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"conferred by CHRIST on the Pope, can deny that his "Holiness may difpenfe, for fome arduous Caufe, "with one to take to wife the Relict of his deceafed

Brother by whom he had no Iffue. However, "fhould I allow the Arguments on both Sides to be of "equal Force, and none to out-weigh the other, but to "ftand as it were fufpended in a Ballance, that both

might be easily solved, yet what would always oblige "me to be more inclined to acquiefce to the Pope's "Determination, is, that both Parties attribute the Ful"nefs of his Highnefs's Power, an Authority for "interpreting the ambiguous Paffages of Scripture, "having firit heard the Opinions of Divines and "Civilians therein; otherwife CHRIST would in vain "have faid to him, Whatever ye bind on Earth shall · «be bound in Heaven. Therefore, fince it has plainly "appeared, that the Pope has more than once de"clared, That it was lawful, in the aforefaid Cafe, to

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grant a Difpenfation to the fecond Brother, this tc alone, if no further Motives had been advanced, "but were equal in their Allegations, as I have "faid, would unavoidably engage my Affent.

"But now, when I plainly fee the Party which "fupport the Pope's Authority in this Affair, to "have more efficacious Reafons on their Side; be"fides, when I reflect with what Words and how "amply the Power was conferred by CHRIST on "the Pope; and laftly, when I learn from the best "of Teftimonies, that fuch Difpenfation was often "recommended to take effect, I can no longer have

any Scruple with regard to the Authority in "Question, but that it is lawful for the Pope to difpence with one Brother to take to wife the Wi"dow of a deceafed Brother, by whom he had no Iffue. "Your Highness has my Thoughts on this Affair "in a few Words, to whom I wish long Life, in "Prosperity and Safety.


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But the main Matter, fays the Church Hiftorian, was to know how the See of Rome ftood affected, "the Pope being regarded and applied to by all con


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cerned, as the dernier Refort of the Controverfy : "Wherefore Dr. Knight, Secretary of State, and Stephen "Gardiner, the Cardinal's Secretary, were difpatched to make Interest with the Pope, to obtain what the King had now fo much at heart; befides, his Ma"jefty had other very able Perfons, both at Home and "Abroad, to manage the Caufe in Italy, particularly "Sir Gregory Caffali,* (who had great Power with the "Court of Rome, was well fkilled in Affairs, and, "though a Foreigner, entirely in the King's Intereft) "and Mr. Peter Vannes. Thefe received Inftruc"tions from Cardinal Wolfey, who was indefatigable "in promoting every Thing that was agreeable to his "Prince."

But, notwithstanding what this learned Author has been pleased to affert, it will appear in the Sequel of this Hiftory, that the Cardinal was fo far from coming up in every Point to his Mafter's Defire, that he never gave any definitive Judgment in this Affair, though no one will doubt, if he had waved his own Opinion, it was in his Power.

On the other hand the Queen was not backward in acquainting the Emperor with the whole Proceedings, fending an exprefs Meffenger to him, in order that he might take care of her Intereft at the Court of Rome.

Fox and Gardiner, having their Inftructions, fet forward for the Court of Rome, and on their Way thither sent and received divers Difpatches from his Eminence, relating to the Matters under their Care, as may be seen in the Exchequer Record-office. Being arrived

*The Family of the Caffali, being three Brothers, were entertained by the King as his A


gents in Italy, and other Places, who difcharged their Truits with great Honour.

E e.

rived at Rome, they delivered their Credentials, which were well received by his Holiness, who, to expedite their Business, shortly after appointed Cardinal Campeius to go over into England, that he, in Conjunction with Cardinal Wolfey, might fit in Judgment on the Difpute about the Divorce.

After Campeius was furnished with proper Inftructions, he fet out from Rome, in the Month of July, 1528, and in October following arrived in London, being fix or seven Months after he was appointed Legate; and, whilft he was upon the Road, the Emperor's Ministers raised a fresh Obstacle against the Divorce.

Before the Legatine Court fat in England, Dr. Knight, Secretary of State, Mr. Stephen Gardiner, and Dr. Fox returned to England, having left the Bufinefs relating to the Divorce, to be tranfacted at Rome by Sir Gregory Caffali, and Mr. Peter Vannes, the King's Ambaffador there: And his Majefty was fo well pleased with Gardiner and Fox's Behaviour at Rome, that he took them both into his Service, and made Stephen one of his Secretaries; but both attended him wherever he refided.

