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cording to M. Bauche, between William's Sound ana Mount St. Elias. The Russians and Captain Cook have not observed it, because it is very narrow. But it is to be wished, that this important dis;overy should be verified, which has been overlooked for two centuries, in spite of the attempts which have been made on these coasts. M. Baiche calls this massage the Straits of Ferrer.
POSITIONS TO BE EXAMINED.
1. All food, or subsistence from mankind, arises from the earth or waters.
2. Necessaries of life that are not foods, and all other conveniences, have their value estimated by the proportion of fcod consuified while we are employed in procuring them.
3. A smiali people with a large territory, may suh. sist on the productions of nature, with no other la. bour than that of gathering the vegetables and catchang the animals..
4. A large people with a small territory, find these insufficient; and, to subsist, must labour the earth,
to make it produce greater quantities of vegetable - food, suitable to the nourishinent of men, and of the animals they intend to cat.
5. From this labour arises a great increase of vegetable and animal food, and of materials for clothing; as flax, wool, silks, &c. The superfluity of these is wealth. With this wealth we pay for the labour em ployed in building our houses, cities, &c. which are therefore only subsistence thus metamorphosed.
6. Manufactures are only another shape into which so much provisisons and subsistence are turned, as were in value equal to the manufacture pro. duced. This appears from hence, that the manufac. Lurer does not, in fact, obtain from the employer. fus Ais labour, more than a mere subsistence, inclus
ing raiment, fuel, and shelter; all which derive then value from the provisions consumed in procuring them.
7. The produce of the earth, thus converted into manufactures, may be more easily carried into distant markets, than before such conversion.
3. Fair commerce is where equal values are ex. changed for equal, the expense of transport included. Thus, if it costs A in England, as much lat charge to raise a bushel of wheat, as it cc France to produce four gallons of wine, then gallons of wine the fair exchange for a bü wheat, A and B meeting at half distance wi coinmodities to make the exchange. The adı of this fair cominerce is, that each party increases the number of his enjoyments, having, instead of wheat alone, or wine alone, the use of both wheat and wine.
9. Where the labour and expense of producing both commodities are known to boih parties, bargains will generally be fair and equal. Where they are known to one party only, bargains will often be uue equal, knowledge taking its advantage of ignorance.
10. Thus he that carries a thousand bushels of wheat abroad to sell, may not probably obtain so greai a profit thereon, as if he had first turned the wlicat into manufactures, by subsisting therewith the workinen while producing those manufactures, since there are many expediting and facilitating snethods of working, not generally knowsi, and strangers to the manufactures, though they know pretty well the expense of raising wheat, are unacquainted with those short methods of working; and hence, being apt :o suppose more labor employe! n the manufacture than there really is, are more easily imposed on in their value, and induced to allow more for them than they are honestly worth.
11. Thus the advantage of having manufactures in a country does not consist, as is commonly supposed, in their highly advar.cing the value of rough inatcrials, of wnich they are formed; since, though oixpennyworth of fax may be worth twenty shillings when worked into lace, yet we very cause of its being worth twenty shillings is that, besides the fax, it has cost nineteen shillings and sixpence in subsistence to the manufarturer. But the advantage of inanufactures, ang chat, under their shape, provisions may be more easily carried to a foreign market; and by their means our traders may more easily cheat strangers. Few, where it is not made, are judges of the value of lace. The importer may demand forty, and perhaps get thirty shillings for chat which cost hiin but twenty.
12. Finally, there seems to be but three ways for · a nation to acquire wealth. The first is by war, as the Romans did, in plundering their conquered neighbours; this is robbery. The second by commerce, which is generally cheating.--The third by agriculture, the only honest way, wherein a man re. ceives a real iscrease of the seed thrown into the ground in a k nd of continued miracle, wrought by the hand of ind in his favour, as a reward for his Dporn si rad his virtuous industry.
PRELIMINART ADDRESS TO THE PENNSYLVANIA ALE
MANAC, FOR THE YEAR 1758."
WRITTEN BY DR. FRANKLIN.
I Have heard, that nothing gives an author so great plea:zure as to find his works respectfully quoted by Other learned authors. This pleasure I have seldom en. joyed; for though I have been, if I may say it without vanity, an eminent author (of Almanacs) annually now a fum quarter of a century, my brother authors in the same way (for what reason I know not) have ever been very sparing in their applauses; and no other authcr has taken the least notice of me: so that, did not my writings produce me some solid pudding, the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged nie.
I concluded, at length, that the people were the best judges of my merit, for they buy my works; and, besides, in my rambies, where I am not personally known, I have frequently heard one or other of my adages repeated, with "as poor Richard says," at the end on't. This gave me some satisfaction, as it showed aot only that my instructions were regarilo ed, but discovered likewise some respect for my authority; and I own, that to encourage the practice of remembering and repeating those wise sentences, I have sometimes quoted myself with great gravity.
Judge then how much I have been gratified by an incident which I am going to relate to you. I stoji ped my horse lately where a great number of people were collected at an auction of merchants' goods The hour of sale not being come, they were converse ing on the badness of the times; and one of the company called to a plain, clean, old man, with white locks. « Pray, father Abraham, what think ye of the umes? Won't these heavy taxes quite ruin tho
coumtry? How shall we be ever able to pay them? What would you advise us to ?” Father Abraham stood up, and replied, " If you'd have my advice, I'll give it to you in short; «for a word to the wise is enough; and many words wont fill a bushel;' as poor Richard says.” They joined in desiring him to speak nis mind; and, gathering round him, he proceeded as follows:
“ Friends (says he) and neighhours, the taxes are indeed very heavy; and if those laid on by the go vernment were the only ones we had to pay, we might:nore easily discharge them; but we have ma ny others, and much more grierous to some of us. We are taxed twice as much by our idleness, three times as much by our pride, and four times as much by our folly; and from these taxes the commissioners cannot ease or deliver us, by allowing an abate. ment. However, let us hearken to good advice, and something may be done for us; . God helps them that help themselves,' as poor Richard says in his Almanac.
“ It would be thought a hard government that should tax its people one-tenth part of their time, to be employed in its service; but idleness taxes many of us much more, if we reckon an' that is spent in absolute sloth, or doing of nothing, with that which is spent in idle employments, or amusements that amount to nothing. Sloth, by bringing on diseases, absolutely shortens life. Sloth, like rust, consumes faster than labour wears, while the key often used is always bright,' as poor Richard says. But dost thou love life? then do not squander time, for that's the stuff life is made of,' as poor Richard says. How much more than is necessary do we spend in sleep! forgetting, that the sleeping fox catches no poultry, and that there will be sleeping enough in the grave,' as poor Richard says. If time be of all things the most precious, wasting time must be (as poor Rich ard savs) the greatest prodigality ;' since, as he elsewhere tells us, • Lost time is never found again; and what we call tinie enough, always proves little enough. Let us then up and be doing, and doing to we purpose : so by diligence shall we do more wille