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spirit of knowledge-civilization— cessful means which he had employliberty. It has gone forth like an ed to elucidate the important inquiry, angel, scattering blessings in its path and maintain, to the satisfaction of -solacing the wounded mind--and all unprejudiced persons, the repusilently pointing out the triumphs of tation of Laurens Koster. In the morality and the truths of revelation second part he described, in a bold to the gaze of those whom the want but just style, the influence of printof precept or good example had de- ing on the civilization of mankind, based, and whom ignorance had made and alluded to the freedom of the sceptical. Yet of him, whose ima- press, as a medium to aid the progination conceived, and whose per- gress of knowledge, which should, he severance executed those wonder- said, ever remain unfettered; in conworking characters--those speaking clusion be congratulated the nation, miracles—the world has been a nig- that this freedom, insured to them by gard in its praise, and slow in its the fundamental law of the country, approval, whilst her trumpet tongue existed under the government of a has often exalted some privileged tolerant and beloved monarch. slayer of his fellow-man-some dar- Tollens, the justly popular poet, ing advocate of power, whose re- next rose, and, in impressive verse, nown is purchased with the blood, paid homage to the festival. This and groans, and tears of thousands composition was characterized by a to the very heaven of fame.

happy choice of imagery, and of all As soon

as the reports of the that is good, and true, and beautiful

were heard, the different in poetry. The amusements were houses displayed leafy garlands and diversified by J. P. Schuman, the flags. At eight o'clock, the doors of organist, who gratified the company the great church were opened, and, with appropriate music on the celein less than an hour, the sitting- brated organ, which has for ninety places were occupied by more than years adorned the city. The cantata four thousand persons, of various being concluded, they returned to ranks and degrees. In front of the the Senate-house ; thence they procelebrated organ, a convenient or- ceeded to the Achthoek in the wood chestra was erected, for one hundred of Haarlem, under the escort of the and fifty musicians, among whom militia, and of the infantry and cawere between forty and fifty male valry composing the garrison. Slowand female singers, under the direc- ly, and accompanied by music, went tion of the well-known A. Fodor. the stately train, through the streets At half-past nine, a train, composed of Haarlem ; whilst the wood, as far of the town and country magistrates, as the procession reached, was movand the highest military, ecclesiasti- ing like a sea with its living waves. cal, and literary characters, after Having arrived at the Achthoek, the having proceeded in grand procession train arranged itself around the mofrom the senate-house, entered the nument, which was entirely covered church, where several pieces of with drapery. The presiding burmusic, and particularly a cantata, gomaster (Mr. David Hoeufft) then performed by Fodor, the words to delivered an address, and at an apwhich were written by the poet J. pointed signal, and amid discharges van Walré, afforded great delight of artillery, the covering fell away, At the conclusion of the vocal and and the quadrangular monument beinstrumental music, Professor van came visible. It was planned by der Palm ascended the pulpit, and Zocher, the architect, and executed addressed his numerous auditors with in Bentheim stone by D. Doeglas of much force and elegance. In the Haarlem, and afforded an additional first part of his discourse, he defend- proof of the truth of one of Boered, with his peculiar ingenuity, the haave's adages, that the characterishonour of Koster's invention, and tic of true beauty is simplicity. The the truth of the account given by the monument is six feet in breadth learned Junius; awarding due praise and depth, and eleven feet high. to the scientific Meerman ; but eu- The sides are united by columns, logizing, in particular, Mr. J. Kon- and bear the arms of the city and of ing, who was present, on the suc- Laurens Koster, with appropriate

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inscriptions in Latin and Dutch ;- railing which enclosed the statue of the whole being provided with a Koster, and then took their way to cupola, on the projecting sides of the Bakenesser church, where the which four emblems * are carved. rest of the pupils, to the number of When the presiding burgomaster had eight hundred, and a great concourse distributed gold medals to Messrs. of other persons, were already asVan der Palm, Tollens, J. P. van sembled. The president of the comWickevoort Crommelin, President mission (the Rev. J. S. van Staveren) of the Dutch Scientific Society, and then rose and spoke with much disJ. Koning, for his answer to the prize crimination and feeling, and the Rev. question-an answer which clearly H. Manger recited a poetical addemonstrated that its author had dress, which was excellently adapted traced the art of printing to its source, to the occasion. The poor of the -Mr. R. H. Arntzenius, the poet, parish received double allowances, recited an energetic lyric poem, writ- and the different charitable instituten to consecrate the monument, and tions obtained additional gifts. We applicable to the entire festival. The must not forget to mention, that on train then went back, in the same both days the remains of Laurens order, and under the same escort, to Koster's printing, particularly the the Senate-house, and there received Donaten, and his important edition impressions of the medal, with testi- of the Spiegel onzer Behoudenis, + in monials for each individual, describ- Dutch and Latin, were exhibited to ing in what capacity he had acted at the public in the Baptist church. At the celebration of the festival. the same place were also shown an

