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have acquired no previous information: and when they fall into the hands of their cruel oppressors, a life of laborious servitude, which scarcely af— fords them sufficient time for sleep, deprives them of every opportunity of improving their minds. There is no reason to suppose that they difl'er from us in any thing but colour ; which distinction arises'from the intense heat of their climate. There have been instances of a few, whose situation has been favourable to improvement, who have shown strong powers of mind; Those masters, who neglect the religious and moral instruction of their slaves, add a heavy load of guilt to that already incurred, by their share in this unjust and inhuman traffic.

Charles. My indignation rises at this recital. - Why does not the British parliament exert its power toavenge the wrongs of these oppressed Africans? What can prevent an act being passed to forbid Englishmen from buying and selling slaves?

Fa. Many persons of great talents and virtue, have made sev ,7 al fruitless attempts to obtain an act for the abolition of this trade. en interested in its continuance have hitherto frustrated these generous designs: but we may rely upon the goodness of that Divine Providence, who cares for all creatures, that the day will ‘come, when their rights will be considered : and there is great rewin to hope, from the light already cast upon the subject, that the rising generation will prefer justice and mercy, to interest and policy; and will free themselves from the odium We at present sufl‘er, of treating our fellow creatures in a manner unworthy of them, and of ourselves. I

No. Henry, repeat that beautiful apostrophe to a negro woman, which you learned the other day out of Barbauld’s Hymns. _ _

Hem-y. ‘Negro woman, who sittest pining in captivrty, and Weepest over thy sick child, though no one sees thee, God sees thee : though no one pities thee, God pities thee. Raise thy voice, forlorn and abandoned one ; call upon him from amidst thy bonds, for assuredly he Wlll hear thee.’

Ce. 1 think no riches could tempt me to have any share in the Slave trade. I could never enjoy peace of mind, whilst I thought I contributed to the woes of my fellow-creatures. _ ;

Mo. But, Cecilia, to put your compassion to the proof; _are you Willing to debar yourself of the numerOus indulgences you enJoy, from the fruit of their labour ? _ _>

Ce. I would forego any indulgence to alleviate their sufl‘erings.

The rest of the children together. We are all of the same mind.

No. I admire the sensibility of your uncorrupted hearts, my dear Chi}dren. It is the voice of nature and virtue. Listen to it on all occasions, and bring it home to your bosoms, and your daily practice. The same principle of benevolence, which excites your indignation at the oppression of the Degrees, will lead you to be gentle_towards your inferiours, kind and obliging to your equals, and 1m _a particular manner condescending and considerate towards your domestics : requiring no more of them, than you will be willing to perform in their situation; instructing them when you have opportunity; sympathizitig in their atfiictions, and promoting their best interests to the utmost of your power.


Democritus and Heraclz'tus.’F
The vices and follies of men should excite compassion rather than ridicule.

Democn'lus. I run: it impossible to reconcile myself to a melancholy philosophy.

Heraclitus. AndI am equally unable to approve of that vain philosophy, which teaches men to despise and ridicule one another. ,To a wise and feeling mind, the world appears in a wretched and painful light.

Dem. Thou art too much afi‘ected with the state of things ; and this is a. source of misery to thee.

Her. And I think thou art too little moved by it. Thy mirth and ridi< ‘cule bespeak the bufl'oon, rather than the philosopher. Does it not excite thy compassion. to see mankind so frail, so blind, so far departed from the rules of virtue?

Dem. I am excited to laughter, when I see somuch impertinence and folly.

Her. And yet, after all, they, who are the objects of thy ridicule, include, not only mankind in general, but the persons with whom thou Iivest, thy friends, thy family, nay, even thyself.

Dem. I care very little for all the silly persons I meet with; and think I am justifiable in diverting myself with their folly.

Her. If they are weak and foolish, it marks neither wisdom nor bumanity, to insult rather than pity them. HQ is it certain, thou art not as extravagant as they are ? ‘

Dem. I presume thatl am not; since in every point, my sentiments are the very reverse of theirs.

-Her. There are follies of different kinds. By constantly amusing thyself with the errours and misconduct of others, thou mayest render thyself equally ridiculous and culpable. ‘

Dem. Thou art at liberty to indulge such sentiments ; and to weep over me too, if thou hast any tears to spare. For my part, I cannot refrain from pleasing myself with the levities and ill conduct of the world about me. Are not all men foolish or irregular in their lives?

