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when the vault and coffin were opened 'where they had lain him,' the sacred form of Washington was discovered in a wonderful state of preservation. The high pale brow wore a calm and serene expression; and the lips, pressed still together, had a grave and solemn smile, such as they doubtless wore when the first president gave up his mortal life for an immortal existence;
When his soft breath, with pain,
Was yielded to the elements again.'
The impressive aspect of the great departed overpowered the man whose lot it was to transfer the hallowed dust to its last tenement, and he was unable to conceal his emotions. He placed his hand upon the ample forehead, once highest in the ranks of battle, or throbbing with the cares of an infant empire, and he lamented, we doubt not, that the voice of fame could not provoke that silent clay to life again, or pour its tones of revival into the dull cold ear of death. The last acts of patriotic sepulture were thus consummated; and the figure, which we can scarcely dissociate from an apotheosis, consigned to its low, dim mansion, to be seen no more until mortal shall put on immortality and the bright garments of endless incorruption."
Next to General Washington, Lafayette ranks higher than any other public man in the general estimation of Americans. About Jefferson and Madison, Monroe and Adams, there are still differences of opinion; and still greater differences respecting General Jackson and Mr. Van Buren. But Lafayette, like Washington, seems to unite all suffrages; and, accordingly, the portrait of this venerable Friend of Liberty is generally to be found accompanying that of his hardly more illustrious companion in arms and partner in glory. Besides the full-length picture of Lafayette, which is suspended on the walls of the Hall of Representatives, opposite to that of General Washington, there is a beautiful marble bust of him in the library of Congress, an admirable likeness, and on the other side of the bust are inscribed the two following short extracts. The first is from the words of his speech, delivered at Washington, in the Hall of Representatives, on the 10th of December, 1824, when he said, "What better pledge can be given of a persevering national love of liberty, than when those blessings are evidently the result of a virtuous resistance to oppression, and of institutions founded on the rights of man, and the republican principle of self-government?" The second is the closing sentence of his answer to the president's farewell speech, delivered in Washington, September 7, 1825, when he said, "God bless you, sir, and all who surround you. God bless the American people, each of their statesmen, and the Federal Government. Accept the patriotic farewell of an overflowing heart. Such will be its last throb when it ceases to beat."
CHEROKEE VERSION OF THE PRAYER-BOOK.
In my inquiries respecting the Indians during our stay at Washington, I learned many new particulars, and from extremely favourable sources. The venerable Judge White, who was an inmate of the boarding-house in which we lived, was chairman of the committee of the Senate on Indian affairs, and we therefore saw many Indians and Indian agents, who came to see him on business. I became acquainted also with other Indians then at Washington, through other sources, and particularly with some of the Cherokees, one of whose tribe invented an alphabet, printed books, and gave to the whole body an impulse of advancement of considerable force. I had leisure also to read Captain Carver's remarkable Travels among the Indians in the Wisconsin Territory, with occasional comments and explanations by the experienced judge, who was so competent to the task. The result of all this was to convince me that the task of civilizing and instructing the Indias, if it be practicable at all, must be directed chiefly to the younger portion of the tribes, as the whole career of an Indian, from his cradle to manhood, is calculated teax his habits and prejudices deeper and deeper with every succeeding year, so as to make the civilization of the aduts almost hopeless.
We had a missionary and his wife staying with us, from New-England, on their way to the Rocky Mountains, where some tribes exist who have had no intercourse whatever with white men: and even chese acknowledged the extreme difficulty of bringing then into any state of civilization. Some of them, howeve, become nominal Christians, and evince all outward repect to Christianity. But any progress beyond that seems very doubtful. From one of these, our venerable frien, Judge White, received an Indian version of the Praye-book used by the Protestant Episcopal Church of Amenca, printed in English characters, but in Indian words, and having on the leaf preceding the title the following inscription: "To the Hon. Judge White, of Tennessee, a distinguished chief, now sitting by the great council-fire of the American nation in the City of Washington: from Daniel Bread, Chief of the Oneidas, who has the honour of sitting by the small council-fire of his nation at Dutch Creek, in the Territory of Wisconsin, Feb. 28, 1838."
It has been remarked of the Indians that, though they have all the ferocity which is characteristic of savage life, their feelings of generosity and gratitude towards those whom they esteem and respect are much more powerful than among
civilized people; and therefore it is that all who have lived longest among them, and know them most intimately, appear to entertain the most favourable opinion of their characters, which, according to the testimony of all parties, is never improved, but continually deteriorated by their intercourse with the more civilized race, because they rarely adopt their virtues, while they speedily acquire their vices, that of drinking to intoxication especially; and this soon leads to the indulgence of all the evil passions, since drunkenness, besides being a vice in itself, is the prolific source of almost every other.
