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against it; their beds are sheep-skins, their food is milk and bread, except and their doors so small that they the flesh of such Meep or lambs as ac! crawl in. I saw no place for fire, but cidents give them. The head thepthey have it, since they dress here the herd keeps on the mountain top, or an ficíh of their heep, and in the night elevated spot, from whence he can sometimes keep off the bears, by whir- the better Ice around while the flock ling fire-brands; four of them belong. traverses the declivities. In doing ing to the flock mentioned above lie this the sheep are exposed to great here
. Viewed their flock very care- danger in places that are stoney: for fully, and by means of our guide and by walking among the rocks, and einterpreter, made some inquiries of the specially the goats, they move the thepherds, which they answered rea- stones, which, rolling down the hills, dily, and very civilly. A Spaniard acquire an accelerated force, enough at Venasque, a city in the Pyrenees, to knock a man down, and sheep are gives 600 livres French, (the livre is often killed by them: yet we saw how 10 d. Engl.) a year, for the pasturage alert they were to avoid such stones, of this flock of 2000 sheep. In the and cautiously on their guard against winter he sends them into the lower them. Examine the sheep attentive, parts of Catalonia, a journey of 12 or ly. They are in general poiled, but 13 days, and when snow is melted some have horns ; which in the rams enough in the spring, they are conduct- turn bạckwards behind the ears, and ed back again. They are the whole project half a circle forward ; the year kept in motion, and moving from ewes horns turn also behind the ears, spot to spot, which is owing to the but do not project : the legs white or great range they every where have of reddith ; fpcckled faces, fome white pasture. They are always in the open some reddish : they would weigh fat, air, never housed or under cover, and I reckon, on an average, from 15lb. never taste of any food but what they to 18 lb. a quarter. Some tails short, can find on the hills.
fome left long. A few black sheep Four shepherds, and from four to among them: fome with a very little fix large Spanish dogs have the care tuft of wool on their forehead. On of this flock: the latter are in France the whole, they resemble those on the called of the Pyrenees breed; they are South Downs: their legs are as short black and white, of the size of a large as those of that breed : a point which wolf, a large head and neck, armed merits observation, as they travel fo with collars stuck with iron spikes. No much and so well. Their shape is wolf can stand against them; but Bears very good : round ribs and fat strait are more potent adversaries. If a bear backs; and would with us be reckon, can reach a tree he is safe; he rises on ed handsome sheep; all in good order bis hind legs, with his back to the and flesh. In order to be still better tree, and sets the dogs at defiance. 'acquainted with them, I desired one In the night the shepherds rely en- of the shepherds to catch a ram for tirely on their dogs, but on hearing me to feel, and examine the wool, them bark are ready with fire-arms, as which I found very thick and good, the dogs rarely bark if a bear is not of the carding sort, as may be supat hand. I was surprized to find that posed. I took a specimen of it; and they are fed only with bread and milk. also of a hoggit, or lamb of last year. The head shepherd is paid 120 livres In regard to the mellow softness under a year, wages and bread ; others 80 the fkin, which, in Mr. Bakewell's livres and bread. But they are allow- opinion, is a strong indication of a ed to keep goats, of which they have good breed, with a disposition to facmany, which they milk every day; ten, he had it in a much superior deVol. VII. No 37 с