The renowned Shakespear gives us this Scene * relative to the Steps taken previous to the Divorce.


Enter the Lord Chamberlain, the Dukes of Norfolk and

Nor. Well met, my Lord Chamberlain !

Cham. Good Day to both your Graces
Suff. How is the King employ'd?

Cham. I left him private,

Full of fad Thoughts and Troubles.

Nor. What's the Caufe?

Cham. It feems the Marriage with his Brother's Wife Has crept too near his Conscience.

Suff. No; his Confcience

Has crept too near another Lady.

Nor. 'Tis fo;


This is the Cardinal's doing; the King-cardinal,
That blind Priest, like the eldest Son of Fortune,

Turns what he lift. The King will know him one Day.


As foon as the News of Campeius's Arrival in England was known at London, great Preparations were E e 2 made

Suff. Pray God he do! he'll never know himself elfe.
Nor. How holily he works in all his Business,
And with what Zeal! for now he has crackt the League
'Tween us and the Emperor, the Queen's great Nephew,
He dives into the King's Soul, and there scatters
Doubts, Dangers, Wringing of the Confcience,
Fears and Despair, and all these for his Marriage,
And, out of all these to restore the King,
He counfels a Divorce, a Lofs of her,
That, like a Jewel, has hung twenty Years
About his Neck, yet never loft her Luftre;
Of her that loves him with that Excellence,
That Angels love good Men with; even of her,
That, when the greatest Stroke of Fortune falls,

Will bless the King: And is not this Courfe pious?

Cham. Heav'n keep me from fuch Counsel! 'tis most true,

This News is ev'ry where, every Tongue fpeaks it,

And every true Heart weeps for't. All, that dare

Look into these Affairs, fee his main End,

The French King's Sifter. Heav'n will one Day open
The King's Eyes, that fo long have flept upon
This bold, bad Man.

Suff. And free us from his Slavery.

Nor. We had need pray, and heartily, for Deliverance ;

Or th'imperious Man will work us all

From Princes into Pages; all Men's Honours

Lie like one Lump before him, to be fashion'd
Into what Pitch he please.

Suff. For me, my Lords,

I love him not, nor fear him: There's my Creed:
As I am made without him, * fo I'll ftand,
If the King pleafe; his Curfes and his Bleffings
Touch me alike; their Breath I'll not believe in.
I knew him, and I know him; fo I leave him
To him that made him proud, the Pope.

Nor. Let's in ;

And, with fome other Business, put the King

From these fad Thoughts that work too much upon him.
My Lord, you'll bear us Company!

Cham. Excufe me,

The King has fent me other-where; befides,


* Yet he acknowledges in a Letter, that his chief Friend, next

the King, was the Cardinal. See our IId Vol. p. 258.

made to receive him; but, being much afflicted with the Gout, he chose to come to Town privately; fo

You'll find it a most unfit Time to disturb him :
Health to Your Lordships!


[Exit Lord Chamberlain.

Nor. Thanks, my good Lord Chamberlain.

The Scene draws, and difcovers the King fitting and reading penfively.

Suff. How fad he looks! fure he is much afflicted.

King. Who's there? ha!

Nor. Pray God he be not angry.

King. Who's there, I fay? how dare you thruft yourselves Into my private Meditations ?

Who am I? ha!

Nor. A gracious King, that pardons all Offences

Malice ne'er meant: Our Breach of Duty this Way
Is Bufinefs of th' State; in which we come

To know your royal Pleasure.

King. Ye are too bold!

Go to; I'll make ye know your Times of Business :

Is this an Hour for temporal Affairs? ha!

Enter Wolfey, and Campeius, the Pope's Legate, with a Com


Who's there! my good Lord Cardinal? O my Wolfey!

The Quiet of my wounded Confcience ;

Thou art a Cure fit for the King. You're welcome,

Most learned rev'rend Sir, into our Kingdom,

Ufe us, and it; My good Lord, have great Care
I be not found a Talker.

Wol. Sir, you cannot:

I would your Grace would give us but an Hour
Of private Conf'rence,

King. We are bufy; go.

Nor. This Prieft has no Pride in him!

Suff. Not to speak of:

I would not be fo fick though for his Place:

But this cannot continue.

Nor. If it do,

I'll venture one Heave at him.

Suff. I another.

[Exeunt Norfolk and Suffolk.

Wol. Your Grace has given a Prefident of Wisdom Above all Princes, in committing freely

Your Scruple to the Voice of Christendom:

Who can be angry now? What Envy reach you?


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