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to have the utmost range, all others be- of itself, and then you must deterge and tween oo and 45° are called the interme. heal the ulcer as before. diate ranges.
RANULARES, or RANINE VEINS, in RANGER, a sworn officer of a forest, ap- anatomy, two veins under the apex of
pointed by the king's letters-patent, the tongue, which arise from the internal whose business is to walk through his jugular, and run on either fide the linea charge, to drive back the deer out of the mediana. See the article TONGUE. purlieus, &c. and to present all tres. RANUNCULUS, CROWFOOT, in botany, passes within his jurisdiction at the next a genus of the polyandria-polygynia clase foreft-court,
of plants, the flower of which consists of RANGES, in a tip, two pieces of timber five obtuse petals : there is no pericar
that go across from side to side; the one pium; the feeds, which are numerous, on the fore.caftle, a little abaft the fore- being connected to the receptacle, by mast, and the other in the beak.head, means of very thort peduncles. See
before the wouldings of the bow-sprit. plate CCXXVII. fig. si RANGIFER, the REIN-DEER. See the This genus comprehends the ficaria, ra. article REIN DEER.
nunculus, and ranunculoides of authors: RANGING, in war, disposing the troops there are a great many species of it in
in the order proper for an engagement, our meadow and pasture grounds, where or for marching
they remain after the pasture is grazed ; RANGING, in building, signifies running because being very acrid, the catile never
ftrait, when the sides of a work do not eat thein, otherwise they would blister break into angles.
their mouths and throats. RANINE VEINS. See RANULARES. RAOLCONDA, a city of the hither India, RANK, the order or place allotted a per- fituated in the province of Golconda :
fon, suitable to his quality or merit. east long. 79°, north lat. 17° 12'. RANK, in war, is a row of soldiers, placed RAPACIOUS ANIMALS, are such as live fide by side.
upon prey. To double the ranks, is to put two ranks The characteristic marks of rapacious into one. To close the ranks, is to birds are, that they have a large head bring the men dearer : and to open them, and a Mort neck, hooked, ttrong, and is to let them farther apart.
sharp-pointed talons, a sharp fight, a RANSOM, a fom of money paid for the membranous stomach, and not a muscu.
redemption of a flave, or for the liberty ·lous one, or a gizzard like birds that live of a prisoner of war. In our law-books, on grain. ransom is also used for a sum paid for RAPA, RAPE, in botany, is made by the pardon of some great offence, and to Linnæus a species of brassica, obtain the offender's liberty.
RAPE, in law, the having carnal know. RANT, in the drama, an extravagant, un. ledge of a woman by force and against
natural, and improbable flight of passion. her will. By statute, whoever carnally RANULA, or RANA, in medicine, a tu. koows a female child under ten years of
mour under the tongue, which like a li. age, shall suffer as a felon; and here it gature hinders a child from speaking or does not fignify whether such child confucking.
sented, or was forced ; it is only to be The matter contained in these tumours proved that the offender entered her body; is various, it being sometimes a tena.. the crime itself congits in penetration cious and mucous lymph, sometimes a and emisfion : but where there is neither thick and purulent 'maiter, and some- of these, an attempt to ravish, be it times of a hard and ftony confiftence. never so outrageous, is deemed only an The fafest method of cure, according to assault. In caie a woman conceives, it Heister, is to turn the toogue upwards, is held to be no rape, from an opinion, and to make a transverse incifion through that the cannot conceive unless the cona the tumour, in order to discharge the in- fent. However, it is no excuse that a cluded matter; after which you may de. woman at last yielded to the violence and terge or destroy the remaining tunic consented, if her consent was extorted by with honey of roses sharpened with spi- the fear of death and imprisonment. rits of vitriol, and then the cure may be However, it is a strong presumption cafily completed with a mixture of oil againit the woman, if the make no come and sugar. Sometimes the tubercle breaks plaint within forty days after the injury,
which is the time allowed by law. A disposed in the form of a cross: its fruit
RAPIER, formerly fignified a long, old:
dom of Naples, fixty-six miles east of Rape of the forest, a trespass committed in Naples.
