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such; because I think a general government neces! sary for us, and there is no form of government but what may be a tiessing, if well adnuinistered ; and I believe, farther, that this is likely to be well ad. ministered for a course of years, and can only end in . despotism, as other forms have done before it, when the people shall become so corrupted as to weed des potic government, being capable of any other. I doubt too, whether any other convention we can ob tain, may be able to inake a better constitution : for when you assemble a number of men, to have the advantage of their joint wisdum, you inevitabiy assemble with those men all their prejudices, their passions, their errors of opinion, their local interests, and their selfish views." Froin such an assembly can a perfect production be expected ? It therefore astonishes me, Sir, to find this system approaching so near to perfection as it does; and I think it will astonish our enemies, who are waiting witi confi. dence, to hear that our councils are confounded, like those of ihe builders of Babylon, and that our States are on the point of separation, only to meet hereafter for the purpose of cutiing each otier's throats.

Thus, I consent, Sir, to this constitution, because I expect no better, and because l-ain not sure that this is not the best. The opinions I have had of its errors I sacrifice to the public good. I have never whispered a syllable of thein abroad. Within these walls they were born, and here they shall die. If every one of us, in returning to our costituents, were to report the objections he has had to it, and endeavour to gain partisans in support of them, we might prevent its being generally received, and thereby lose all the salutary effects and great advantages resulting naturally in our favour ainong foreign nations, as well as among ourselves, from our real or apparent unanimity. Much of the strength and efficiency of any government, in procuring and securing happinuss to the people, depends on opinion; on the general opinion of the goodness of thai government, as we! as of the wisilom and integrity of its governors.

I hope, therefore, that for our own sakes, as a part of the people, and for the sake of our posterity, we

shall act heartily and unanimously in recommending his constitution, wherever our influence may extenii,

and turn our future thoughts and endeavours to the a means of having it well adninistered.

On the whole Sir, I cannot help expressing a wish, that every member of the Convention, who may stil:

have objections, would with me, on this occasion, * doubt a little of his own infallibility, and, to maka V manifest our unanimity put his name to this instru nent.

[The motion was then made for adding the las formuia, viz.

Done in Convention, by the uranimous consent, &c. which was agreed to, and added accordingly.



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Philadelphia, Feb. 11, 1776. DEAR SIR,

The bearer, Mons. Arundel, is directed by the Con ** gress to repair to General Schuyler, in order to be - employed by him in the artillery service. He proposes * o wait on you in his way, and has requested me to

introduce him by a line to you. He has been au in officer in the French service, as you will see by hi * commissions; and, professing a good will to our E cause, I hope he may be useful in instructing our * gumners and matrosses: perhaps he inay advise in opening the nailed canron.

I received the inclosed the other day from an officer, Mr. Newland, who served in the two last wars. and was known by General Gates, who spoke well as him to me when I was at Cainbridge. He is desir ous now of entering into your service. I have ad vised him to wait upon you at New York.

They still talk big in England, and threaten hard but their language is somewhat civiller, at least not quite so disrespectful to us. By degrees they como to their senses, but too late, I fancy, for their in terest.

We have got a large quantity of saltpetre, on hundred and twenty ton, and thirty more expected Powder niills are now wanting ; I believe we mus set to work and make it by hand. But I still wish, with you, that pikes could be introduced, and I would add bows and arrows: these were good wea pons, and not wisely laid aside.

1. Because a inan may shoot as truly with a bow as with a common muskel.

2. He can discharge four arrows in the time o! charging and discharging one bullet.

3. His ohject is not taken from his view by the smoke of his own side.

4. A fight of arrows seen coming upon them cerri. fies and disturbs the eneiny's attention to his business.

tof a man, puts him hors du combat till it is extracted.

6. Bows and arrows are inore easily provided every where than muskets and ammunition.

Polydore Virgil, speaking of cne of our baules against the French in Edward the Third's reign, mentions the great confusion the enemy was throw'n into sagittarum nube, from the English ; and concludes, “ Est res profecto dictu mirabilis ut tantus ac potens exercitus a solis ferè Anglicis sagittariis victus fuerit ; adeo Anglus est sagittipotens, et id genus ar inorum valet." If so much execution was done by arrow's when men wore soine defensive armour, Irow much inore inight be done now that it is out of use!

I am glad you are come to New York, but I also wish you could be in Canada. There is a kind of El.spense in men's minds here at present, waiting to see what ternis will be offered froin England. I ex. Deci pone that we can accept; and when that is generally seen, we shall be more unanimous and more

decisive: then your proposed solemn league and covenant will go better down, and perhaps most of our other strong measures be adopted.

I am always glad to hear froni you, but I do not deserve your favours, being so bad a correspondent. My eyes will now hardly serve me to write by night, and these short days have been all ta' en up by such variety of business that I seldom can sit down ten ninulos without interruption, God give you success

I am, with the greatest esteem,

Yours affectionately,




Passy, September 22, 1782.


leeroun the papers with some corrections. I ditt s not lind coal mines, under the calcareous rock in

Derbys.).e.--I only remarked, thai at the lowest

pari of that rocky mountain, wbich was in sigh, By there were oyster shells mixed with the stone; and

part of the high country of Derby being probably as Tiruch above the level of the sea, as the coal mines of ! Whilehaven were below, it seemed a proof that there

had been a great couleversement in the surface of that island, some part of it having been depressed un

der the sea, and other parts, which had been under lit, being raised above it. Such changes in the super

ficial parts of the globe seemed to me unlikely to hap apa pen, if the earth were solid at the centre. I there

are imagined that the internal parts might be a lui: other more dense, and of greater specific gravity than ar and (f the solids we are acquainted with; which there earth tyre might swim in or upon that fluid. Thus the sur The lace of the globe would be a shell, capable of being

COIN sroken and disordered by the violeni morement

woul of Auid on which it restert. And, as air has been

upon ompressed by art so as to be twice as dense as wa) woule ler, in which case, if such air and water could be ward contained in a strong glass vessel, the air would te fluid. keen to take the lowest place, and the water to 20a throu above and upon it; and, as we know not yet the de find gree of density to which air may be compressed, and fancie M. Amontons calculated, that, its density increasing our as it approached the centre in the same proportion as and a above the surface, it would at the depth of leagues menti be heavier than gold, possibly the dense fluid occu ture o pying the internal parts of the globe might be ar of our compressed. And as the force of expansion in dens long air when heated, is in proportion to its density; thi tained central air might afford another agent to move the ble or surface, as weil as be of use in keeping alive the cen luid tra) fires; though, as you observe, the sudden rare that si faction of water, coming into contact with those fires verse may be an agent sufficienlly strong for that purpose, possih when acting between the incumbent and the fluid or which it rests.

lower If one night indulge imagination in supposing) partir how such a globe was formed; I should conceire ba that all the elements in separate particles, being or in the ginally mixed in confusion, and occupying a great the in space, they would as soon (as soon as the Almight) While fiat ordained gravity, or the mutual attraction of cer temne ain parts, and the mutual repulsion of other parts, I situa. xist) all move towards their common centre: tha fuid the air being a fluid whose parts repel each other it ma though drawn to the common centre by their gravity globe would be densest towards the centre, and rarer a senthe more remote; consequently, all bodies, lighter that it for the central parts of thát air, and immersed in it would its st recede from the centre, ani rise till they arrive at th8 region of the air, which was of the saine specific go

and vity with themselves, where they would rest; whi



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