ascertained the fact, that an excellent Railroad line exists between the waters of Missouri river and Paget's Sound; also that a very practicable, cheap, and favorable line exists between Salt Lake City and Puget's, Sound, and am able to fully demonstrate the latter proposition by reliable data.”

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The friends of this enterprise performed the ceremony of breaking ground as the commencement of the work at Helena, on the 4th instant.

The Helena Star of the 5th says, "our citizens, full of national and State pride, turned out, without distinction of age or sex, to participate in the festivities of the occasion." A public address was delivered by James T. Crary, Esq., orator of the day, and speeches were made by several other gentlemen in response to the call of the Assembly. “After dinner was served’up, Major Richard Davidson, surrounded by the enthusiastic assembly, took his spade and threw up the first sod on our railroad. This pleasing duty could not have been assigned to one more worthy. The great work was commenced with the utmost enthusiasm-long, loud and continued applause cheered and animated this interesting scene.

We sincerely hope that the enthusiasm manifested upon this interesting occasion will not abate until the road is completed. Let the “Midland Road" be built only to the city of Little Rock, and it will ensure the construction of other roads terminating at Hele- . na, which will place it in connection with the great systems of public improvements east and west of the Mississippi.

Though we regard a direct connection with Memphis, by railroad, as necessary to complete the Missouri system of public improvement, we are still persuaded that the true route from St. Louis to New Orleans is that which crosses the Mississippi at Helena, and that, in obedience to the laws of commerce, this line must, sooner or later, be constructed.

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Important Invention for Rolling Railroad Bars. 801

MI88I88IPPI, QUACHITA AND RED RIVER RAILROAD.

This road was inaugurated at Camden, on the 4th'instant, with the usual ceremonies—public addresses, breaking ground, feasting, &o. Though local in its character, this work will be one of immense benefit to Western Arkansas and Eastern Texas, and we trust its friends will find the means necessary to its speedy accomplishment.

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JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURES AND MINING.

IMPORTANT INVENTION FOR ROLLING RAILROAD

BARS.

Mr. Wm. Harris, late of the Rolling Mill firm of Harris, Burnish & Co., of this place, has just completed an invention for the mannfactúre of Railroad Iron, which in the opinion of our ablest mechanics is likely to give a fresh impetus to the Iron Manufacture, and to effect corresponding changes throughout the entire trade. It consists in a new method of arranging the rolls, and cannot fail wherever understood, to entirely supplant the old process. Mr. H. is a practical iron manufacturer, and has been actively engaged in the business for the greater part of his life. He is now about 34

years

of
age.

His attention has for many years been given to an improvement of this kind, manifestly so much needed.

By the old (present) plan, each pair of rolls has nine separate grooves, through which the heated mass from the furnace is successively passed, until it is delivered from the last in the shape of a railroad bar, Much manual labor is required; and even with the most skilful and expeditious workmen, the metal has time to cool very considerably before it is finished, thereby becoming less malleable, and causing a dangerous strain upon the machinery. The breaking of a Roll in such a mill, it is well known, is but a common occurrence.

Now, instead of the one set of Rolls, containing the nine grooves; by the new process, there are nine separate pairs of Rolls, each having but one groove-arranged in one continuous line, with close ducts or boxes between; so that the "pile” (the hot ball of metal) is fed in at one end, and comes out at the other a railroad bar! The principal advantages claimed are-economy of time, and saving of manual laborhighly important considerations, as all iron manufactures well knew.

Let us compare (and our data throughout, it may be proper to remark, are not mere guesses, but have been ascertained by accurate calculations): By the old process, a bar of 21 feet, the usual length, is manufactured in 24 minutes ; by the new, in the same time, one of

.

100 feet could be run out, if the "pile” could be prepared; or with the speed proposed for the new maehinery, a bar 30 feet long may be finished from the "pile” in 30 seconds !

By the old plan, 10 men and boys are ordinarily employed in the rolling process alone-by the new, but one; and his business would be solely that of superintendence there would be no manual labor for him. For instance, the Heater brings his "pile”-it is put in at one end of the continuous line of Rolls, and requires no farther manipulation till it is delivered, a railroad bar at the other.

