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PART FOURTH.

OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE SEVERAL STATES;

INCLUDING THE CONSTITUTION AND CIVIL JURISPRUDENCE OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK

CHAPTER 1.

Of the State Governments.

All the state governments are representative republics. All of them are conducted in conformity to written con: stitutions, adopted by the people, in each state, excepting in Rhode Island, where the ancient colonial charter is vet in force. Each one has a legislative, executive and judicial branch, and its own modes of exercising power in these several departments. The distinctions existing among the state governments are found in the qualifications of the electors, and of the elected; in the origin and duration of office; in the limitations of the powers which may be exercised; and in peculiar constitutional provisions; and, especially, in the character of legislation in each state. The principal constitutional provisions in the government of each state, are here given as concisely as possible.

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MAINE.

alec The constitution dated in 1819.

Legislature. House of representatives chosen in towns, of the in proportion to number of inhabitants. Citizens, who seren have been such five years, and resident in the state one years year, are eligible. Senate of twelve, of like qualifications, tion to and twenty five years of age : chosen in districts, in pro- one portion to the number of inhabitants therein. Annual election. Meeting, first Wednesday of January Executive. A governor, chosen annually by the peo*

, counc ple. Same qualifications as senators, except thirty years of age. A council of seven, chosen in convention of house and senate. The executive has the power of ap

of va pointment and pardon, and a qualified negative on legislative acts, as in Massachusetts. Removal by impeachment. President of the senate acts as governor in case : of vacancy.

Judiciary. Supreme judicial court, and county courts. Judges appointed and removable as in Massachusetts ; disqualified at the age of seventy.

Voters. The qualifications are so inconsiderable, that suffrage may be said to be universal.

Religious freedom is provided for; there is no religious I test in oaths of office.

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NEW HAMPSHIRE.
Constitution adopted in 1792.

Legislature. Vested in a general court of two branches, house of representatives and senate. Representatives

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When was the constitution of Maine adopted? How are represeniatives chosen? What are their qualifications? Whai num ber of senators? Qualifications? When does the legislature meet? In what does the executive branch consist? How elected? Qualifications? What powers? How removed? What courts? How are the judges appointed? How removed? What are the qualifications of voters?

are chosen in towns, in proportion to ratable polls; must have estate of £100, half of which is freehold. Senate of twelve. Senators must have been residents in the state seven years; must have freehold of £200; must be thirty years of age. They are chosen in districts, in proportion to amount of taxes paid therein. All elections for one year. Meeting, first Wednesday in June.

Executive. A governor. He must have an estate of £500, half of it freehold; like residence as senators. A council of five, chosen by the people. Executive powers and duties the same as in Maine. Removable by impeach

ment. President of the senate acts as governor in case 1 of vacancy.

Judiciary. The same as in Maine. 11 Electors. Residence and payment of taxes; but, prac| tically, universal suffrage.

Legislature empowered to provide by law for maintenance of religious worship. No religious test.

MASSACHUSETTS. Constitution adopted in 1730. Some slight amendments were made to it in 1820,

Legislature. Senate and house of representatives, called general court. Representatives are required to have been resident one year in the town in which they are chosen; and to have a freehold of £100, or a taxable estate of £200. Senators are required to have been resident five years in the district in which they are chosen ; and to have a freehold of £300, or taxable estate of £600.

Executive. The governor and lieutenant governor are required to have a freehold estate of £1000, and to be of the christian religion: no religious test in oaths of office.

Note. The preceding questions, with a little variation, and a few occasional additions, which the instructer can easily supply, will be found applicable to the several states.

Judiciary. Supreme judicial court, and court of common pleas; appointed by governor and council. and removable by the same, or by impeachment.

Electors. Residence and payment of taxes; but this is, practically, universal suffrage.

VERMONT. Constitution adopted in 1793."

Legislature. Vested in a house of representatives, styled the general assembly. Members are qualified by two years' residence in the state, and one in the town represented. Annual elections. Meeting, second Tuesday of October. No senate. Legislative acts are subject to the revision of the executive branch, which can propose amendments, and suspend a proposed law till the next legislature.

E.cecutive is vested in a governor, lieutenant governor and council of twelve, all chosen by the people for one year. In council, the governor is only presiding officer, with a casting vote.

Judiciary. Judges of supreme and county courts may be elected annually by the house of representatives, in conjunction with the executive branch.

Electors. Qualifications amount to universal suffrage.

Neither of the branches shall exercise the powers of the other; yet the executive is a concurrent part of the legislature, and the court for the trial of impeachments.Once in seven years, thirteen censors are chosen, who examine, during one year, all departments of the government: they have power to order impeachments, and to call a convention of the people. Religious freedom is provided for.

CONNECTICUT. Constitution adopted in 1818; till which time it was governed under the colonial charter.

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Legislature. General assembly, composed of house of representatives, and senate of twelve. Representatives chosen in towns, according to numbers; senators by general ticket. The citizens are styled in the constitution, electors; and all white male citizens are such, who are resident citizens for six months, and have a freehold of seven dollars yearly value; or who have done militia duty a year, or paid a tax. Electors are entitled to vote for all officers, and are eligible themselves to any office. All elections annual Meeting, first Wednesday of May.

Executive. A governor, chosen by the people for one year. No council. Some appointments are made by nomination of governor to the senate. Governor has negative, as in Massachusetts. Can reprieve, but cannot pardon, that power residing in the legislature. Removable on impeachment. Lieutenant governor is president of the senate.

Judiciary. Judges chosen by the legislature. Removable as in Massachusetts. Disqualified at seventy.

In this state, entire freedom of religion is secured. There is no religious test in office. The constitution recognizes the existence of a large school fund, and provides for its perpetuity.

RHODE ISLAND. The government of this state has been continued, hitherto, under the charter granted by Charles Il. in 1663. The grant was to a company, comprising a governor, deputy governor and council. To this branch has been added a house of representatives, chosen by the people, in towns; and a judiciary department, the judges of which are chosen annually by the people. The administration of the government is carried on by the legislative and executive departments, according to the construction given to the charter by usage. The powers of the governor are

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