gree to many of our English breeds, altogether fo pleasant as Mr, Walker. to the full as much so as the South These mountains are chiefly rocks of Downs, which are, for that point, the micaceous schistus, but there are large best short-woolled theep which I know detached fragments of granite. Pass in England. The fieece was on his the frontier line which divides France back, and weighed, as I guessed, about and Spain ; and rising on the moun, 8lb. English, but the average they say tains, see the Spanish valley of Aran of the flock is from four to five, as I with the river, Garronne winding calculated by reducing the Catalonian through it in a beautiful manner. pound of 12 oz. to ours of 16, and The town of Bosofte is at the foot is all sold to the French. This of the mountains, where is the Spanram had the wool of the back paft ish custom-house. Mules imported of his neck tied close, and the up- into Spain pay here 16 livres. A per cuft tied a second knot by way four year old horse the fame. A lix of ornament, nor do they ever shear year old one 13 ditto. An ox 5. this part of the fleece for that rea. And a sheep i i-half fol. This vale son : we saw several in the flock with of Aran is nicely cultivated, and with this species of decoration. They out any fallows. Nothing scarcely said that this ram would sell in Ca- can be finer than the view of the valley talonia for 20 livres. A circumstance from heights so great as to render the which cannot be too much commend- most common objects interesting > ed, and deserves universal imitation, the road leads under trees, whose arch. is the extreme docility they accustom ing boughs present at every ten paces them to. When I desired the shep- new landskips. The woods here are herd to catch one of his rams, I fup- thick, and present fine masses of fhade ; posed he would do it with his crook; the rocks large, and every outline or probably not be able to do it at all ; bold; and the verdant vale, that is but he walked into the flock, and spread far below at your feet, has all Singling out a ram and a goat bid them the features of beauty in contrast with follow
him, which they did immedi- the fublimity of the surrounding mounately, and he talked to them while tains. Descend into this vale, and they were obeying him, holding out bait at our first Spanish inn. No hay, his hand as if to give them something. no corn, no meat, no windows : but By this method he brought me the cheap; eggs and bread, and some ram, which I caught, and held with trout for 15 fous. (7 d. English) out difficulty.
Follow from hence the Garronne, Having satisfied ourselves with oor which is already a fine river, but very examination of this flock, we returne rapid : on it they float many trees to ed to the direct road for Vielle, which their faw-mills, to cut into boards; quits the river above described about we saw many at work. The vale is a small league from Bagnere ; it enters narrow, but the hills to the left are soon after one of the most wooded re- ' cultivated high up. No fallows. They gions of the Pyrenees, and at the have little wheat, but a great deal of fame time the most romantic. The rye, and much better barley than in the road is so bad that no horse but those French mountains : instead of fallows of the mountains could pass it, but they have maize and millet, and many our mules trod securely amidst rolling more potatoes than in the French stones on the edges of precipices of mountains : haricots (French beans) a tremendous depth ; but sure-footed also, and a little hemp. Saw two as they are, they are not free from fields of vetches and square pease. stumbling; and when they happen to The small potatoes they give to their trip a little in those situations, they pigs, which do very well on them; clearify their riders in a manner not and the leaves to their cows, but al.
fert that they refuse the roots. Buck- er arable lands are sold for 5 or 600 wheat also takes the place of fallow; livres, the sides of the hills propormany crops of it were good, and some tionably, and the higher lands not as fine as possible.
more than 100. Their crops of all The whole valley of Aran is well forts vary from 2 1-half to 3 quarters cultirated and highly peopled; it is English the acre. Hay harvest no eight hours long, or about 40 miles where begun. They have no species English, and has in it 32 villages. of manufactures, but spinning and These villages, or rather little towns, weaving for the private use of every have a very pretty appearance, the walls family. The price of labour 10 sous being well built, and the houses all well a day and food; women for noeing, &c. lated; but on entering these towns
2 1-half fous and food. the spectacle changes at once ; we The mountains belong, as in the found them the abodes of poverty and French Pyrenees, to the parishes ; each Wretchedness ; not one window of glass inhabitant has a right to cut what to be seen in a whole town; scarcely wood he pleases for fuel and repairs, any chimnies, both ground floor and in the woods asigned for that purpose ; the chambers vomiting the smoke out others are let by lease at public auction of the windows.
