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is rather equivocal. They have committed no wrongs recently against Americans proper. These Indians met Colonel Beall, who had charge of the expedition ordered against them at the same time Governor Washington marched upon the Navajoes, and agreed to all his demands—an impossibility among them, as I have reason to believe-to wit: the restoration of all the Frémont property lost during the past winter. That was out of the question, as a portion of it, as I ain informed, has long since been consumed. This fact was seized upon by worthless Mexicans to frighten the Indians off; for they made the Indians believe, if every article was not restored, Colonel Beall would cause every one within his reach to be put to death; therefore it was, as I am informed by Colonel Beall, the Utahs did not come up at the appointed time to consummate the treaty agreed upon.
From the facts herein stated, it must be evident to reflecting minds
Ist. That an additional mounted regiment, full and complete, should be in service in New Mexico. I repeat what I have said in a former communication, infantry are useful only in taking care of public stores and isolated places.
2d. Without an additional force, not a single interest of the country can be fully protected.
3d. Military stations ought to be established at Tunicha, and the cañon of Cheille, in the Navajo county; at or near Jemez, Zunia, and Laguna; and perhaps in other places in the direction of El Paso, and whin the Pueblo region.
4th. To every pueblo there ought to be sent at once an Indian agent to protect the Indians, and to preserve the character of the United States. Such agents should be continued at each pueblo for the next year or two.
5th. Unless this be done, emigrants and others claiming to be officers of the United States will disaffect these people by their lawless conduct.
6th. It is but fair to presume that in a year or two such improvements in public morals will take place, as to justify the discontinuance of most of the agencies that ought now to be in existence in each pueblo. Just at this moment the Pueblo Indians (in number 54) who accompanied Governor Washington in his expedition against the Navajoes, are complaining that they are not paid for their services. In New Mexico a better population than thesc Pueblo Indians cannot be found, and they must be treated with great delicacy. The slightest disappointment in their expectations, no matter how created, they regard as a deliberate deceit practised upon them. If properly cared for and instructed in all Indian wars, these Pueblos would be very important auxiliaries. Even now, notwithstanding the discouragement mentioned above, at least two hundred of them could be readily raised for mounted service; and, if I had the military command of this country, I should regard them as necessary adjuncts.
In compliance with one of the stipulations of the treaty entered into by Governor Washington with the Navajoes, they are to deliver at Jenez, on the ninth of next month, certain captives and stolen property. Although they have delivered to us sheep, horses, mules, and captives, as an earnest of their intention, we do not feel confident that they will comply with the terms of the treaty. They may not be there at the time. And on the occasion alluded to, the governors, captains, and alcaldes of most of the pueblos east and north of Moquies, it is supposed, will be at Jemez. It
ueblo Indians Services. In NewNavajoes, are con
hundred miles apart, commencing north at Taos and running south to near El Paso, some four hundred miles or more, and running east and west two hundred miles. This statement has no reference to pueblos west of Zunia.
It must be remembered, too, but a few of these Pueblos speak the same language; and, so far as a majority are concerned, they are so decidedly ignorant of each other's language, they are compelled to call to their aid Spanish and Mexican interpreters. I have not found a single individual in the country who can render any one of the languages of the Pueblos or Navajoes into English. .
The protection of these Indians in their persons and property, is of great importance. In addition to the obligation which the government of the United States has assumed for their protection, it may be suggested, as a matter of government economy, their property should be protected, and their industry properly stimulated and directed. These people can raise immense quantities of corn and wheat, and have large herds of sheep and goats. The grazing for cattle, generally, is superior, and the reason why they have so few of the cow kind is to be found in the ease with which they may be driven off by the Navajoes and others. The average price paid for corn in this Territory by our government cannot be less than two dollars per bushel; and since I have been in Santa Fe, public horses have not received half the forage allowed to them by the regulations of the army. The exorbitant price now paid for corn and the insufficient quantity grown in this country, and other inconveniences, may be remedied in one yearcertainly in two years..