One hundred invited guests, con- extremely old portrait of Koster, sisting of the whole magistracy of the lately discovered by Mr. J. Koning, town, and various civil and military and a full-length painting of him by authorities, banqueted at the pavi- Kruseman, the youthful and ingenilion, Welgelegen, where his Excel- ous artist of Haarlem. lency, the governor of North Hol- The whole of the second day had land, commissioned by the King to been celebrated with rejoicings and show his Majesty's participation and various pastimes, and at night the interest in the festival, for a time city was brilliantly illuminated. The held his residence. It was here that streets and canals were covered with the governor presented a portrait of people ; but it was at the marketLaurens Koster, sent by the King to place, near the statue of Koster, the magistrates of Haarlem, for the where the printing-press was worked, purpose of being hung up in the Se- and the produce of it distributed nate-chamber.

among the multitude, that the crowd On this occasion, Professor M. Sie- was greatest. genbeek, Rector Magnificus of the There might be seen the sedate old University of Leyden, delivered some city gentleman jostled against some apposite and beautiful lines.

young and handsome Boerinnetje At ten o'clock at night a splendid from Vriesland, with her snowy cap fire-work was exhibited, the last and golden ornaments; the fopling change of which represented an illu- from the Hague, with his courtierminated temple, with the name and airs and palace-phrases, impeded in bust of Laurens Koster, ornament- his progress by some ancient dame ed with variegated and brilliant fires. from one of the northern districts, The wreath, which was composed of blest with wealth of flesh and garrockets, had an admirable effect. This ments manifold. At a little distance concluded the first and principal day's you might observe a young couple festival. On the evening of the se- listening to the music, and ever and cond day, two hundred children from anon the fair-haired girl, with the city schools, accompanied by the

Sweet eyes school commissioners, garlanded the That shine celestial wonder,

A branch of beech, a winged A, a wreathed snake, and a lamp. + This is the first book that was ever printed, and is, as may be expected, a very rude specimen of the art. The leaves are printed only on one side. The work also contains some wood cuts, which are perfectly in character with the typographical part.

looking up in her lover's face as if festival, the remembrance of which she drew existence from it; and, on will not easily be obliterated from the every side, joyous groups of all ranks minds of those who witnessed it; for and stations, gazing contentedly on the free of all countries will associate the scene before them-passing their with it the very liberties they enjoy innocent jests, and

-the privileges they possess; and Paying unto Care no vassalage. consider that the glorious art which Thus ended, to the satisfaction of Laurens Koster has bequeathed to the inhabitants of the place,* of in- us, is a legacy not intended for a few, numerable strangers, and without the but for all; not for Holland—but for least disturbance or a single acci- the world. dent, this truly national festival-a

The rejoicings were not confined to Haarlem ; at Dordrecht on the 10th, and at Rotterdam on the 11th, the printers paraded the streets in grand procession.


Another and another still succeeds.-Rowe. GENTLEMEN,

mean by dramatists of the same naThere have been three successive, tion using a different language in or as I may say, descending schools their works, will be obvious to most of our National Drama : the drama- of you, Gentlemen; lest however, tic proper, the rhetoric, and the poe- there should be any buzzards among tic pure. Observe: I use the words you, I will illustrate my meaning dramatic, rhetoric, poetic, as cha- by a few apposite examples. These racterising three different sects of will likewise serve to show the buzour dramatic writers, though every zards that there has been such a tragedy in blank verse may be con- schism in our national drama as I sidered as a poem, and though there speak of, that it is divisible into three is much true rhetoric in legitimate distinct schools or persuasions, and drama. But the predominance of that I have characterised each sect by dramatic, rhetóric or oratoric, and an appropriate name. poetic language, in the three schools