a forelt by violence. See FOREST.' RAPPAHANOCK, a large navigable RAPE is also a name given to a division river which rises in the mountains weft
of a county, and sometimes means the of Virginia, and discharges itself into the
heir that held land in sockage. See the RAPE also tignifies the stalks of the clusters article RavisHMENT,
of grapes when dried, and freed from RAPTURE, an extasy, or transport of the fruit. This is used in making vine. mind. See EXTASY, ENTHUSIASM, &c.
gar. See the article VINEGAR, RARE, in physics, stands opposed to dense, RAPE-SEED, the seed of a plant described and denotes a body that is very porous,
by authors under the name of napus fyl. whose parts are at a great distance from veftris and bunias sylvestris. See the ar. one another, and which contains but ticle Napus.
little matter under a large bulk. See the Rape-seed is cultivated to great advan. following article. tage in several counties in England, par- RAREFACTION, rarefa&io, in physics, ticularly in Lincolnshire, and consider. the act whereby a body is rendered rare ; able quantities of it are brought from that is, brought to possess more room, or Holland. From this seed is drawn an appear under a larger bulk without accele oil called rape oil, which is used in the fion of any new matter. woollen manufacture, and in the materia Rarefaction is opposed to condensation. medica, is esteemed attenuant, cordial, See the articles CONDENSATION, COM. and sudorific.
PRESSION, and DENSITY. Rape-seed, on being imported, pays a Rarefaction is most properly reftrained duty of 51, 13 s. 6 d. the last, contain: to that expansion of a mass into a larger ing ten quarters; and draws back, on bulk, which is effected by heat. All ex. exportation, sl. 8 s. 9 d.
panlion from other causes they call dila. RAPHANUS, the RADISH, in botany, a tation. See the articles EXPANSION,
genus of the tetradynamia class of plants, DILATATIon, and Fire.
its effect, and to the same principle also were; and from some farther experi. we owe our æolipiles, thermometers, &cments M. Amontons found, that the The degree to which the air is rarifiable, principles will only hold in the mean exceeds all imagination; fuch is the rarefactions, not the extremes. See the rarefaction of common air from its own article MOUNTAIN. principle of elasticity, and without any The open air, in which we breathe, fays previous condensation, that Mr. Boyle Sir Isaac Newton, is 8 or goo times found it to dilate itself so as to take up lighter than water, and by consequence 13679 times its former space ; and when 8 or 900 times rarer. And since the compressed, the same author found its air is compressed by the weight of the greatest space when most rarified, to its incumbent atmosphere, and the density Jeast when most condensed, as 550000 of the air is proportionable to the comto 1. See Air and ATMOSPHERE. pressing force, it follows by computa. Such an immense rarefaction, Sir Isaac tion, that at the height of about seven Newton fhews is inconceivable on any english miles from the earth, the air is other principle than that of a repelling four times rarer than at the surface of force inherent in the air, whereby its the earth ; and at the height of 14 miles, particles mutually Ay from one another. it is 16 times rarer than at the surface This repelling force, he observes, is much of the earth; and at the height of 21, more considerable in air than in other 28, or 35 miles, it is respectively 64, 256, bodies, as being generated from the most or 1024 times rarer, or thereabouts; and fixed bodies, and that with much diffi. at the height of 70, 140, and 210 miles, culty, and scarce without fermentation ; it is about 1000000, 1000000000000, or those principles being always found to 1000000000000000000, &c. fly each other with the most force, which, Mr. Coies has found, from experiments when in contact, cohere the most firmly. made with a thermometer, that linseed. M. Moriotte established this as a prin- oil is rarified in the proportion of 40 to ciple, from experiments, that the differe, 39 in the heat of the human body; in ent rarefactions or condensations of the that of 15 to 14, in that degree of beat air, follow the proportion of the weights wherein water is made to boil; in the wherewith it is pressed. Hence, fuppo- proportion of 15 to 13, in that degree fing the mercury in the level of the sea of heat wherein melted tin begins to suspended to 28 inches, which is the harden ; and, finally, in the proportion weight of the whole atmosphere; and of 23 to 20, in that degree wherein that 60 feet height of air are equivalent melted tin arrives at a perte&t solidity. to a line or t'i of an inch of mercury, so The same author discovered, that the rathat the barometer at the height of 60 refaction of the air in the same degree feet from the sea, would fall å line. It of heat is ten times greater than that of is easy finding what height of air would the linseed-oil; and the rarefaction of be equal to a second, or any other line of the oil, about fifteen times greater than mercury ; for, as 28 inches of mercury that of the Spirit of wine. i's are to 28 inches, so is the height of RAREFACTIVES, in medicine, reme60 feet of air to a fourth term, which is dies which open and enlarge the pores of the height of air corresponding to a second the skin, to give an easy vent to the mat. line of mercury. And after the fame ter of perspiration : or luch medicines as manner may the height of air correspond. rarefy the blood, as anile, mallows, peling to each line be found, which will litory, chamomile. flowers, linseed, &c. make a geometrical progression, the sum RASANT, or Razant, in fortification. whereof will be the whole height of the Rasant-flank, or line, is that part of the atmosphere, and of consequence a certain curtin or flaok whence the shot exploded part of that sum will be the height of a rase, or glance, along the surface of the mountain, at whose top the barometer opposite bastion. Ihall have funk a certain quantity. See RASEBURG, a port town of Sweden, in the article BAROMETER,
the province of Finland, and territory Meff. Callini and Maraldi, upon mea. of Nyland, lituated on the gulph of Fin furing the heights of several mountains, land : east long. 23°, north lat. 60° 22'. found that this progression of M. Mariotté RASEN, a market-town of Lincoloshire, was defective ; that it always gave the situated twelve miles north-eal of Linheight of the mountains, and consequent.