For reasons herein suggested, I venture respectfully to say
1st. The Pueblos, for the present, ought to be divided into six or seven districts, and an agent conveniently located in each. · 2d. Blacksmiths, implements of husbandry, and other implements, ought to be sent to them. Also some fire-arms, powder and lead, and other presents, should be given to them. . 3d. None of the Indians of this Territory have a just conception of the American power and strength; and many of them think, as we have associated with us the Mexicans, for whom they have no respect, we may not have a more efficient government for the protection of the people here than they afforded to them; therefore it is I add to the recommendations above, the propriety of allowing, or rather inviting, some fifteen or twenty of - these—and perhaps it would be well to select a few other Indians—to visit Washington city at an early day during the session of the approaching Congress. Unless my powers are enlarged or other duties assigned me, I may, without detriment to the public service, leave here for a short peribd; and if agreeable to the department, I should be pleased to receive orders to take a certain number to Washington city, as one among the best means of securing order and quiet in this Territory.
In January or February we might with safety take the southern route by the El Paso, and through Texas, passing by and through the country inhabited by the Apaches and Comanches.
. We continue to complain that we are without a mail or proper mail facilities. I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Col. W. MEDILL,
• Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington city, D. C.
P.S. Since the foregoing was written, I have been informed an arrangement with merchants has been effected, by which the Pueblo Indians who accompanied Governor Washington in his late Navajo expedition have been satisfied for their services.
J. S. C.'
tion hawho accomo merchants, was writte
INDIAN AGENCY, SANTA FE,
October 5, 1849. SIR: Since my letter of yesterday's date, I regret to say rumors of Indian troubles have increased, and received some confirmation by the murder of a Mexican within three miles of this place. The surgeon who examined the wounded man on yesterday says he was shot with sixteen arrows in the back and two in front; that he found arrows upon the ground, and that the trail indicated the number of Indians as unusually large. Several Indians from Ildefonso came to me yesterday, also, saying the Navajoes were impudent, troublesome, and dangerous, and that they were in every nook and corner of the country.
A few moments since, the governor and others of Santa Domingo, thirtyone miles west of Santa Fe, came to give me similar intelligence. One of the owners of Bent's Fort has removed all property from it, and caused the fort to be burnt. Mr. St. Vrain, long a citizen here, every way reliable and intelligent, says a worse state of things has not existed in this country since he has been an inhabitant of it. This fact is sustained by Mr. Folger and others-among them Mr. Smith, who will be in Washington at an early day, as the delegate of a convention assembled here on the 24th of last month, to consider of the public. good.
The nuinber of discontented Indians in this Territory is not small; and I Tegret to add, they are not the only evil people in it.
This whole country requires a thorough purging, which can be accomplished only by a thorough exploration of every hole and corner in it. The entire country should be immediately examined and surveyed, and military roads should be opened, and posts and depots established. '
This policy would render it absolutely necessary to send out one or two additional regiments, (mounted) as the surest and only plan of economizing in this branch of the public service; and with this branch, should one or more additional regiments be raised, I should be pleased to be associated, as I have written to you and to the Secretary of War heretofore.
Governor Washington left for Taos on yesterday morning, to be absent for a few days only. I am arranging to leave for Jemez on to-morrow, where, it is understood, a number of the chief officials of several pueblos are to be on the 8th of the present month.
Colonel Monroc has not arrived. No report of troops approaching from the States, and we are yet without a mail. I am your obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe, New Merico. Col. MEDILL,
Commissioner, foc., Washington city.
* No. 7.
October 13, 1849. Sir: For obvious reasons, my communications to the department should have been numbered. To remedy the omission, as far as practicable, is now my purpose.
Since my arrival at Santa Fe, on the 22d of July last, the following is the order of my letters to the department: No.1
July 29, 1849. .66 2
September 25, " 66 4.
