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the state, and to how much it may amount ? I presume you have particularly studied this matter, to the end that, if anything should be lost on one hand, you might know where to make it good on another; and that, if a fund should fail on a sudden, you might immediately be able to settle another in its place?'

“I protest,' answered Glaucon, 'I have never thought of this.'

. Tell me, at least, the expenses of the republic, for no doubt you intend to retrench the superfluous ?

5. I never thought of this either,' said Glaucon.

66. You were best, then, to put off to another time your design of enriching the republic, which you can never be able to do while you are ignorant both of its expenses and revenue.'

There is another way to enrich a state,' said Glaucon, of which you take no notice; and that is, by the ruin (spoils] of its enemies.'

6. You are in the right,' answered Socrates ; but to this end it is necessary to be stronger than they, otherwise we shall run the hazard of losing what we have. He, therefore, who talks of undertaking a war, ought to know the strength on both sides, to the end that, if his party be the stronger, he may boldly advise for war, and that, if it be

the weaker, he may dissuade the people from engaging themselves in so dangerous an enterprise.'

66. All this is true.'

"Tell me, then,' continued Socrates, 'how strong our forces are by sea and land, and how strong are our enemies.'

“Indeed,' said Glaucon, 'I cannot tell you on a sudden.'

". If you have a list of them in writing, pray show it me; I should be glad to hear it read.'

"I have it not yet.' 'I see, then,' said Socrates, that we shall not

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engage in war so soon; for the greatness of the undertaking will hinder you from maturely weighing all the consequences of it in the beginning of your government. "But, continued he, ' you have thought of the defence of the country; you know what garrisons are necessary, and what are not; you know what number of troops is sufficient in one, and not sufficient in another; you will cause the necessary garrisons to be re-enforced, and disband those that are useless ?

"I should be of opinion,' said Glaucon, 'to leave none of them on foot, because they ruin a country on pretence of defending it.'

6. But,' Socrates objected, “if all the garrisons were taken away, there would be nothing hinder the first comer from carrying off what he pleased; but how come you to know that the garrisons behave themselves so ill? Have you been upon the place? Have you seen them ?' “Not at all; but I suspect it to be so.'

When, therefore, we are certain of it,' said Socrates, “and can speak upon better grounds than simple conjectures, we will propose this advice to the senate. " It may be well to do so said Glaucon.

' It comes into my mind, too,' continued Socrates, 'that you have never been at the mines of sil. ver, to examine why they bring not in so much now as they did formerly.' ««You say true; I have never been there.'

“ Indeed, they say the place is very unhealthy, and that may excuse you.'

"You rally me now,' said Glaucon.

“Socrates added, 'But I believe you have at least observed how much corn our land produces, how long it will serve to supply our city, and how much more we shall want for the whole year; to the end you may not be surprised with a scarcity of bread, but may give timely orders for the necessary provisions.

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5. There is a deal to do,' said Glaucon, “if we must take care of all these things.'

". There is so,' replied Socrates; 'and it is even impossible to manage our own families well, unless we know all that is wanting, and take care to provide it. As you see, therefore, that our city is composed of above ten thousand families, and it being a difficult task to watch over them all at once, why did you not first try to retrieve your uncle's affairs, which are running to decay ? and, after having given that proof of your industry, you might have taken a greater trust upon you. But now, when you find yourself incapable of aiding a private man, how can you think of behaving yourself so as to be useful to a whole people ? Ought a man, who has not strength enought to carry a hundred pound weight, to undertake to carry a heavier burden ?

I would have done good service to my uncle, said Glaucon, “if he would have taken my advice.'

“How,' replied Socrates, ‘have you not hitherto been able to govern the mind of your uncle, and do you now believe yourself able to govern the minds of all the Athenians, and his among the rest ? Take heed, my dear Glaucon, take heed lest too great a desire of power should render you despised; consider how dangerous it is to speak and entertain ourselves concerning things we do not understand; what a figure do those forward and rash people make in the world who do so; and judge yourself whether they acquire more esteem' than blame, whether they are more admired than contemned. Think, on the contrary, with how much more hon. our a man is regarded who understands perfectly what he says and what he does, and then you will confess that renown and applause have always been the recompense of true merit, and shame the reward of ignorance and temerity. If, therefore, you would be honoured, endeavour to be a man of true merit; and if you enter upon the government of

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the republic with a mind more sagacious than usual, I shall not wonder if you succeed in all your designs.

Thus Socrates put a stop to the disorderly ambition of this man; but, on an occasion quite contrary, he in the following manner exhorted Charmidas to take an employment.

“He was a man of sense, and more deserving than most others in the same post; but, as he was of a modest disposition, he constantly declined, and made great difficulties of engaging himself in public business. Socrates therefore addressed himself to him in this manner:

“If you knew any man that could gain the prizes in the public games, and by that means render himself illustrious, and acquire glory to his country, what would you say of him if he refused to offer himself to the combat ?'

“I would say,' answered Charmidas, that he was a mean-spirited, effeminate fellow.'

. And if a man were capable of governing a republic, of increasing its power by his advice, and of raising himself by this means to a high degree of honour, would you not brand him likewise with meanness of soul if he would not present himself to be employed ?!

* Perhaps I might,' said Charmidas ; ' but why do you ask me this question ? Socrates replied, Because you are capable of managing the affairs of the republic, and nevertheless you avoid doing so, though, in quality of a citizen, you are obliged to take care of the commonwealth. Be no longer, then, thus negligent' in this matter; consider your abilities and your duty with more attention, and let not slip the occasions of serving the republic, and of rendering it, if possible, more flourishing than it is. This will be a blessing whose influence will descend not only on the other citizens, but on your best friends and yourself.'"





A NERGUS was a gentleman of a good estate; he was bred to no business, and could not contrive how to waste his hours agreeably; he had no relish for any of the proper works of life, nor any taste at all for the improvements of the mind; he spent, generally, ten hours of the four-and-twenty in his bed; he dozed away two or three more on his couch, and as many were dissolved in good liquor every evening, if he met with company of his own humour. Five or six of the rest he sauntered away with much indolence; the chief business of them was to contrive his meals, and to feed his fancy beforehand with the promise of a dinner and supper; not that he was so absolute a glutton or so entirely devoted to his appetite, but, chiefly because he knew not how to employ his thoughts better, he let them rove about the sustenance of his body. Thus he had made a shift to wear off ten years since the paternal estate fell into his hands; and yet, according to the abuse of words in our day, he was called a man of virtue, because he was scarce ever known to be quite drunken, nor was his nature much inclined to licentiousness.

One evening, as he was musing alone, his thoughts happened to take a most unusual turn, for they cast a glance backward, and began to reflect on his manner of life. He bethought himself what a number of living beings had been made a sacrifice to support his carcass, and how much corn and wine had been mingled with those offerings. He had not quite lost all the arithmetic that he had learned when he was a boy, and he set himself to compute

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