Her. Alas! there is but too much reason to believe they are so: and on this ground, I pity and deplore their condition. We agree in this point, that men do not conduct themselves according to reasonable and just principles ; but I, who do not suffer myself to act as they do, must yet regard the dictates of my understanding and feelings, which compel me to love them; and that love fills me With compassion for their mistakes and irregularities. Canst thou condemn me for pitying my own species, my brethren, persons born in the same condition of life, and destined to the same hopes and privileges? If thou shouldst enter a hospital, where sick and Wounded persons reside, would their wounds and distresses excite thy mirth? And yet, the evils of the body bear no comparison with those of the mind. Thou wouldst certainly blush at thy barbarity, ii thou hadst been so unfeeling, as to laugh at, or despise a poor miserable being who had lost one of his legs : and yet thou art so destitute of humanity, as to ridicule those, who appear to be deprived of the noble powers of the understanding, by the little regard which they pay t0 lti dietatesh

Dem. He who has lost a leg is to be pitied, because the loss is not to be imputed to'himself: but he who rejects the dictates of reason and conscience, voluntarily deprives himself of their aid. The loss originates in his own folly. . ’

* Democritul and Hersclitus were two ancient philosophers; the former 02‘ “‘l'm" isoghed,and the Intterwept, at the errours and follies of mankind. \

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Her. Ah! so much the' more is he to he pitied ! A furious maniac who should pluck out his own eyes, would deserve more compassion than an ordinary blind man.

Dem. Come, let us accommodate the business. There is something to be said on each side of the question. There is every where reason for laughing, and reason for weeping. The world is ridiculous, and I laugh at it; it is deplorable, and thou lamentest over it. Every person views it in his own way,.and according to his own temper. One point is unquestionable, that mankind are preposterous; to think right, and to act well, we must'think and act difi'erently from them. To submit to the authority, and follow the example of the greater part of men, would render us foolish and miserable.

Her. All this is, indeed, true ; but then, thou hast no real love or feeling for thy species. The calamities of mankind excite thy mirth; and this proves that thou hast no regard for men, nor any true respect for the virtues which they have unhappin abandoned.

Dionysius, Pythias, and Damon.
Genuine virtue commands respect. even from the bad-

Dionysius. AMAZING ! What do I see? It is Pythias just arrived. It is indeed Pythias; I did not think it possible. He is come to die, and redeem his friend !

I’ythins. Yes, it is Pythias. I left the place of my confinement, with no other views than to pay to Heaven the vows I had made; to settle my family concerns according to the rules of justice ; and to bid adieu to my children, thatl might die tranquil and satisfied.

Dio. But wh dost thou return? Hast thou no fear of death? Is it. not the character 0 a madman, to seek it thus voluntarily? {v

Py- I return to under, though I have not deserved death. Everfprinciple of honour and goodness, forbids me to allow my friend to die for me.

Dia. Dost thou, then, love him better than thyself?

Pg. No; [love him as myself. But I am persuaded that I ought to under death, rather than my friend; since it was me whom thou hadstdecreed to die. It were not just that he should sufi'cr, to deliver'mefi'um the death which was designed, not f0" him, but for me only.

Dio. But thou supposest that it is asunjust to inflict death upon thee, as upon thy friend. ~

Py. Very true ; we are both entirely innocent; and it is equally unjust to make either of us sufl‘er.

Din. Why dost thou then assert, that it were injustice to put him to death, instead of thee?

Py. It is unjust, in the same degree, to inflict death, either on Damon, or on myself; but Pythias were highly culpable to let Damon sufl‘er that death, which the tyrant had prepared for Pythias only.

Dio. Dost thou then return hither on the day appointed, with no other view than to save the life of a friend, by losing thy own?

Py. I return, in regard to thee, to sufl‘er an act of injustice which is common for tyrants to inflict; and with respect to Damon, to perform my duty, by rescuing him from the danger he incurred by his generosit to me.

Dio- And now, Damon, let me address myself to thee. Didst t ou not really fear, that Pythias would never return; and that thou wouldst be put to death on his account?


Damon. I was but too well assured that Pythias would punctually return; and that he would be more solicitous to keep his promise, than to preserve his life. Would to heaven, that his relations and friends had forcibly detained him! He would then have lived for the comfort and 1llrl‘eneiit of good men; and I should have had the satisfaction of dying for

'm !

Dio. What, does life displease thee ? '

Da. Yes; it displeases me when I see and feel the power of a tyrant !

Dio. -It is well ! Thou shalt see him no more. I will order thee to be put to death immediately.

Pg. Pardon the feelings of a man who sympathizes with his dying friend. But remember, it was Pythias who was devoted by thee to destruction. I come to submit to it, that I may redeem my friend. Do not refuse me this consolation in my last hour.

D110. I cannot endure men who despise death, and set my power at defiance.

Da. Thou canst not, then, endure virtue.

Din. No ; I cannot endure that proud, disdainful virtue, which con‘temns life; which dreads no punishment ; and which is insensible to the charms of riches and pleasure.

Du. Thou seest, however, that it 15 a virtue, which is not insensible to the dictates of honour, justice, and friendship.

Dio. Guards, take Pythias to execution. We shall see whether Damon will continue to despise my authority. '

Du. Pythias, by returning to submit himself to thy pleasure, has merited his life, and deserved thy favour; but I have excited thy indignation, by resigning myself to thy power, in order to save him: be satisfied, then,, with this sacrifice, and put me to death.