for the benefit of the parish, the trees Arrive at Vielle, the capital of this to be cut being marked ; and, in genevalley, and the passage from this part ral, the police of their woods is better of France to Barcelona ; a circum- than on the French side. When ftance which has given fome trifling woods are cut they are preserved for resources to it. Informed here, that the next growth. Their mountainwe could not go into Spain without a pastures not used by themselves they passport ; waited therefore on the go- let to the owners of large flocks, who vernor, who presides over the whole bring them from the lower part
of Cavalley and its 32 towns: his house was talonia, as with the French mountains ; the only one we had seen with glass these flocks rise to 4000 sheep, the windows. He is a lieutenant-colonel, rent, in general, being from 5 to 7 sous and Knight of Calatrava ; in his ante- a head for the summer food. Every room is the king's picture with a cano- inhabitant possesses cattle, which he py of state over it. The governor re- keeps in the common mountains in ceived us with the Spanish formality, what quantity he pleases ; but others, and assured us, that a few months ago who do not belong to the parish, pay 5 there was an order to send every fo. to 7 fous a head for the sheep, and 10 reigner, found without a passport, to fous for a cow; which disproportion the troops : such orders fhew pretty they explain, by saying, that sheep well the number of foreigners here: must have a much greater range. In on each side of his bed was a brace of summer they make cheese, which we pistols, and a crucifix in the middle: tasted and found good. In winter we did not ask in which he put the their cattle are kept at home, and their most confidence.
cows fed on buck-wheat straw, which Made inquiries concerning their they affert to be good food ; also that agriculture. They have no farmers. of maize and millet, and a little hay; Every one cultivates his own land, most of it being assigned to their mules. which is never fallowed. A journal They have good sheep, but all are sent of meadow sells in the valley for 800 to Saragola or Barcelona. Have livres, irrigated, but by no means so scarce any oxen; what few they kill, well as in French mountains, nearly they falt for winter. an arpent of Paris, which is something Taxes are light; the whole which more than an English acre. The low- the town is assessed at, bemg only 2700
livres, which they pay by the rent of ters of pitch-pine, and two merry their woods and pailures let : but if wenches, with three or four men, colcalculated by tailles, houses, &c. and lected to Itare at us, as well as we at including every thing, the amount them, were presently busy in satisfying would be about three livres a year, on our hunger. They gave us red wine a journal of 600 livres value. This is so drcadfully purrid from the borachio, the proportion of an acre of land worth that I could not touch it; and brandy, 301. paying 3s. a year in lieu of land but poisoned with aniseed. What then. and all other taxes. When the prin- to do? A bottle of excellent rich white ciples of a government tend to despo- wine came forth, resembling good tism, and the very pictures of kings mountain, and all was well : but when are treated with reverence, the confe- we came to examine our beds, there quence is light taxation. The only was only one. My friend would again eitectual means of insuring a great re- do the honours, and insisted on my tavenue, is to extend the principles and king it: he made his on a table ; and the exercise of liberty: the change is, what with bugs, feas, rats, and mice, and ever will be, as much for the be- flept not. I was not attacked, and nefit of the prince as of the subject. though the bed and a pavement might
At Bagnere de Luchon we were be ranked in the same class of softness, told that the inn at Vielle was good. fatigue converted it to down. This We found the lower floor a stable, town and its inhabitants are, to the from which we mounted to a black eye, equally wretched : the smokekitchen, and through that to a baking- holes inftcad of chimneys--the to:al room with a large batch of loaves ma- want of glass windows, the chearfulking for an oven which was heating ness of which, to the eye, is known to receive them. In this roon were only by the want-the dress of the two beds for mil the travellers that women all in black, with cloth of the might come: if too numerous, straw is same colour about their heads, and fjread on the Acor, and you may rest hanging half down their backs--no as you can. No glass to the windows; shoes-no stockings--the effect upon and a large hole in the ceiling to clani- the whole dismal—-savage as the rocks ber into the garret above it, where the and mountains. windows are without shutters to keep In above an hindred miles in Cataout either rain or wind. One of the lonia, we have seen but two houses beds was occupied, so my companion that appeared, decidedly, to be gentlelaid on a table. The house, however, men's ; one, the governor's at Vielle, afforded eggs for an onelet, good bread, and the cther in the town of Poeblar, thick wine, brandy, and fowls killed and in the same line of country, not after we arrived. The people very more than one acre probably in 200 dirty, but civil.