Take, for instance, this speech of respectively, is sufficient wherefrom King Lear, where he disclaims Corto denominate them. Note also, that delia for her deficiency in the quaI designate each school from the lan- lification of hypocrisy : guage chiefly employed in it. Our national drama may, however, (like Let it be so.-Thy truth then be thy dower : Omnis Gallia) be “ quartered into For, by the sacred radiance of the sun ; three halves," or into a dozen, accord- The mysteries of Hecate, and the night ; ing to many other schemes of divi- From whom we do exist, and cease to be ;

By all the operations of the orbs, sion. Thus it would be a very sim- Here I disclaim all my paternal care, ple distribution of our consolidated Propinquity and property of blood, fund of tragic reputation, into good And, as a stranger to my heart and me, and bad ; whereof the former being Hold thee, from this, for ever. The barappropriated by the writers of the barous Scythian, Elizabethan era,--the monopoly of Or he that makes his generation messes the latter would accrue to all the To gorge his appetite, shall to my bosom rest, amongst whom, you, Gentlemen, Be as well neighbour’d, pitied, and reliev'd, might very fairly claim a large divi- As thou my sometime daughter. dend. But it is enough for my pur

Act I, Sc. 1. pose that there have sprung, up, at This is the language of passion ; three different times of our history, it is also the language of action. It three tragedistical sects, each of is the language of active passion, (if which was delivered of its inspiration you will allow the verbal solecism); in a peculiar and characteristic lan- or it is the language of passionate acguage, though all of them spoke in tion, (without a solecism). This is the same inother-tongue. What I the general, characteristic language

the crickets cry.

of that school which I call the drae man account, but I know you will matic proper ; and therefore I so call excuse me at present. it, because it speaks in a language If we picture to our ears a number of which involves both action and pasi pewterers plying their hammers in rosion, the pillars and atlantean sup- tation, each for the space of from five port of the dome of divine tragedy. to ten seconds, with equal zest and I might have easily selected more rapidity, we shall have a pretty acprominent examples than the fore- curate notion of the kind of dialogue going from the same play, but their which reigns in the second or rhetoric very excellence has made them trite; school of the drama. Every chait is sufficient to mention Lear's Im-racter, on every occasion, feels it a precation and the Storm. It may be duty which he owes to God and his well, too, to remark that the drama- country, to make a regular speech of tic spirit of this school displays it- the same cut and dimensions (as self more in the running dialogue, near as he can guess) with the patthan in those parts where one speaker tern which dropped from the lips of engrosses all the time of conversa- the last speaker. When he who first tion, as in the above specimen. What opens the case has concluded his can be more intense than the follow- statement, another holds forth for ing dialogue, though so brief and about the same length of duration ; compressed? What so spirit-stirring, and this orator in his turn surrenders though the speakers are supposed as the tub to a third, who “ takes up still, and almost as hush as marble? the wond'rous tale” on a similar Macbeth. I have done the deed :-Did'st condition. The dramatists of this thou not hear a noise ?

school, I have no doubt, wrote by a Lady M. I heard the owl scream, and -stop-watch, and distributed their dia

- logue to the several personages by Did not you speak ?

the table of long measure ; that to Macb. When ?

say, in or about five seconds of talkLady M. Now. Macb. As I descended ?

ing-time, or three barley-corns' length Lady M. Ay.

of paper, to each character, at every Macb. Hark': _Who lies i' the second onset. Inch of candle was, I dare chamber?

say, a favourite mode with them of Lady M. Donalbain.

getting off their rhetoric commoMacb. This is a sorry sight.

dities. They also, with a truly laud(Looking on his hands,) able impartiality, cast both remark The breath seems to stop in one's and rejoinder in one mould of thought throat whilst reading these lines; the and expression; the same bore of vital principle is almost suspended, mouth is required to give vent to the whilst the intellectual is in a state several speeches; the sentiments disof preternatural excitement. Our charged by the different characters anxiety is on tenterhooks; if a thun- at each other are exactly of the derbolt fell beside us, we should not same mental calibre. All fire off start. Macbeth's inexplicit avowal their several rounds of declamation of the murder; his guilty inquiry with equal adroitness and effect; so about the noise; the dreary, silent that, in point of elocution, it is imimages raised by the mention of noc- possible to say whether Alexander turnal and ill-boding cries; his start- the Great or his valet de chambre ing off from his lady's question into has the best of the battle. These the sudden exclamation—“ Hark!” authors seem to have proposed to his forgetting her question, and only themselves a certain module of lanadverting to the blood upon his guage, by the inviolable observation hands; all these circumstances fill of which they accomplished the the above short dialogue with more double purpose of rendering their appalling sublimity and terrible in- dramas very nearly as classical and terest, than the words seem suffi- polite as they are dull and monotociently numerous to convey. There nous. A few “ golden lines” from is something of a superstitious terror the Fair Penitent, will exemplify the about it, which always drives a chill preceding animadversions : through my veins, and roughens the

