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clude the Mochies, only, beyond Zunia, these people of various tongues, each unknown to the tribes of their respective origins, are to be found in villages (pueblos) at uncertain distances from each other, in an extent of country near four hundred miles square. Their pueblos are built with direct reference to defence, and their houses are froin one to six stories high, and not one is reached in the ordinary way, except by ladders. These and all other Indians of this country send out mounted warriors only; foot soldiers remain at home, and fight on foot only when their pueblos are assaulted.
The rapidity of the movements of all Indian warriors or robbers shows the utter worthlessness of infantry, except to take care of localities and property
To remove and consolidate the Indians of the various pueblos at mon point, is out of the question. The general character of their houses is superior to those of Santa Fe. They have rich valleys to cultivate, grow quantities of corn and wheat, and raise vast herds of horses, mules, sheep, and goats, all of which may be immensely increased, by properly stimulating their industry, and instructing them in the agricultural arts. For the reasons, in an economical point of view, heretofore given, the ernment of the United States should instruct these people in their agricultural pursuits. They are a valuable and available people, and as firmly fixed in their homes as any one can be in the United States. Their lands are held by Spanish and Mexican grants—to what extent is unknown; and in their religion they are Catholics, with a certain admixture of an early superstition, with its ceremonials; all of which attaches them to the soil of their fathers—the soil upon which they came into existence, and the soil upon which they have been reared; and their concentration is not ad. visable.
But, in considering this subject, it must not be forgotten there are a few old Spanish villages to be found in the vicinity of, perhaps, all the pueblos; and the extent of their grants and privileges is not yet known, and judicial proceedings only can reveal the truth in relation to these matters. In this way is the Indian country of the pueblos chequered, and the difficul. ties in relation to a disposition of them suggested.
Santa Anna, as Major Weightman, a gentleman and a very intelligent lawyer, informs me, decreed in 1843 that one born in Mexico was a Mex. ican citizen, and, as such, is a voter; and therefore, all the pueblo Indians are voters. But still the exercise of this privilege was not known prior to what is termed an election, the last one in this Territory. I understand this was a hurried affair, and manageable voters picked up at whatever place found; and this arose from their extreme anxiety to secure the services of an exceedingly clever man, the Hon. Hugh N. Smith, as the delegate of certain influential citizens of this Territory. Under this view of the subject, what will you do with them?
They must become citizens, sooner or later, of the United States; and, if there was a State or Territory to be formed immediately west of the Rio Grande, I should not hesitate to say these Pueblo Indians are entitled to all the rights and privileges of citizens of the United States as mere voters. As to the rights which it may have been designed to confer upon them under the 9th article of the late treaty, I venture not an opinion. If Congress must give to this country a territorial government, they must, of ne. cessity, include the Spanish; and if there be such, Mexican villages too,
that are found in the neighborhood of the pueblos. If the Pueblo Indians are to be taxed, they are, from their general intelligence and probity, as inuch entitled to select their agents as the mass of New Mexico. But, for the present, unless a Territory or State is to be organized on the western side of the Rio Grande, these people should be subjected only to the laws passed by the Congress of the United States. The Mecicans and the Puebln Indians have not one feeling in common.
It is a subject of great delicacy; yet I apprehend it is easier to dispose of the tribes of roving Indians than the better and more civilized Pueblo Indians.
In disposing of the “savage” Indians, the most vexatious, troublesome, and delicate questions will arise from our obligations as recorded in the 11th article of the before referred to treaty. At all hazards, and without reference to cost, the government of the United States will, to the letter and to the spirit, comply with our every pledge, and redeem our every undertaking
It is not necessary to repeat to you that the Apaches, although frequently roving east of the Rio Grande, their conceded localities, the great mass of them, when at home, are to be found on the west side of the aforesaid river, and on both sides of the boundary line between the United States and Mexico, as indicated by the maps, running west, several hundred miles to or near the Pimo villages. Here are to be found a majority of the captives to be delivered up under the before mentioned treaty. Here are a people who feed on game, the spontaneous products of the soil, and the fruit of other people's labor. Here it is the boundary line will present a barrier to the castigations which these Indians should receive. Here you will find about an equal number upon each side of the boundary line, all alike committing depredations; and it may be we shall be called upon to pay millions on account of the doings of Mexican Apaches, whose bad deeds will be charged to those on our side of the line-the one not being better than the other.