October 1, " " 5
October 4, 6 666
October 5,.“ Will you oblige me so far as to cause the foregoing numbers and dates to be appropriately endorsed on my letters, which you will have received before this my seventh. I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe. Col. W. MediLL,
Commissioner of Indian Affairs. .
Santa Fe, New Mexico, October 13, 1849. Sir: My intention to visit Jemez was announced to you in my letter of the 5th instant, which should have been numbered 6. I reached Jemez on the afternoon of the 7th instant, and departed therefrom on the morning of the 10th.
In the first place, it is proper to state, during my stay at Jemez not one word of reliable information was received from the Navajo tribe of Indians, who, through their first and second chiefs, had bound themselves, by the fifth article of a treaty, a copy of which was forwarded to you on the 25th of last month, (No. 3) to be there in such a way as to comply with certain stipulations contained in said treaty. Whether they failed to be there by design, or were operated upon and kept away by the artful misrepresentations of thieves and robbers, and their associates, is not yet revealed. It is a matter of no little import, in my opinion, to ascertain the cause of their absence, and I have put in requisition everything at my command for the purpose of ascertaining the facts in the case. In a very few days, I trust, 1 shall be able to afford you some light upon this subject.
While at Jemez, I met with the governors, war captains, alcaldes, and other controlling individuals, from twelve pueblos, viz: Jernez, Laguna, Acoma, Santa Domingo, San Juan, Santa Clara, San Ildefonso, Namba, Pojoaque, Cice, Santa Ana, Sandia. No information, of a perfectly satisfactory character, can be obtained as to the nuinber of pueblos, the number of inhabitants in each, and their respective languages. If, as far as it goes, the information in these particulars, transmitted to you in my letter of the 4th instant, (No. 5,) and the statements made to me at Jemez by the most intelligent Indians, be correct, there are twenty-three pueblos east of Zunia; inclusive of these, I am informed by intelligent Indians, five vise a language in common, without having sprung from a common tribe. Two of these are near to Taos, two near Albuquerque, and one below El Paso. There are six who have a common language, peculiar to them. selves, and altogether unknown to others. To seven others the same remarks are applicable, as their language differs from all others. Jemez has its owpeculiar language, and so has Zunia. In relation to the lsguages of the pueblos of Gleta, Socoro, and Seneco, I have found no one who could give me information upon the subject. .
It must be remembered, the Indians using the same language are not • confined to the same section of country. For instance, of the five pueblos first spoken of, Taos and Pecora are near Taos, seventy-five miles north of Santa Fe; Sandia and Isletta are from sixty to eighty miles south of Santa Fe; and another Isletta, near El Paso, more than four hundred miles
from the two first named. All the others lie between the extremes men. - tioned, running west about two hundred miles.
The Indians informed me at Jemez there were seven pueblos of Moques, six having a language of their own, and differing from all others, and one the language of the six first before mentioned.
The best information I could obtain in relation to these people, induces me to locate them about one hundred miles west of Zunia, in an excellent country, through which a road must run to the Pacific. Indeed, it is said a large number of emigrants selected that route this season. They are supposed to be decidedly pacific in their character, opposed to all wars, quite honest, and very industrious. It is said, in years gone by, these Indians abandoned a village because its soil had been stained with the blood of a human being. I deeply regret that I have not been able to visit these and all other pueblos in this country, that I might be able to Jay before you information of a character more precise and accurate.
The Indians at Jemez, with one voice, renewed their complaints of gross wrongs to which they have been compelled to submit; and they are such, too, as require immediate remedial measures. The lawlessness, the
outrages of roving associations, comprising all colors and dialects, cannot be • seen, and felt, and appreciated in Washington as the truth would sanc
tion. And even here, so much of it comes to our knowledge, we become more indifferent to our own possible fate every day.
But a short time since, a band said to be commanded by an Englishman, well known in Santa Fe, ordered, in the name of the United States,