Lothario. Weep not, my fair ; but let fell all over my body. I could the god of love lengthen this commentary to a Ger- Laugh in thy eyes and revel in thy heart,


Kindle again his torch, and hold it high, brought to bear, point-blank, on the
To light us to new joys. Nor let a thought audience. Compared to these phra-
Of discord, or disquiet past, molest thee; seological fulminations, the running
But to a long oblivion give thy cares, dialogue is mere pop-gunneryHere
And let us melt the present hour in bliss.
Calista. Seek not to soothe me with thy declaimers! Our ears are cannonaded

are the field-days for brazen-throated false endearments, To charm me with thy softness ; 'tis in vain :

with literal bullets for some fifteen or Thou can'st no more betray, nor I be twenty rounds; the idle basses in the ruined.

orchestra groan in spontaneous conThe hours of folly and of fond delight cert; and the very boards of the Are wasted all, and fled ; those that remain platform leap, split, and crack, whilst Are doom'd to anguish, weeping, and re- the unrelenting orator spits forth his pentance.

words as if his mouth were a mortar. I come to charge thee with a long account Busiris is a bombardier of this fashion. Of all the sorrows I have known already, And all I have to come ; thou hast undone throws into the pit!

Hear what a volley of shells he Loth. Unjust Calista! dost thou call it Some when they die, die all; their mould. ruin

ering clay To love as we have done ; to melt, to lan. Is but an emblem of their memories :

guish, To wish for somewhat exquisitely happy,

The space quite closes up through which

they pass'd. And then be blest even to that wish's That I have lived, I leave a mark behind height?

Shall pluck the shining age from vulgar To die with joy, and straight to live again;

time, Speechless to gaze, and with tumultuous And give it whole to late posterity, transport

My name is wrote in mighty characters, Cal. Oh, let me hear no more : I cannot Triumphant columns and eternal domes, bear it;

Whose splendour heightens our Egyptian "Tis deadly to remembrance. Let that night,

day; That guilty night be blotted from the year ; Whose strength shall laugh at time, till For 'twas the night that gave me up to their great basis, shame,

Old Earth itself, shall fail. In after ages, To sorrow, to the false Lothario.

Who war or build, shall build or war from Act 4, Sc. 1.

me, This is such a natural kind of dia. Grow great in each, as my example fires : logue to be kept up by a dramatis Tis I of art the future wonders raise ; personæ for three hours and a half Great Jove, I come ! Egypt, thou art for

I fight the future battles of the world.together ! Yet it is a very favourable saken:

(Sinks.) specimen of Rowe's general manner:

Asia's impoverish'd with my sinking glories, full, rounded, polished, tame, empty, And the world lessens when Busiris falls. and artificial. Mark, too, how sedu

(Dies.) lous the speakers are to finish their

Act 5, Sc. last. harangues with a line of the regular heroic length. No alternate snapping

The reader will observe, that this up of each other in the middle of contains but half the whole series of a pentameter, no breaking short with lutes the audience in his final broad

explosions, with which Busiris saa contemptible hemistich, no infractions on decorum, no single excla- side. To speak, however, without mations; they are each determined to metaphor or hyperbole, in which I have their full complement of syllables,

am not a little prone to indulge, this their quota of poetical numbers, in furious display of rhetoric is totally the last verse as well as the first. unfit for the stage. It may be very Calista, indeed, seems to be within good as an exhibition on the rostrum, an ace of committing a faux pas


as a parliamentary cheer-snare, or as the concluding line, but she has only pulpit-oratory, but it is not the lanto enounce it thus :

guage of passion. It is not drama,

it is declamation. It may be soTo sorrow, to the false Lothari-on

norous, but it is not sublime. We and all is right again.

may be deafened by its clamour, but But the grand bruit is reserved for shall never be transported by its the set speeches of some principal energy,

A drum makes a great characters in the piece, where the noise, but it is hollow within.

A whole park of rhetorical artillery is trumpet makes a very respectable

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