coln. ly the rarefactions, less than they really RASH, in medicine, an eruption upon the Vol. IV.
ikin, thrown out in fevers or surfeits. infusing the whole for eight or ten days ; RASP, a rank sort of file. See File. then ftraining the liquor, and putting it RASTAT, the name of two towns of up for use : or else by infusing the
Germany; one in the circle of Bavaria, apricots cut in pieces in brandy, for a and archbishopric of Saltzburg, situated day or two, paffing it through a strainon the river Ens, thirty-five miles south ing bag, and then putting in the usual of the city Ens; another in the circle of ingredients, Swabia, and marquisate of Baden, fituated RATCH, or Rasy, in clock-work, a on the east side of the river Rhine, wen- fort of wheel having twelve fangs, which
ty one miles south-west of Philipsburg, serve to lift up the detents every hour, RAT, in zoology, the english name of and make the clock strike. See CLOCK.
several species of the mus-kind; as the RATCHETS, in a watch, are the small common-rat, the ground-rat, and the teeth at the bottom of the fusy, or bar. water-rat. See plate CCXXVII, fig. 6. rel, which stops it in winding up. where no 1. represents the common, and RATE, a standard or proportion, by no 2, the ground.rat.
which either the quantity or value of a The common rat is a quadruped too thing is adjusted. well known to need much description. RATE-TYTHE, when sheep or other cattle It is of a brownish grey colour, with a are kept in a parish for less time than-a long and almost naked tail. It greatly year, the owner must pay tythe for them resembles the common mouse in form, pro rata, according to the custom of the but is at least five times as large: the place. tail is divided into more than an hundred RATE of a ship of war is its order, deand fitty annular joints.
gree, or distinction, as to magnitude, The ground.rat is nearly of the size of burden, &c. The rate is usually ac. the common rat, only that its tail is
counted by the length and breadth of much sorter, as well as more hairy. the gun deck, the number of tors, and The water-rat is considerably larger than the number of men and guns the vessel the common kind : its tail is all the way carries of these there are fix rates. of the same thickness, and is abrupt at A first rate man of war has its gun-deck the end : irs legs are shorter than those from 159 to 174 feet in length, and from of the common rar, but its feet are longer, 44 to so feet broad; it contains from and the toes connected by membranes.