is cultivated. Thus far, therefore, we July 1th. Reach Sculló; the inn have experienced an entire disappointso bad, that our guide would not per- ment in the expectation of finding this mit us to enter it, so he went to the province a garden. house of the Cúre. A scene followed In this district not one acre in an so now to English eyes, that we could hundred cultivated; all rocks, shrubs, not refrain from laughing very heartily. and weeds, with patches of wretched Not a pane of glass in the whole town, oats on the mountain hides. The road but our reverend host had a chimney leads up one which is all of stone, coin his kitchen. He ran to the river vered with rosemary, box, branıbles, to catch trout; a man brought us fome &c. At the top break at once on the chickers, which were put to death on view of a deep vale, or rather glen, at the spot.--For light they kindled splin- the bottom of which a muddy river
has spoiled the little land which might watering grass-land, but which would be have been cultivated. The hills are mischievous in arable : small trenches steep, and all is cultivated there that take the water from the carrier-canals, could be so, but the quantity very and passing by the ends of those beds, small.
the farmer opens them at pleasure to Descend into a very rich vale, and distribute the water where wanted. As to the town of Paous : cross the river soon as the land is sown it is watered, Sagrée by a most commodious ferry- and periodically, till the plants are boai, much better contrived and exe- up; moderately while they are young; cuted for carriage and horses than any but every day, and sometimes twice a I have seen in England. I have crofi- day, when full grown: the effect is ed the Thames, the Severn, the Trent, furprising, and infinitely exceeds that and other rivers, but never saw any of the very richest manures that can horses forced to leap through a nar- be spread upon any land. The rapirow cut in the fide of the boat, but I dity of vegetation is so great, that expected them to be lamed, and have there are but few crops which demand been present when others have, with all the Summer for coming to perfecthe greatest difficulty, been whipt in. tion: I believe hemp is the only one : A carriage may be driven in and out that plant is now 5 to 7 feet in height, of this ferry-boat without taking off a and of fo thick a luxuriance that nohorse, or any person moving from his thing can be imagined finer. The rye feat. It crosses the river by a great stubbles are ploughed and fown with rope paffing against a lanthern wheel, French beans, which are up and wawhich is long enough to allow for the tered. After hemp wheat is the crop. fpreading of the river in the highest At Paous we fi.w many perfons windfoods. Every thing now changes the ing silk; the cocoons were in warm features. The vale on comparison with water, and wound off by a well-con. those we have seen is wide, and also trived reel, something different from Aat, and water plentifully conducted those used in France. in canals, which pass every quarter, Prices.-Bread, 3 fous, lb. of 12 oz. fo as to be let into the field of every
Mutton, 6 fous ? proprietor. Having paffed above 100
the lb.of 48 ez.
Pork, 15 sous miles of dreary mountain, this vale, so Bottle of sweet wh. wine, s sous. great was the contralt, had the appear
- 2 fous, ance of enchantment. The care and Here they were threshing, by driattention given to irrigation, cannot ving mules around on a circular floor be exceeded. The land is prepared of earth in the open air ; a girl drove for it, by levelling with a nicety as three mules round, and four men atcurious as for making a bowling-green, tended for turning, moving away the and this (conducting the water excep- ftraw, and supplying the floor with ted, which is common to every one) is corn. Their crops are all brought the only expence : this general level home by mules or affcs with panniers: is divided into oblong beds, from 6 to met several ; they each carried fix 8 feet wide, by little ridges of fine great sheaves, equal to twenty common mould, drawn up nicely with a rake English ones : where roads are bad, every time the ground is sown, in or- this is the only way in which it can der that the water may not spread o- be done. ter too much at once, in which case July 16th. Approach Barcelona : the irrigation would be unequal; there buildings many and good ; numerous would be too much of a current at the villas, and within two or three miles. part where the water enters ; a cir- They spread to the right and left, and cumstance of no great importance in are seen all over the country. The