Our last day at Washington was passed in paying and receiving farewell visits to the friends whose kindness we had experienced during our stay there, many of whom we hoped we might meet again in some other portion of the Union, where more leure and less dissipation might admit of our enjoying, what Washington will rarely admit, a quiet and social intercourse uited to the tranquillity of intellectual enjoyment; and witt. several there was not only the hope, but almost the assuratne, of such meetings in the various states in which they resded when at home, and through which it was our intention to travel before we should leave the country.
On the evening of Monday the 26th of March, we left Washington for Baltimore by the railroad cars, passing over the viaduct, which forms a pictuesque object in the way; the whole country looking better han when we last trav ersed it, from the entire disappearance of the snow and the approach of spring; and, after an agreeable ride of about two hours and a half, over a distance of thirty-eight miles, we reached Baltimore before eight in the evening, and found excellent accommodation in the Eutaw House Hotel, one of the most comfortable and commodious hat we had yet met with since our landing in the country.
Stay at Baltimore, and agreeable Intercourse there.-History of the First Foundation of Maryland.-Character of Lord Baltimore, a Catholic Peer.-Settlement of the Colony by his Son.-Followed by Roman Catholics of Rank and Fortune.--Religious Toleration the Principle of these Settlers.-Kind Treatment and Gratitude of the Indians.-Foundation of St. Mary's and Annapolis.-Early Existence of Negro Slavery in the Colony.-Origin and Cause of the First Indian War.-Progressive Prosperity of Maryland as a State.-First Foundation of the Town of Baltimore.-Elevation to the Dignity of a City in 1796.—Effects of the Revolution on its Prosperity.
OUR stay at Baltimore, which extended to a month, was unusually favourable in every point of view. The families with whom we had the good fortune to be acquainted were as hospitable and generous as they were intelligent and agreeable, and carriages were daily placed at our disposal for any excursions we designed to make. The weather was beautiful throughout the whole period, and scarcely a day passed without our being taken, by one friend or another, to some point of view in the city or its environs, from which the most extensive and advantageous prospect of the surrounding scene could be enjoyed. We visited in succession all its public institutions, attended its principal churches, were entertained both by social and by brilliant parties, and had every source of information and pleasure thrown open to us without reserve. I gladly availed myself, therefore, of these valuable advantages to acquire as full and accurate an account of Baltimore as was practicable, and to add to that which was necessarily gleaned from other sources the observations which our stay here enabled me to make for myself, the result of which will be found imbodied in the following sketch.
In describing Baltimore it is necessary to go a little farther back than the history of the city itself, for the purpose of showing how the influence of the first founders of society here continues to operate on the taste and habits of their descendants, and to make Baltimore essentially different from any of the cities of the Union which we had yet visited.
It was as early as the year 1620 that the first Lord Baltimore (then Sir Charles Calvert) obtained from James the First, to whom he was at that period secretary of state, a grant of land in America; but this being far north, in Newfoundland, the colony he founded there did not prosper. His visit to Virginia, eight years afterward, inspired him
with the first idea of settling there, if possible, instead; but, being obliged to quit that country by the persecution of the Protestants, who hated and feared him because he was a Roman Catholic, he subsequently formed the design of obtaining a royal grant of the lands north of the Potomac and at the head of the Chesapeake, for the purpose of founding a colony of refuge for the persecuted of his own sect in Europe. He succeeded in obtaining the grant he desired from the next sovereign, Charles the First, but did not live to carry his plans into execution. His son, however, Cecilius, the second Lord Baltimore, took up his father's project, and had the chartered grant confirmed to him, with the rest of the estates and title of his parent.
It was in 1632 that this charter began first to be acted on. A younger brother of Lord Baltimore, Leonard Calvert, was appointed governor of the province; and from the great number of Roman Catholics then suffering in England from the severity of the laws against them there, the materials of the new colony were easily obtained. But what was extremely favourable to the future character of the settlement and its inhabitants was this: that the most intelligent as well as the most moderate of the Catholic body in Britain were among the first to embark for this new land of liberty; and, as if they were determined, on their first entry into the sanctuary themselves, to make it a place of refuge also for all others, they established their colony on the liberal principles of perfect freedom of conscience, and tolerated the open profession and undisturbed practice of all forms of worship and tenets of doctrine, at the very period when the Puritan fathers of New-England, who, like themselves, had fled from the religious persecutions of the mother-country, were acting so unworthily as to proscribe and persecute persons of all other faiths than their own, and Roman Catholics especially.
The number of persons who embarked in the first expedi tion with Leonard Calvert did not exceed 200; but these were almost all gentlemen of rank and fortune, accompanied by about an equal number of adherents and attendants, all of the Roman Catholic Church. They took possession of the territory by landing near the mouth of the Potomac in the Chesapeake, planting there a cross, and claiming the soil "for our Saviour and our sovereign lord the King of England." But, that justice should be done to the aboriginal possessors of the region, a negotiation was opened with the Indian chief who was then sovereign of these wilds; and