8313 to 1882 tons, has from 706 to Norway-Rat. See NORWAY,
800 men, and carries from 96 to 100 RAT-TAILS, or ARRESTS, in the manege, guns. Second rate thips have their
fignify hard callous swellings upon the gun-decks from 153 to 165 feet long, binder legs under the bough, running and from 41 to 46 broad; they contain along the finew,
from 1086 to 1482 tons, and carry
from A horse is called rat-tail, when he has 524 to 640 men, and from 84 to go no hair upon his tail,
guns, Third rates have their gun.decks RATAFIA, a fine fpirituous liquor, pre- from 140 to 158 feet in length, from 37
pared from the kernels, &c, o several to 42 feet broad; they contain from 871 kinds of fruit, particularly of sherries, to 1262 tons; carry from 389 to 476 and apricors,
men, and from 64 to 80 guns. Fourth Ratafia of cherries is prepared by bruising rates are in length on the gun decks the cherries, and putting them into a from 118 to 146 feet, and from 29 to vessel wherein brandy has been long kept; 38 broad ; they contain from 448 to 915 then adding to thein the kernels of tons ; carry from 226 to 346 men, and cherries, with Arawberries, sugar, cin- from 48 to 60 guns. Fifth rates have namon, white pepper, nutmegs, cloves; their gur-decks froin 100 to 120 feet and to twenty pound of cherries, ten long, and from 24 to 31 broad ; they conquaris of brandy. The vessel is left tain from 259 to 543 tons, and carry from open ten or twelve days, and then stopped 145 to 1go men, and from 26 to 44 close for two months before it be tapped. Ratasa of apricots is prepared two ways,
guns. Sixth rates have their guo-decks
from 87 to 95 feet long, and froin 32 viz. either by boiling the apricots in to 25 broad ; they contain from 152 to white wine, adding to ihe liquor an equal 256 tons, carry from 50 to 11o men, quantity of brandy with jugar, cinna. and from 16 to 24 guns. mon, mace, and the kernels of apricots ; It is to be observed, that the new built
thips are much larger, as well as better, divided by any quantity as a consequent;
Thus the ratio of A to B is but the portions of the new-built ships, as the
B' less those of the old ones. See the ar
ratio of B to A is ; and, in numbers, ticles SHIP and Navy.
the ratio of 12 to 4 is
-3, or triple; loom with four treddles, like ferges, and
but the ratio of 4 to 12 is
And bere note, that the quantities, thus fimply in the hair, and others where the
compared, must be of the same kind ; hair or knap is frized. Rateens are that is, such, which, by multiplication, chiefly manufacured in France, Holland, may be made to exceed one the other, or and Italy, and are moftly used in linings. as these quantities are said to have a The frize is a sort of coarse rateen, and ratio between them, which, being mula the drugget is a rateen half linen, half
tiplied, may be made to exceed one ano. woollen.
ther. Thus a line, how fort soever, RATIFICATION, ratificatio, an act ap- may be multiplied, that is, produced so
proving of, and confirming something long as to exceed in length any given done by another in aur name.
right line, and consequently these may This word is particularly u.ed in our be compared together, and the ratio exlaws for the confirmation of a clerk in pressed; but as a line can never, by a benefice, prebend, &c, formerly given any multiplication whatever, be made to him by the bishop, &c. where the right have breadth, that is, to be made equal of patronage is doubted to be in the king. to a superficies, how small foever ; there Ratification is also used for an act con- can therefore never be compared together, firming something we ourselves have done and consequently have no ratio or respect in our own name.
one to another, according to quantity ; RATIO, in arithmetic and geometry, is that is, as to how often the one contains,
that relation of homogeneous things or is contained in the other. See the ar-
of reasoning. See REASONING.
the army, for his daily subsistence, &c. A exceeds B, or B exceeds A; and this The horse have rations of hay and oais is found by taking A from B, or B from when they cannot go out to forage. A, and is called arithmetic reason or The rations of bread are regulated by ratio. 2. Or how many times, and parts weight. The ordinary ration of a foot of a time, A contains B, or B contains soldier is a pound and a half of bread per A; and this is called geometric reason or day. The officers have several rations ratio ; (or, as Euclid defines it, it is the according to their quality and the num. mutual babitude, or respect, of two ber of attendants that they are obliged to magnitudes of the same kind, according keep. When the ration is augmented to quantity; that is, as to how often the on occasions of rejoicing, it is called a one contains, or is contained, in the double ration, The thips crews have other) and is found by dividing A by B, also iheir rations or allowances of bilket, or B by A; and here note, that 'that pulle, and water, proportioned according quantity which is referred to another to their stock, quantity, is called the antecedent of the RATIONABILES EXPENSÆ, recfonal.ie ratio ; and that to which the other is re. expences. The commons in parliament, serred, is called the consequent of the as well as the proctors of the clergy, ratio ; as, in the ratio of A to B, A is jo convocation, were antiently alioned the antecedent, and B the consequent. rationabiles expensas ; that is, such alTherefore any quantity, as antecedent, lowance as
the king, confidering tbe "5 T 2