Here, too, the most delicate questions will arise. How are these people to subsist, if you efectually check and stop their depredations? How are you to comply with your obligations under the aforesaid 11th article, with-, out invading foreign territory?
To establish a proper state of affairs in this country, with the economy which the government of the United States should and will ever observe, requires a strong arm, and a prompt arm, guided by an enlightened patriotism and a generous spirit of humanity.
It Expend your milion now, if necessary, that you may avoid the expenditure of millions hereafter.
The Comanches and Apaches, with all the adjacent fragments of other tribes, must he penned up; and this should be done at the earliest possible day.
If the Navajoes comply with the treaty as entered into with Governor Washington and myself, it is believed the Utahs will ask for a similar treaty. There are strong indications of a disposition to yield upon their part, independently of the course which the Navajoes may pursue. But suppose these tribes continue to withhold their submission to our authority, and to war upon our interest: it will be absolutely necessary to removeand concentrate these people.
To what localities should these wild tribes be confined?
Can the foregoing question be discreetly answered without a thorough knowledge of this country? And can such thorough knowledge be obtained without a thorough exploration? I affirm that it cannot be done; and without an additional number of mounted troops, such an exploration cannot be made at an early day.
If I had authority to do so, I could make treaties with all these tribes; and they would comply with every stipulation, just so long as you have an arm raised to strike them, and no longer-provided they are permitted to roam as heretofore. But confine them to certain limits, restrict intercourse with them, and instruct them, and compel them to cultivate the soil: when you have thus subjugated them, and caused them to feel and appreciate your power, then the proper time will have arrived when presents, to a hmited extent, will have a salutary influence, in awakening their pride of person, and creating a love, a desire, for some of the luxuries of life; for, until a man has reached that point, he has made but a slight advance in civilization.
Let it be remembered, the Navajoes have all the necessaries of life, and grow large quantities of corn and wheat, raise immense flocks of sheep and goats, and a great number of fine horses and mules; and rob and murder, and seize captives, because it is a business of life in which they delight.
In reference to the number of Pueblo Indians east of the Mochies, which includes the Pueblos named in No. 5, I have come to the conclusion it cannot be put down at less than twelve thousand, and it would not surprise me if it should reach fifteen thousand. We ventured to guess, while at Zunia, at the number of its people; and no one supposed it to exceed six hundred, all told. It now appears they have five hundred and fiftyfive warriors, which does not include boys under sixteen years of age, or old men. If this be true-and I do not question the fact-the aggregate: number of inhabitants in Zunia will reach two thousand; and I have no reason to believe the estimates as to other pueblos are more correct than was the estimate for Zunia.
I do not feel at liberty, at present, to disturb the estimates as forwarded to your office by the late Governor Bent. I will remark, however, it is I advisable to reduce the number of tribes, in any general classification
which may be made by authority of the government of the United States; for there are a number of fragments of tribes, being the product of amalgamations, who are not entitled to the consideration of distinct tribes, and they should be compelled to an association with one or the other of the amalgamating parties, and located and considered accordingly. Without alluding to the Indians of the Arkansas, I would reduce all the roving tribes of New Mexico to four—the Comanches, Apaches, Navajoes, and Utahs.
It would ill become me to venture an opinion as to the proper disposition of the United States military force now in this country: that duty is confided to an abler head. Bui, as preventive measures, and as measures, too, of a defensive character, allow me to submit, with all due respect, the following suggestions and recommendations: . I repeat the suggestions to be found in my previous letters:
Ist. The presence of agents in various places in the Indian country is indispensably necessary. Their presence is demanded by every principle of humanity, by every generous obligation of kindness, of protection, and
of good government, throughout this vast Territory. 8+ These agents should be intrusted with ordnance and ordnance stores, to be used as emergencies might require, under the direction of a general superintendent; and should be selected, not only with regard to their prudence and discretion, but with a view to the proper training of the Pueblo Indians in the efficient use of our arms.