Py. Hold, Dionysius? Remember, it‘was Pythias alone who Ofl'ended thee; Damon could not. '

Din. Alas! What do I see and hear? where am I? How miserable; and how worthy to be so ! I have hitherto known nothing of true virtue. I have spent my life in darkness and errour. All my power and honours are insufficient to produce love. I cannot boast of having acquired a single friend, in the course of a reign of thirty years. And yet these two persons, in a private condition, love one another tenderly, unreservedly confide in each other, are mutually happy, and ready to die for each other’s preservation. .

Pg]. How couldst thou, who hast never loved any person, expect to have friends? If thou hadst loved and respected men. thou wouldst have secured their love and respect. Thou hast feared mankind—and they fear thee—they detest thee. V '

Dio. Damon, Pythias, condescend to admit me as a third friend, in a. connection sb'perfect. I give you your lives; and I will load you with riches. 1

Da. We have no desire to be enriched by thee; and, in regard to thy friendship, we cannot accept or enjoy it, till thou become good and just. Without these qualities, thou must be connected with none but trembling slaves, and base flatterers. To be loved and esteemed by men of free and ' generous minds, thou must be virtuous, afi'ectionate, disinterested, benefi-5cent; and know how to live in a sort of equality with those who share and deserve thy friendship.

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1. The first general rule for reading verse is, that we ought to give it that measured hat tnouious flow 0 sound which distinguishes it from prose, without falling into a. bombastic, ‘ chanting pronunciation, whiehmakes it ridiculous. ' I

2.. it will not be improper, before we read verse with its poetical graces, to pronounce it exactly as if it were prose: this will be depriving verse of its beauty, but will tend to reserve it from deformity: the tones of voice will be frequently difi'erent, but the inflections \\ ill be nearly the same.

3. But though an elewant and harmonious pronunciation of verse will sometimes oblige us to adopt different inflections from those we use in prose, it may still be laid down as a good general rule, that verse requires the same inflections as prose, though less strongly marked. and more approaching to monotones.

4. \Vherever a sentence, or member ofa sentence, would necessarily require the falling inflection in prose, it ought always to have the same inflection in oetry; for though, if we we were to read verse prosaically, we should often place the fail ing inflection where the style of verse would require the rising, yet, in those parts where a ortion of perfect sense, or the conclusion of a sentence, necessarily requires the falling in action, the same inflec tion must be adopted both in verse and prose.

5. In the same manner, though we frequently suspend the voice by the rising infiectionin

V verse, where, if the composition were prose, we should adopt the falling; yet, whereverin

prose, the member or sentence would necessarily require the rising inflection, this inflection must necessarily be adopted in verse.

6. It may be observed, indeed, that it is in the frequent use of the rising inflection, whens prose would adopt the falling, that the song of poetry consists: familiar, strong, argumen tative subjects naturally enforce the language with the falling inflection, as this is naturally ex ressive of activity, force, and precision ; but grand, beautiful, and laintive subject: sli e naturally into the rising inflection, as this is expressive of Hire, admiration, and melancholy; where the mind may be said to be passive: and it is this general tendencyof the. plaintive tone to assume the rising inflection, which inclines injudicious readers to adopt it at those pauses where the falling inflection is absolutely necessary, and, for want of which. the pronunciation degenerates into the whine, so much and soliustly disliked; for it is very remarkable, that if, where the sense concludes. we are care ul to preserve the falling im fiection, and let the voice drop into the natural talking tone, the voice maybe suspended in the rising inflection on any other part of the verse, with very little danger of falling into the chant of bad readers.


In verse, every syllable'must have the same accent, and every word the same emphasis, as in rose. ,

ln aords of two syllables, however, when the poet transposes the accent from the sitcom! syllable to the first, we may comply with him, without oceasioning any harshness in the verse; but when, in such words, he changes the recent from the first to the second syllable, ever reader who has the least delicacy of feeling will certainly preserve the common accent 0 these words on thefirst syllable.

In misaccented words of three syllables, perhaps the least offensive method to the ear of preserving the accent, and not entirely violating the quantity, would be to place an accent (‘11 the syllable immediately preceding that on which the poet has misplaced it, without dropping that which is so misplaced. '

The same rule seems to hold good where the poet has placed the accent on the first and last syllable of a word which ought to have it on the middle syllable.

W'liere a word admits of some diversity in placing the accent, it is scarcely necessary to observe,that the verse ought, in this case, to decide. _ ’

But when the poet has, with great judgment, contrived that his numbers shall be harsh and grating, in order to correspond to the ideas they suggest, the common accentuation must be preserved. '


The vowel e, which, in oetry, is so often cut off by an apostrophe in the word the, and in unoccented syllables be are r, as dang’rous. gen'rous, Scc- ought always to be preserved in pronunciation, because the syllable it forms is so short as to a mit of being sounded With the succeedin s liable, so as not to increase the number of syllables to the ear, or, at least, to hurt the me odyy. ~ _.

The same observations, in every respect, hold ood in the pronunciation of the preposition to, which ought always to be sounded long, li e the adyective t'wo, however it may be

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