Another prime advantage claimed for the new process is the manufacture of the “Red short” iron into railroad bars. This species of iron, it is well known to manufactnrers, possesses a peculiar brittleness when hot, that renders it difficult if not impossible, to work by the old process, though remarkably tough when cold-having a long fibre and making the best of railroad iron. On the new plan, the time occupied in the manufacture of a bar is so short, that the metal can easily be retained at a workable temperature during the entire process. This will undoubtedly tend greatly to improve the general character of railroad iron; as the "cold short,” now mostly employed for that purpose (because it is most easily worked,) becomes exceedingly brittle when cold, being in very many cases not much better in that respect, than common pig metal.

The new machinery used is of the simplest mechanical construction, and not at all likely to break or get out of order. It consists mainly of a horizontal shaft, to which are attached, by plain level gearing, the several Rolls, some revolving vertically and others laterally (in order to compress the metal on all sides.) The Rolls are set apart at distances corresponding with the successively increased lengths of the “pile,” in its passage through them--the first four or five being.com paratively close together. Hence the entire length of the line of Rolls, for manufacturing bars, say 21 to 30 feet long, would not ex. ceed 100 feet. No more power is required than in the old process, as the metal is acted upon but by one Roll at a time; and not near so much toward the finishing, as in the old process, as the metal has by that time cooled very much and, of course, is less malleable; while by the new, the whole operation is performed so speedily, that the temperature of the metal is very little reduced.

A Caveat was filed at Washington some time last winter, and application for a patent for the invention is now pending in the names of Messrs. Harris & Geo. Bright. A model may be seen at the hardware store of the latter in this place,

As to the cost of a mill, constructed with the new Rolling machinery, a liberal estimate places it at about 15 to 20 per cent. more than the present expenditure; but the new Rolling apparatus alone will not cost more than 10 per cent. over the price of the present Rolls. The other increased expense results from the additional number of improved capacity of the furnaces, necessary to supply the new Rolling machinery; and of course is to be considered in connection with the proportional increase of manufacture. This will become plain by a simple calculation: A mill constructed on the old plan can work up about 70 tons of metal in 24 hours ; that is, in the largest establishe

ments, with the best of machinery and the most experienced workmen. But, with the new Rolling gear, 120 tons can be manufactured in 12 hours; or nearly four times as much-yet the yield in both cases being limited by the rolling power. The principal difference, so far as cost is concerned, after the new Rolling apparatus is introduced, is in the additional number of furnaces required to keep it going

There are other incidental advantages connected with this invention that we have not attempted to enumerate -- we may have occasion to allude to it hereafter. The model has been examined by a great many persons, and the actual process of manufacture performed with small bars of cold lead. The general opinion expressed is admiration and implicit confidence in its success. We commend it specially to the notice of Iron Manufacturers throughout the country.-( Pottsville Joumal.

ANGEL CHILD.

"Of such is the Kingdom of Heaven.” The death of a child awakens an emotion of grief which is concentrated in the heart of its parents, but which is seldom deeply diffused throughout the circle of even their intimate friends, much less through the mass of society. The world does not mourn for those who die young, yet it is often said that they are the ones whom the gods love," that “of such is the Kingdom of Heaven.”

Why should not the death of a child awaken a deeper feeling ? Why should the world be indifferent to those whom the gods love? Why should mankind pay so little respect to the emblems of the Kingdom of Heaven?

Hallowed are the hours of childhood; hallowed its associations, its innocence, its singleness of heart, its love, its joy, its Angelguarded existence. God grant that its freshness of feeling, like the waving of Angel-wings beside the well of everlasting life, may be prolonged in harmony with the experience of years—that “Arcadia may be always in man, and man always in Arcadia."*

These reflections were suggested on the perusal of the following beautiful lines, full of tones of tenderness, coming from a heart overflowing with that freshness of feeling which indicates the Arcadian life of truth and poetry enjoyed by the fair authoress.

With naive and charming modesty she says : * Jean Paul.

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