I design preparing, to accompany this communication, a diagram ex. hibiting my views of the Indian localities, and pointing out the most ap.
ceive how easily the depredations of Utahs, Navajoes, and a portion of the Apaches, may be checked, by a proper use of the arms which I have recommended to be placed in charge of Indian agents.
By keeping up a proper line of communication between the pueblos and other places in this Territory, it will be no difficult matter to intercept roving bands of robbers, no matter what their color may be, so soon as it is ascertained from what quarter they proceed; and that may be done unerringly by an examination of their trail.
That I may be distinctly understood upon this point, look at the locations of Laguna, Zunia, Jemez, and other places. Now the ordnance and ordnance stores, under the control as before suggested, would enable these people effectually to protect themselves against their implacable eneinies, and at the same time a vigorous and rapid movement along the line of communication between the pueblos and other points would give them the additional and important power of intercepting those who should dare to penetrate towards the heart of New Mexico.
The rough diagram which will be hereto appended will show why it is, with the views herein expressed, I recommend, 1st. The establishing of a full agency at Taos, or near that place, for the Utahs and Pueblos of that neighborhood.
2d. Also a full agency at and for Zunia, and the Navajoes.
3d. A full agency at Socoro, a military post south of Albuquerque, now being established. The agent of this place to look after the Apaches and Comanches, and the pueblo of Isletta, north.
Sub-agents should be sent to San Ildefonso, or near there; 10 Jemez, Laguna, and at the military post near El Paso.
These agents and sub-agents are absolutely necessary to an economical administration of our Indian affairs in this Territory. It is my honest opinion, that for the ensuing year, at least, a sub-agent should be in every pueblo, the whole to be under the direction of a general superintendent, who would be compelled to have one or more clerks.
I am aware that, possibly, I may be iwitted concerning my notions of economy in these recommendations, but it will be by no one who has maturely considered the subject in all its various bearings. Adopt my sug. gestions in all their breadth, especially those in reference to the appointing of agents and depositing with them ordnance and ordnance stores, and properly stimulating and directing the industry of the pueblos, and it will give quiet and tranquillity to this entire Territory, and materially reduce the now necessary expenditures of the government here. The labor of the country will be protected, the quantity of subsistence stores will be annually inoreased and the prices greatly diminished, and millions will be saved to the government that must be expended as at present conducted;
and this I say after due deliberation, and without intending the slightest disrespect to any human being.
The powers here have neither the authority nor the means to reduce to order the chaotic mass in this Territory, and the government at Washington has not thoroughly comprehended the diversity and the magnitude of the difficulties to be overcome.
In conelusion, I still think it important to allow a few of the Pueblo Indians to visit Washington city-some of them are extremely anxious to do so.
Commending this communication to your indulgent criticisms, and referring you to the appendix, I have the honor to be, your very obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Colonel W. MEDILL,
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washingļon city.
Santa Fe, New Mexico, October 25, 1849. Sir: My communication, No. 5, of the 4th of this month, stated in a postscript, that“ the Pueblo Indians who accompanied Governor Washington in his late Navajo expedition” had been satisfied for their services by an arrangement with a merchant.
When the foregoing statement was made to you, I supposed it was an arrangement effected by the government chief in this Territory. To-day I have learned otherwise; and further, that all had not become parties to the mercantile arrangement into which some of their associates had voluntarily entered. But it is said, all of said Indians will after a while come into terms.
The complainings of these Indians are exceedingly unpleasant to me; but they are not unjust, and such wrongs should be remedied. I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
J. S. CALHOUN,
Indion Agent. Col. MEDILL, Washington City, D. C.
Santa Fe, New Mexico, October 27, 1849. Sir: Colonel Monroe, our new governor, came into this city a few days ago, and assumed the command of this military department. By him I had hoped to receive some additional light-such additional instructions as my earlier communications might have suggested as necessary.
I am yet without the slightest intelligence from the States; and I must repeat, the mail facilities are not such as we are entitled to, and that it is